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BOSTON

Jacob Bancroft.....

PITTSFORD.
$10 00
10 000

LAMBERTVILLE.

Lucas Adans 5 00

2 00

1 50

NEW YORK.

WATERTOWN.

EAST TVILsox.

Pexy YAX.

20 00

BIG SPRINGS.

H. B. Bennett......

1 20

1 16

GEORGIA.

5 00 BERLIN.

15 00

James Ellis...

OF PEACE.

RECEIPTS FOR SEPTEMBER, 1874. rect efforts to arouse and awaken the public to a clearer appre

ciation of the true character of this monstrous evil. If it is MASSACHUSETTS.

MICHIGAN

only by the full application of the Gospel that war can be abol

ished, surely it is the duty of the church to labor for its proper Rev. W. P. Martin.... $2 00 application. C. C. Barry...

But, in view of the apathy that so generally prevails, we feel DEDIAM

2 00 constrained to appeal direcily to our Christian brethren, indiJonn Sully, L. M..

vidually and collectively, earnestly entreating them to take this PALMER SCOTLAND.

JH Canfield, Agent......

14 95 subject into prayerful consideration in all its bearings. Can J. M. Leonard... Hulda Enlow..

we believe that if the members of the Christian church every

where were entirely to refrain from taking part in carnal warJ. W. Bennell.....

2 50 fare, that professedly Christian nations could any longer con

inue the custom? 'If we believe this, we musi also believe Rev. H Halsey....

20 00 CALEDONIA STATION.
Samuel Shirk,

1 50 that the responsibility for the continuance of war rests upon the

church. Dear fellow professors, can you rest satisfied in conC.C. Sheppard......

tinuing to bear the weight of this awful responsibility ?

KANSAS
NEW JERSEY.

While statesmen and publicists are laboring to relieve suffer

ing humanity from the blight of this dreadful curse, the church BELVIDERE. Flura B. Hyde......

of Christ remains silent. Surely it is time for it to arise from

its slumber and to proclaim its supremacy! Is not eighteen CAVADA.

hundred years long enough for its white robes, which should • SAVANNAN. George Cromwell..........

be pure and spotless, to have been stained in blood ? Must the J.S. Reich.....

3 50 skirts of the visible church be longer polluted with the gore of INDIANA. Ovega.

the battlefield, and stained with the tears of the orphan and the Comelius Overman......... For Publications..... 44 80 widow? While war, as has been said, seems to aim at setting

up the kingdom of Satan in the earth, alas ! the church remains Jerome.

Total........

$167 11 5 00

to be its very bulwark.

Surely it is time to wipe out this reproach against Him, at

whose coming into the world, peace on earth and good will to AN APPEAL TO CHRISTIANS,

men was proclaimed, and engage in this holy warfare against

the supremacy of Satan's kingdom. INDIVIDUALLY AND COLLECTIVELY, ON BEHALF OF THE CAUSE Therefore, in behalf of suffering humanity, and in behalf of

the cause of the blessed Prince of Peace, whose mission on It is well known to our Christian brethren that the Religious earth is not fulfilled while wars continue-in true Christian Society of Friends has ever believed that all war is entirely love, we again entreat you to give this subject the consideration forbidden by the Gospel, and that, in accordance with that be- it justly merits. * Jief, its members have as a rule, refrained from taking any part

On behalf and by direction of the Peace Association of in carnal wartare ; and for refusing to comply with military Friends in America. requisitions, or to pay fines for thus resusing, many, in years

Robert L. Murray, President, New York. past, have suffered distraint of goods to large amounts, and not

DANIEL Hill, Secretary, New Vienna, Ohio. a few have been imprisoned. Beside a passive testimony thus

Murray Shipley, Treasurer, Cincinnati, Ohio. borne by members individually, the Socieiy has, from time to time New Vienna, Ohio, First mo. I, 1874. issued its public protest against this heathen and wicked custom.

But while we have cause to feel thankful for the amelioration of military laws, whereby our members are now generally John Hemmenway.-A most remarkable book of one of the

The APOSTLE OF Peace.- Memoir of William Ladd.-By exempt from suffering, we are pained in knowing that war, with all its horrors, is yet allowed and practiced by all the greatest and best men that ever lived, well spiced with anecdotes, Christian nations, and sanctioned by the larger portions of the will be read with lively interest by the old and the young, and Christian Church. As Christians, we all believe in the fulfill- should be in every family and Sunday school in the land. This ment of prophecy. Dr. Chalmers, more than fifty years ago, contains about 300 pages, with a fine likeness of Mr. Ladd. testified :hat "the mere existence of this prophecy of peace is a

Substantially bound in muslin, $1.00. Will be sent by mail,

Address Rev. H.C. sentence of condemnation upon war, and stamps a criminality postage paid, on reception of the price. on its very forehead. So soon as Christianity shall gain a full Dunham, No. 1 Somerset St., Boston. ascendency in the world, from that moment war is to disappear."

Not So in the BEGINNING.–War, like other civil customs, Believing that it is only by a full and proper application of is a custom of men—by men begun, carried on and ended; by the Gospel in the affairs of nations, as well as individuals, that men it can be changed or abolished, as other evil customs have the prophecies in regard to war will be fulfilled ; and believ- been. Therefore, while the Church is condemning all other ing, as a branch of ihe church which has so long seen the true evil customs, is it not time to condemn this also ? The early character of this heathen abomination, that we were not doing Christians living nearest 10 the time of Christ and the apostles. all that we should do toward enlightening our brethren on this believed that war was entirely forbidden by the gospel, and durimportant subject, most of the Yearly Meetings of Friends ing the first two centuries not a Christian soldier was known, have united in the organization of “ The Peace Association of Were they right, or were they wrong? It is well known that Friends in America,”' 10 which is delegated this important the religious Society of Friends, at its rise more than iwo hunwork, with instructions 10 labor expressly on their behalt in the dred years ago, adopted the same belief and practice, and its more general promotion of the cause of peace. The Association, in the fulfillment of its trust, has thus far warfare. If the early Christians were right, are not the Friends

members have uniformly refrained from taking part in carnal mostly confined its labors to the printing and circulation of right in their belief and practices? And if they are right, are books and tracts, and the publication of a monthly paper called other branches of the Church right in their support of war? the Messenger of Peace. During the few years of its existence, These are questions of serious import. millions of pages have been distributed far and wide, and many acknowledgments have been received of the convincing effects of the truth therein inculcated.

Be assured that humility is the sweetest and sairest flower The attitude of millions in the prime of manhood, now kept that groweth in the mind; that it perfumes the owner with the constantly armed and equipped for mutual slaughter by the na- most attractive sweets, that it shows in the fairest point of view lions of Europe, and the sudden uprising of the war spirit in every virtue which adorns and dignifies human nature, and our midst, convince us of the necessity of further and more di- shades every imperfection which tarnishes and disgraces it.

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THE ADVOCATE OF PEACE.
Published the first of every month by the American Peace Society.

SOCIETY'S OFFICE,

No. 1 Somerset St., Boston, Mass.
Terms, $ 1.00 a year in advance ; lo ministers, 75 cents.
Postage twelve cents a year. EDITED BY THE SECRETARY.

EDITORIAL CONTRIBUTORS.
Hon. AMASA WALKER, North Brookfield, Mass.
Howard MALCOM, D. D., Philadelphia, Penn.
Wm. G. HUBBARD, Esq., Delaware, Ohio.
Rev. WM. STOKES, Manchester, England.
ELIHU BURRITT, Esq., New Britain, Conn.
Rev. J. H. BAYLISS, Chicago, Ni.
ABEL Stevens, LL. D., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Julia Ward Howe, Boston, Mass.

Address American Peace Society, Boston, sent by mail 25 for 15 cents, 100 for 50 cents, 250 for $1.00, 1000 for $3.00. Use them.

ADVERTISEMENTS.

BOOK OF ESSAYS,

CONTAINING

ADDRESS TO BOYS ON TOBACCO. TO MINISTERS
ON TOBACCO. EVILS OF INTEMPERANCE.
MUSIC-VOCAL, INSTRUMENTAL AND

DANCING. HUMAN GOVERNMENT.
CRISIS OF '63. HUMAN LIFE. PUBLIC OPINION.

VOTING FOR WAR. ON THE MOUNTAIN
SERMON. FUTURE STATE. TIME

UNKNOWN.
BY T. F. TUKESBURY, BRENTWOOD, N. 1.
Price by mail 60 cents. Orders left at this Office will receive
prompt attention. Or they may be sent direct to the Author.

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A MILLION SUBSCRIBERS WANTED FOR
THE WAYSIDE,

We present above a specimen of a new pictorial envelope,

which we are sure will be regarded as one of the most beautiAn Illustrated Christian Weekly!

ful and expressive things of the kind.

The Society has now four kinds of envelopes, three pictorial, (Unsectarian) for all classes and all ages.

and one other containing brief paragraphs in relation to war FOR EVERYBODY!

and the object of Peace Societies. They are not only envel

opes, but peace tracts in miniature, and their use will promote 416 super-royal octavo pages, double columns, and nearly 100 the Cause perhaps a hundred or a thousand miles away. The beautiful illustrations yearly: The cheapest paper in America. price of these envelopes has been reduced to 15 cents a pack, The only illustrated PENNY WEEKLY in America. Only age, 50 cents a hundred, $ 1.00 for two hundred and fifty, and 50 cents a year. Subscribe to-day. Address,

$3.00 per thousand. Being so cheap, and what almost every THE WAYSIDE,

one has to purchase somewhere, we are selling thousands every

week, and those who buy them are sending these messages of 607 Market St., Wilmington, Delaware.

Peace all over the Continent.

AT

SAVE YOUR MONEY!

THE MESSENGER OF PEACE

is published monthly by the Secretary of the "Peace AssociaEverybody should Buy the

tion of Friends in America.” It is filled with facts and argu

ments to prove that war is unchristian, inhuman and unnecesCHOICEST TEAS AND COFFEES sary. That if men and women of intelligence were as anxious

to find a remedy as they are to find an apology for war, this self-imposed scourge of our race would soon be banished from

the civilized world. It advocates the brotherhood of mankind, JOHNSTON'S

and that we cannot injure another without injuring ourselves. Terms, 50 cents per annum, in advance, or 5 copies sent to one address for $2. Free to ministers of the Gospel of all denomi

nations who will read it and recommend it to their congregaCorner of Shawmut.Avenue and Indiana-Place, tions. Also, a well-selected stock of peace publications, both

for adults and children. (Opposite Morgan's Chapel,)

Address,

DANIEL HILL, BOSTON.

New Vienna, Clinton County, Ohio.

TEA STORE,

THE ADVOCATE

62001 OF PEACE.

On Earth Peace, ... Nation SHALL NOT lift up SWORD AGAINST Nation, NEITHER SHALL THEY LEARN WAR ANY MORE.

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SPECIAL NOTICE.

DYMOND ON WAR. By a new postage law which goes into effect the first of

This remarkable work is receiving unwonted attention from January, 1875, we are obliged to prepay the postage on our the reading public. Orders come to the office almost daily for papers, the Advocale and the Angel. This impuses upon us a

it. We are indebted to Mr. Robert Lindley Murray, one of very considerable tax, and one which we cannot well afford to

the Trustees of the Lindley Murray Fund, of New York city, pay at the low rate at which our papers, and especially the Angel, are furnished. But we are unwilling now to change for a new grant of several hundred copies of this most excellent our terms, hoping our readers, in view of the fact above stated, Peace Document. We call the special attention of ministers to will promptly pay their subscriptions, will exert themselves to the fact that it will be sent to them free, whenever they remit increase the circulation of the papers, and will be disposed to six cents postage. It is a book of 124 octavo pages. Its retail increase their donations to the Society, thus rendering it unnec

price 50 cents. Address all your orders to Rey. H. C. Dunessary to change our terms.

ham, No. 1 Somerset St., Boston. A BOOK FOR THE MILLION !! The Life and Times of Charles Sumner, his boyhood, edu

MEMBERSHIP. cation and public career, by Elias Nason. Three hundred and

The payment of any sum between $ 2.00 and $ 20.00 con. sixty pages, substantially bound, with a capital likeness and fine

stitutes a person a member of the American Peace Society for ly illustrated. Mr. Nason, evidently con amore, has wrought

one year, $20.00 a life memher, $50.00 a life director, and ont with a vivid hand the facts in the life and times of the

$100.00 an honorary member. great statesman and advocate of peace, allowing him to speak

The Advocate of Peace is sent free to annual members for one for himself by giving the reader many passages of the masterly

year, and to life members and directors during life. speeches which electrified and purified the nation. This book

If one is not able to give the full amount of a membership, or which will repay many times reading, ought to go into every directorship at once, he can apply whatever he does give on it, library and family in the land, especially into the hands of

with the understanding that the remainder is to be paid at one every young man and student as an inspiration to pure and

or more times in the future. lofty aims; for Charles Sumner“ being dead yet speaketh” to his countrymen and the world of justice and peace.

The Advocate is sent gratuitously to the reading rooms of Price only $1.50 and will be sent, postage paid, for price, by Colleges and Theological Seminaries—to Young Men's Chrisaddressing Rev. H. C. Dunham, No. 1 Somerset St., Boston.

tian Associations—to every pastor who preaches on the Cause

of Peace and takes a collection for it. Also, to prominent inNOTICE.

dividuals, both ministers and laymen, with the hope that they Any of our friends having the Advocate of Peace for March or will become subscribers or donors, and induce others to beAugust, 1874, to spare, will confer a favor by mailing them to this office, as we are out those numbers, and need them.

come such. To subscribers it is sent until a request to disconH. C. Dunham. tinue is received with the payment of all arrearages.

Commendation of the Peace Cause by Prominent Men. OFFICERS OF THE AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY. “ The cause of Peace we regard as an eminently philanthro

HONORARY PRESIDENT. pic and Christian enterprise of great importance, and worthy of HOWARD MALCOM, D.D. LL.D., Philadelphia. sympathy and support. It has already accomplished much

PRESIDENT. good, and would doubtless accomplish vastly more, if it pos

Hon. EDWARD S. TOBEY, Bostop. sessed adequate means. We think it deserves, as it certainly

VICE-PRESIDENTS, needs, a large increase of funds. The American Peace Society,

Hon. ALEXANDER H. Rice, Boston. charged with the care of this cause in our own country, and

Hon. WILLIAM B. WASHBURN, Boston, whose management has deservedly secured very general appro- Hon. GERRITT SMITH, Peterborough, N. Y. bation, we cordially commend to the liberal patronage of the

Hon. John Jay, New York City.

ANDREW P. PEABODY, D.D., LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. benevolent."

Hon. AmAsA WALKER, LL.D., North Brookfield, Mass A. P. Peabody, D. D. LL. D., Cambridge, Mass.

ELIHU BURRITT, Esq., New Britain, Ct. A. A. Miner, D. D., Pres't Tufis' College, Boston, Mass

John G. WHITTER, A. M. Amesbury, Mass. Hon. Wm. A. Buckingham, Ex-Gov. of Conn

D. C. SCOFIELD, Esq , Elgin, Ill. Luke Hitchcock, D. D., Cincinnati, Ohio.

MYRON PHELPs, Esq., Lewiston, Ill. Leonard Bacon, D. D., New Haven, Conn.

Gov. Conrad BAKER, Indianapolis, Ind. Rev. John H. Aughey, St. Louis, Mo.

Bishop Thomas A. Morris, Springfield, Ohio. Stephen H. Tyng, D. D., New York.

R. P. STEBBINS, D.D., Ithaca, N. Y. Howard Malcom, D. D., LL. D., Philadelphia.

Hon. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, Brookline, Mass.

TUTHILL King, Chicago, Ill. Bishop Thomas A. Morris, Springfield, Ohio.

Hon. Felix R. BRUNOT, Pittsburg, Pa. Rev. T. D. Woolsey, D. D., LL. D., Ex-President Yale College.

Hon. REVERDY Johnson, Baltimore, Md. E. O. Haven, D). D., Evanston, Ni.

THEODORE D. WOOLSEY, D.D., LL.D., New Haven, Cone Hon. David Turner, Crown Point, Ind.

Hon. FMORY WASHBURN, Cambridge, Mass. J. M. Gregory, LL. D., Champaign, Ni.

Hon. WM. CLAFLIN, Boston, Mass. R. M. Haifield, D. D., Chicago, III.

Rev. Mark Hopkins, D.D., LL.D., Williams College John V. Farwell, Chicago, Ill.

Rev. W. A. STEARNS, D.D., LL.D., Amherst College. Hon. Wm. R. Marshall, Ex-Gov. of Minn.

Rev. Dorus CLARKE, D. D., Boston. Hon. James Harlan, U. S. Senator, lowa.

Hon. Wm. E. DODGE, New York. Rev. P. Akers, D. D., Jacksonville, M.

GEORGE H. STUART, Esq., Philadelphia. Rev. Noah Porter, D. D., LL. D., Pres. Yale College.

Hon. JACOB SLEEPER, Boston. Rev. Prof. Samuel Harriss, D. D., LL. D., Yale Theo. Seminary.

Rev. E. E. Hale, Boston, Mark Hopkins, D. D., LL. D., Williams College.

WILLIAM H. BALDWIN, Esq., Boston. Emory Washburn, LL. D., Cambridge, Mass.

Hon. HENRY L. PIERCE, Boston. Hon. Reverdy Johnson, Baltimore, Md.

DIRECTORS. David Dudley Field, LL.D., New York.

Hox. AMASA WALKER, North Brookfield, Mass. Hon. Gerrill Smith, Peterboro', New York.

Rev. L. H. ANGIER, Everett, Mass.
Hon. Peter Cooper, New York.

John FIELD, Esq., Boston,
George H. Stuart, Esq., Philadelphia.
Hon. F. R. Brunoi, Chairman Indian Commission, Pinsburg, Pa.

H. H. LEAVITT, Esq.,

SAMUEL RODMAN, New Bedford, Mass. Hon. Elihu Burritt, New Britain, Ci.

THOMAS GAFFIELD, Esq., Boston, Mass. Hon. Edward S. Tobey, Boston, Mass.

JUDGE MAY, Lewiston, Me. Amasa Walker, LL. D., No. Brookfield, Mass.

Rev. Sidi H. BROWNE, Columbia, South Carolina. George F. Gregory, Mayor of Fredericton, N. B.

Rev. Geo. W. THOMPSON, Stratham, N. H. Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, New York

WM. G. HUBBARD, Delaware, Ohio. Hon. G. Washington Warren, Pres. Bunker Hill Mi. As'uon.

ABEL STEVENS, LL.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. Hon. John J. Fraser, Provincial Secretary, N. B.

Rev. Phillips Brooks, Boston, Mass. C. H. B. Fisher, Esq., Fredericton, N. B.

Rev. G. N. BOARDMAN, D. D., Chicago, Ill. T. H. Rand, Chief Superintendent Education, N. B.

Hiram HADLEY, Esq., Chicago, Ill. A. F. Randolf, Esq., Fredericton, N. B.

T. B. COOLEDGE, EsQ,, Lawrence, Mass. J. B. Morrow, Esq., Halifax, NS

Jay Cooke, Esq., Phila., Pa, John S. Maclean, Esq., Halifax, N. S.

SAMUEL WILLETTS, Esq., N. Y. D. Henry Starr, Esq., Halifax, N. S.

Hon. EDWARD LAWRENCE, Charlestown, Mass. M. H. Richey, Ex-Mayor, Halifax, N. S.

ALBERT TOLMAN, Esq., Worcester, Mass. Geo. H. Starr, Esq., Halifax, N. S.

Hox. C. W. GODDARD, Portland, Me. Jay Cooke, Esq., Philadelphia.

ALPHEUS Hardy, Esq., Boston. John G. Whittier, Amesbury, Mass.

DANIFL PALMER, Esq., Charlestown, Mass. Hon. Charles T. Russell, Cambridge, Mass.

Rev. S. HOPKINS EMERY, Bridgport, Conn. Samuel Willetts, New York.

A. S. MORSE, Esq., Charlestown, Mass. Joseph A. Dugdale, Iowa.

Hon. D. K. HITCHCOCK, Newton. Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Rev. B. K. PIERCE, D. D:, Boston.

William M. CORNELL, D, D., LL.D., Boston.
GOVERNORS.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.
SIDNEY PERHAM, Governor of Maine. .

H. H. LEAVITT, Esq., Boston. JULIUS CONVERSE, Governor of Vermont.

Rev. L. H. ANGIER, Everett, Mass

Rey. WM. P. TILDEN, Boston. SETH PADELFORD, Governor of Rhode Island.

Hon. G. WASHINGTON WARREN, Boston. ISRAEL WASHBURNE, JR., Ex-Gov. of Maino

John CUMMINGS, Esq., Boston. L. A. WILMOT, Governor of New Brunswick.

Hon. C. T. RUSSELL, Cambridge.

S. D. WARREN, EsQ, Boston. JOHN T. HOFFMAN, Governor of New York

Rev. Dorus CLARKE, D.D., Boston. JOHN W. GEARY, Governor of Pennsylvania

Joun W. FIELD, Esq., Boston, E. F. NOYES, Governor of Ohio.

Rev. John W. OLMSTEAD, D. D., Boston,

REV. S. E HERRICK, Boston. C. C. CARPENTER, Governor of lowa

Rev. J. B. Miles, D. D., Cor. Sec., and Asst. Treasurer P. H, LESLIE, Governor of Kentucky.

Rev. H. C. DUNHAM, Recording Secretary. HARRISON REED, Governor of Florida.

Rev. DAVID PATTEN, D. D. Treasurer.

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On Earth PEACE .... NATION SHALL NOT LITT OP SWORD AGAINST NATION, NEITHER SHALL THEY LEARN WAR ANY MORE.

New Series.

BOSTON, DECEMBER, 1874.

Vol. V. No. 12.

THE FEASIBILITY OF AN INTERNATIONAL the long and bloody wars which have desolated some of the CODE.

fairest regions of the earth.

Is the scheme feasible, or is it the dream of some wild reBY PROF. EMORY WASHBURN.

former? Be this as it may, there is enough in the very concep

tion of such a possibility, to awaken vigorous thought in The following article is a part of the very able paper of the mind of every man who wishes well for ihe race. It brings Judge Washburn, which was read at the Geneva Conference. in its train, if feasible, the no far distant fulfilment of the prom

ise, that the absurdities and atrocities of war shall give place to The paper was received with great favor, and we need not ask the amenities of peace, throughout the whole earth. for it an attentive reading.

In treating of this subject, the question naturally arises, what

is meant hy ihe word "Law'' as applied to the intercourse and A Congress of wise and eminent jurists, publicists and civil. transactions of nations? And by whom is it to be made and enians from different nationalities, at a central point in Europe, is forced? It will be found, it is believed, that there is far less an event which calls for something more than a passing re- difference between the law here spoken of, and that by which mark. And when we are reminded of the purposes for which the citizens of a single State are governed, ihan might, at first, they come together, as well as the character of the men u ho com- be supposed. The main difference between a nation and the pose it, its importance can hardly be exaggerated. The central individuals of which it is composed is that in one men act colidea of this august assembly is nothing less than the fellowship lectively, in the other they act upon one another as integers of nations under the dominion of law, in the bonds of peace. only. But with both the same motives, instincts and passions

The vastness of the field embraced in such a scheme, if taken are brought into play, though exhibited upon a different stage in connection with the fact that this Congress comes together of action. The individual seeks wealth, and strives for social without the pretence of any delegated authority from the States influence and personal aggrandizement; but experience, as well it represents, and the magnitude of the cause in which it is en- as his own good sense, soon shows him the folly of disregardgaged, suggest a grave inquiry, in which mnany will be disposed ing the rights and interests of others, while pursuing his own to indulge, how far the underiaking is a feasible one, and how ends, even those of his interiors, upon the grounds of policy, if much of the confidence of its friends is to be ascribed to the zeal he is governed by no higher motivo. Nor is it difficult to see of an ill. regulated enthusiasm ?

how such habits of self-restraint and of respect for the rights of The leading purpose for which this Congress is convened, as others, may in time become fixed and grow into the force of understood by its friends, is to devise some plan by which a law, giving not only character to the forms and obligations of Code of International Law may be presented io the world, by trade and business, but shape and sanctity to the relations of sowhich the intercourse and relations of nations with each other, cial life. These become, indeed, to individuals a law, through may be regulated in peace as well as in war.

the prevailing sentiment of what is right and proper without the The very proposition carries upon its face what, to most need of any formal legislation, minds, must, at first thought, imply little else than a political The same, in no small degree, is true of nations in their insolecism--sovereignty and independence subservient to and de- tercourse with each other. Experience comes in, in aid of the pendent upon the will and command of a superior. The first promptings of a general consciousness of right, in teaching the idea of a nation is a body politic, distinct from and independent wisdom of mutual courtesy and forbearance in the infliction of of all other like bodies, except the incidental restraints of fear wrong and injury, of respecting the rights, even of inferiors, or notions of policy which may arise from some superiority of and upholding the oppressed against the power of the wrong power or advantages of situation which one more favored than doer.' And what may, at first, be deemed measures of policy, another may chance to possess.

become, in this way, a prevailing habit of thought, till it asLaw, in the next place, implies a right to command on the part sumes, in their interchange of offices with each oiber, the funcof the law.giver, and a corresponding duty w obey on the part of tions of a law. In other words, there is in the policy of States, them to whom it is given. And, even if the existence of such whether in their domestic or outlying economy, not a little of a power is assumed, when referred to nations, it must be uni- what answers to law, which is the growth and fruit of circumversal in its application in order to be efficient, in the same man- stances, independent of any formal enactment. It is, indeed, a ner as the law of a State embraces within its scope the entire body rule of action, and imposed by a superior, but it is often the force of its citizens. It must, moreover, in order to its being effec-of moral power alone, where a common consciousness makes ittively administered, be confided to some adequate tribunal to self felt with a force and energy stronger, even, than a fear of judge of its interpretation, and empowered to apply to it the disobeying the will of a master. sanction of its possible enforcement. In none of these particu- The inference to be drawn, by the way of corollary, from Jars, however, has any nation, in moderu times, yielded a jot of these familiar propositions is, that the same course of policy and its sovereignty or independence.

the same axioms of prudence and wisdom may be predicaied of And yel, it is gravely proposed that a body of citizens com international law, as a system, which have been found true of ing together of their own accord, not even speaking a common any other system of unwritten law, and that whatever may language, with no other commission than the stamp of intelli- have been feasible of the Roman or ihe English common law, gent manhood which each may have received from nature and is alike practicable in respect to that of nations. Their history education, should take upon themselves to devise a feasible has been all but identical. They have alike kept pace with the plan, whereby a Code of Law should be, not only framed, but progress of civilization and have adapted themselves alike to the adopted; by which the nations of the earth are hereafter 10 sub-changing condition of society. Everybody knows what amount mit to be governed. And in so doing, these nations are to be of learning and sagacity were put in requisition in codifying the called upon to surrender, without a struggle, that attribute of discordant elements of which the laws of Rome and France sovereignty, to maintain which millions have been sacrificed in' were composed, and, to apply the same processes to the law of

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