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669. 103. Bello ovile, etc. “ Beautiful fold

where, as a lamb, I slept.'
I 21. Great ships go to pieces. The
sentence refers to two of Turner's paint-
ings: “ The Garden of the Hesperides,”

and “ The Meuse." 661. 255. Once ... twice ... thrice.

Turner painted three pictures commemo-
rative of Trafalgar: “ The Death of Nel-
son”; “ The Battle of Trafalgar” ; “ The
Fighting Témeraire."
361. Our Lady of Safety. “ Santa Maria
della Salute”; a church on the Grand

Canal. 662. 394. Chiaroscuro. Technically the dis

position of lights and shadows in a pic-
ture; here used for picturesqueness.
456. Among the Yorkshire hills. “I
do not mean that this is his first acquaint-
ance with the country, but the first im-
pressive and touching one, after his mind
was formed. The earliest sketches I
found in the National Collection are at
Clifton and Bristol; the next, at Oxford.”

(Ruskin.) 663. 517. Whitby Hill . . . Bolton Brook. The (1732-1811), a dramatist whose sentimen

668. 408. Their bluest veins to kiss. Antony

and Cleopatra, II. v. 29. 669. 462. Of them that sell doves. Matthew,

xxi: 12.


Under this title appeared twenty-five letters written ostensibly to Thomas Dixon, of Sunderland, but in fact addressed to the workingmen of England who in 1867, the year the letters appeared, were agitating reform. In them Ruskin appears not as the critic of art, but as the sociologist.


ruins of Whitby and Bolton Abbeys are
the “ traces of other handiwork.”
562. Her breathless first-born ... her
last sons slain. “ The Tenth Plague of
Egypt”; Rizpah, the Daughter of
Aiah”: two of Turner's paintings.
576. Salvator .. Dürer. Salvator
Rosa (1615-1673), an Italian painter;
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), a German

painter and engraver.
664. 600. Between Arcola and Waterloo. At

Arcola Napoleon gained his reputation as
a general by defeating the Austrians,
September, 1796; his final defeat at
Waterloo, June, 1815, ended his military
664. Put ye in the sickle. Joel, iii: 13.

671. A selection from the third of Ruskin's

Lectures on Art, delivered while he was Slade Professor at Oxford. The portion reprinted comprises paragraphs 71–81 of

the Lectures. 672. 122. My three years. As Slade Professor

of Art at Oxford. 673. 164. The contest of Apelles and Protogenes. The two men

were rivals, and attempted to outdo one another in drawing lines of remarkable fineness. 167. The circle of Giotto. Giotto (1 267?1337) sent as a sample of his work, and

proof of his powers, a perfect circle. 676. 382. Miranda Caliban. Characters

in Shakespeare's Tempest; Caliban is a creature more brute than man; Miranda is the most spotlessly pure of all Shakespeare's heroines.



From the first part of chapter iv, vol. II.
Following the paragraph with which this
selection closes, comes Ruskin's descrip-

tion of the interior of the building.
666. 8. Unworthy thenceforth, etc. Acts, xiii:

13; xv: 38, 39. (Ruskin.)
40. Vite de Santi, etc. Lives of the patron
saints of the Venetian Churches.
56. Una stupenda, etc. A wonderful
city, never seen before.
73. Cloister-like and quiet. St. Mark's
Place, partly covered by turf, and
planted with a few trees; and on account
of its pleasant aspect called Brollo or
Broglio, that is to say, Garden.” The
canal passed through it, over which is
built the bridge of the Malpassi. (Rus-

667. 283. Cortile. An enclosed court-yard in

a large house.
320. Vendita Frittole, etc. A fritter and
liquor shop.

The life of Goldsmith illustrates the
vigor and picturesqueness of Macaulay's
style; it is not, however, a thoroughly
accurate biography. In particular it
should be noted that Macaulay inherited
from Boswell the condescending attitude
which appears in this essay; more recent
critics feel less of this, and are inclined to
treat Goldsmith more seriously, both as

a man and a thinker. 676. 75. Glorious and Immortal Memory. The

memory of William III.

79. The banished dynasty. The Stuarts. 679. 386. The Dunciad. Pope's greatest sat

479. Bayes in the Rehearsal. The Re-
hearsal was a burlesque attack on heroic
tragedy, written by the Duke of Bucking-
ham and his friends. John Bayes was a

satirical portrait of Dryden.
680. 553. Kelly and Cumberland. Hugh Kelly

(1739-1777), whose sentimental comedy False Delicacy was brought out with great success at Drury Lane six days before the first performance of The Good-Natured Man at Covent Garden; Richard Cumberland

their old friend among the gipsies; and he gave them an account of the necessity which drove him to that kind of life, and told them that the people he went with were not such impostors as they were taken for, but that they had a traditional kind of learning among them, and could do wonders by the power of imagination, their fancy binding that of others; that himself had learned much of their art, and when he had compassed the whole secret, he intended, he said, to leave their company, and give the world an account

of what he had learned." 690. 95. Lasher. Originally the turbulent wa

ter running through an opening in a
weir; then applied to the weir itself, or,
as here, to the pool below the weir into
which the lasher empties.
129. Christ-Church hall. The dining-

hall in Christ-Church College, Oxford. 692. 208. Averse, as Dido. Æneas, on his

journey through Hades, met the shade of
Dido, queen of Carthage, who had slain
herself when deserted by him; the shade
turned away from Æneas with a gesture
of aversion.
245. The Syrtes. The ancient name for
the modern Gulfs of Sidra and Cabes, on
the northern coast of Africa.
249. Iberians.

Iberia was the ancient name for the Spanish peninsula.


The incident was taken by Arnold from

Persian history. 706. 861. Persepolis. Capital city of ancient

tal comedies Goldsmith ridiculed. 681. 601. Maupertuis. Pierre Louis de Mau

pertuis (1698-1759), a French astronomer, 683. 830. A little poem. The Retaliation. See

p. 286.


QUA CURSUM VENTUS The title means “ As the wind, so the course.”

ITE DOMUM SATURÆ 684. The title is taken from a line in the tenth

of Virgil's eclogues, where a goatherd is addressing his herd: “Go home, full-fed; evening comes." Clough makes the speaker a peasant girl, driving home her 2. Rose, Provence, La Palie. Names of the cows.



PHILOMELA 687. Philomela, daughter of Pandion, King of

Attica, was dishonored by her brother-inlaw, Tereus, King of Daulis, in Phocis, a country in northern Greece. Tereus cut out Philomela's tongue that she might not bear witness against him, but she made her secret known to her sister Procne, wife of Tereus, by words woven into a robe. Procne killed her son Itys, served him up as food to his father, and fled with Philomela. On being pursued by Tereus, the sisters prayed for deliverance, and were changed into birds by the gods, Philomela becoming a nightingale. Arnold has reversed the positions of

Philomela and Procne.
688. 21. The too clear web. The woven robe

which only too clearly revealed the story
of the crime.
27. Cephissian vale. The valley of the
Cephissus, the chief river of Phocis.

Persia, of which Jemshid, or Jamschid,
was a mythical king.


1. Son of Italy. Jacopone da Todi, an Italian poet of the thirteenth century.


In memory of Arnold's father, Dr.
Thomas Arnold, Master of Rugby; " the
Doctor" of Tom Brown's School Days.


The poem is based on the following pas-
sage from Glanvil's Vanity of Dogma-
tizing, 1661; cf. ll. 11, 31, 133, 159.,
“ There was very lately a lad in the Uni-
versity of Oxford, who was by his poverty
forced to leave his studies there; and at
last to join himself to a company of vaga-
bond gipsies. Among these extravagant
people, by the insinuating subtilty of his
carriage, he quickly got so much of their
love and esteem as that they discovered
to him their mystery. After he had been
a pretty while exercised in the trade,
there chanced to ride by a couple of
scholars, who had formerly been of his
acquaintance. They quickly spied out

709. One of Arnold's Discourses in America, writ-

ten for his lecture trip of 1883-4. 711. 185. To know the best, etc. Quoted from

Arnold's essay The Function of Criticism

at the Present Time. 714. 511. The powers. The component parts.

540. The desire to relate these pieces of knowledge to our sense for conduct. We acquire knowledge, and then try to answer the questions, “What difference does it make? What bearing has it upon my life? How does this new fact fit into my own

schedule of facts and values?" 716. 630. Professor Sylvester. James Syl

vester (1814-1897), an English mathema

tician, who held chairs at Johns Hopkins

and Oxford Universities. 716. 636. Cambridge. The study of mathe

matics has long been an important part
of the curriculum at Cambridge Uni-
662. Mr. Darwin's famous proposition.
The proposition occurs in Part IV, chap-
ter 21, of The Descent of Man, and is really

a summing up of the whole book. 716. 741. A Sandemanian. A member of the

religious sect founded in Scotland by

Robert Sandeman, about 1725. 718. 952. A school report. Arnold was for

many years a government inspector of

schools. 719. 1005. Letters will call out, etc. In this

sentence Arnold sums up his entire argument.



720. This essay was delivered as a lecture in

London, January 7, 1866, and is included in Volume I, Methods and Results, of Hux

ley's collected works. 721. 89. Laud. William Laud (1573-1645),

Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the head of the established English Church, and a violent enemy of the anti-Stuart parties, who accomplished his execution in 1645. The Earl of Rochester and Sir Charles Sedley were court wits and poets

in the time of Charles II. 722. 187. Principia. Sir Isaac Newton (1642

1727) published the Philosophia Naturalis
Principia Mathematica, setting forth his
theories about gravitation, in 1689.
208. Inquisitorial cardinals. Galileo (1564-
1642) was persecuted by the Inquisition
because of his acceptance of Copernicus's
theories concerning the solar system.
214. Vesalius and Harvey. Vesalius was
a Belgian anatomist of the 16th century;
William Harvey (1578–1657) was
English physician who published in 1628
a treatise De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis
in which he set forth the theory of the
circulation of the blood.
239. Writ in water. Keats suggested as
his epitaph: “ Here lies one whose name


was writ in water.' 723. 266. Revenant. Ghost.

309. Boyle, ... Evelyn. Robert Boyle (1627-1691), an English chemist; and John

Evelyn (1620-1706), the diarist. 726. 653. Count Rumford. Benjamin Thomp

son (1753-1814), a scientist of international reputation.

731. 361. “ The world is all before it.” An

adaptation of Paradise Lost, xii: 646-7:
“ The world was all before them, where to

Their place of rest, and Providence their

guide.” 375. The judgment-stricken king. Pentheus, in Euripides's Baccha, in his

madness sees two suns. 732. 446. St. Thomas. Thomas Aquinas

(1227?-1 274), canonized in 1323; one of

the greatest of the scholastic philosophers. 733. 524. Pompey's Pillar. A column erected

at Alexandria in honor of Diocletian. 734. 627 ff. τετράγωνος.

Four square.

Nil admirari. To wonder at nothing. Felix qui, etc. Happy is he who has come to know the relationships of things, and has placed beneath his feet all fear, and inexorable ate, and th roar of greedy Acheron. Virgil's Georgics, ii.

490 ff.
736. 704. The learning of a Salmasius or a

Burman. Claude Saumaise (1588-1653)
was a French classical scholar. Pieter
Burmann the Elder (1688-1741) and his
nephew Pieter Burmann the younger
(1714-1778) were both Dutch scholars.
706. Imperat aut servit. It is either mas-
ter or servant.
710. Vis consili, etc. Brute force with-
out intelligence falls by its own weight.
712. Tarpeia. A woman of Roman leg-
end, crushed to death by the shields of
Sabine warriors, when she asked for what
they wore on their arms (bracelets) as a

reward for betraying Rome.
738. 1031. Genius loci. Genius of the place.
739. 1153. The exiled prince. See As You

Like It, II. i. 16.
1156. The

poor boy in the poem. “ Črabbe's Tales of the Hall. This poem, let me say, I read on its first publication, above thirty years ago, with extreme delight, and have never lost my love of it; and on taking it up lately, found I was

more touched by it than heretofore.” (Newman's note.)



Early editions of the Apologia contained the correspondence between Newman and Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! The correspondence as a whole, and Newman's summary which is here reprinted, had been given to the public by Newman before the Apologia was published; they were omitted from later editions of the Apologia.





728. 33. On an occasion like this. The Dis

courses on University Subjects were delivered in 1852 before the Catholics of Dublin.

740. The pictorial quality of this poem is char

acteristic of the work of Rossetti, famous as painter as well as poet; his painting of

dream passed through a gate of horn; if false, through one of ivory.


746. 7. Below bridge. Navigation stopped at

London Bridge. 747. 15. Bills of lading. Chaucer was for a

time a clerk of the customs.

ATALANTA'S RACE 748. 63. Fleet-foot One. Ordinarily the epi

thet would indicate Hermes; in this con

nection it may mean Artemis. 760. 177. Saffron gown. Saffron was the

color used at marriages by the Greeks and Romans; cf. L'Allegro:

“ There let Hymen oft appear

In saffron robe, with taper clear." 184. Sea-born one. Venus. 761. 208. Adonis' bane. The wild boar. 762. 275. Three-formed goddess. Artemis,

or Diana, so called because she was wor-
shipped as Diana on earth, as Luna in
heaven, as Hecate in hell.
279. Her. Diana.

282. Sea-born framer. See note on l. 184. 766. 516. Damascus. Astarte, the Phænician

goddess of love, was identified with Venus. 756. 535. Saturn's clime. Saturn ruled the

world before his place was usurped by Zeus, or Jupiter; Saturn's reign was identified with the golden age, a time of peace,

plenty, and happiness. 768. 663. Mighty Lord. Zeus.

664. Her. Venus.


the same name corresponds exactly to the poem.


741. Founded on the old superstition that a

woman deserted by her lover, could obtain the power of life and death over his body by making a waxen image of him, and laying it in the heat of the fire; as the wax melted the man's life ebbed away. There are three speakers,-the wronged woman, her small brother, who does not understand what is going on, and a spectator, whose comments, slightly varied from verse to verse, keep pace with the progress of the story.


746. The name given by Rossetti to a sequence

of one hundred and one sonnets; this and Mrs. Browning's Sonnets from the Portuguese are generally conceded to be the finest collections of sonnets since Shakespeare's.


Similar sonnets on the sonnet-form are
Wordsworth's Scorn not the Sonnel, and
Richard Watson Gilder's Sonnet on the
Sonnet: What is a sonnet?"
13. Dark wharf's. Compare

“ the fat weed
That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf,"

Hamlet, I. v. 32-33. 14. Charon's palm. Charon ferried the souls of the dead over the river Styx to Hades; a piece of money was buried with the body to serve as fee for the passage.

MORRIS THE EARTHLY PARADISE: AN APOLOGY 746. The Earthly Paradise is a collection of

twenty-four tales in verse, commonly considered the best body of narrative verse that has been given to English poetry since Chaucer's time. In the Prologue Morris tells how

“ certain gentlemen and mariners of Norway, having considered all that they had heard of the Earthly Paradise, set sail to find it, and after many troubles and the lapse of many years came old men to some Western land, of which they had never before heard"; the inhabitants of this land are of Greek descent. For the entertainment of the wanderers, the dwellers in the western land give semi-monthly feasts, at each of which a story is told. The duty of telling a story alternates between the two peoples; half the tales are, accordingly, from the Greek mythology, half of Scandinavian or Romance origin. 25. The ivory gate. The house of Morpheus, god of sleep, had two gates, through which dreams issued: if true, the


STYLE 760. 22. Efforts to limit art a priori. By argu

ment from hypotheses concerning ma-
terial, etc.
92. Absence or presence of metrical
beauty. Wordsworth's views are
pressed in the Preface to the Lyrical Bal-

lads. 761. 96. Dichotomy. A division into two

109. I propose here to point out. Pater
here states the purpose of the essay. He
is to discuss not prose or poetry, but both,
finding in both certain identical charac-
teristics, the qualities of “ literature as a
fine art.”
165. Livy, Tacitus, Michelet. Jules
Michelet (1798-1874), like the two

Romans, was a historian. 762. 253. At this point Pater notes: Mr.

Saintsbury, in his Specimens of English Prose, from Malory to Macaulay, has succeeded in tracing, through successive English prose-writers, the tradition of that severer beauty in them, of which this admirable scholar of our literature is known to be a lover. English Prose, from Mandeville to Thackeray more recently chosen and edited' by a younger scholar, Mr. Arthur Galton, of New College, Oxford, a lover of our literature at once enthusiastic and discreet, aims at a

more various illustration of the eloquent powers of English prose, and is

a delightful companion. 763. 338. Le cuistre. The academic pedant.

358. Well! Pater is fond of this inter-
jectional use of well. It suggests the
French eh bien!
364. Dictionary other than Johnson's.
Johnson's Dictionary, though compara-
tively slight in extent, contains few words
to which exception may be taken on the
score of utility, and is equipped with illus-
trative quotations which make it still

valuable. 764. 417. “ Its " which ought to have been in

Shakespeare. Shakespeare uses ' his,”
in conformity with regular Elizabethan
usage, for the neuter possessive.
453. Ascêsis.

The Greek word from which the English ascetic and asceticism

are derived. 766. 540. Michelangelo. For a discussion of

one phase of the work of this great Italian
artist, see Pater's essay in The Renais-
609. Dean Mansel. Henry L. Mansel
(1820-1871), Dean of St. Paul's from 1868

to his death. 767. 769. Swedenborg. Emanuel Swedenborg

(1688-1772), founder of the New Church, or Swedenborgians. The Tracts for the

briand (1768-1848) and Victor Hugo (1802-1885) were both significant in the

development of French romanticism. 773. 173. Reynolds or Gainsborough. The

two greatest English portrait painters:
Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), and
Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788).
211 ff. The first three quotations are from
The Prelude; the fourth is from The Pet

Lamb. 775. 411. A selection of language really used


Times were written and published by John Henry Newman and his associates in the so-called “ Oxford Movement,' during the years 1833-1841. The last of the tracts, No. 90, was condemned by

the University because of its Romanism. 768. 952. Blake's rapturous design. One of

the illustrations made by Blake for Blair's Grave represents “ Soul and Body

Reunited.” 769. 1057. Buffon. Le Comte de Buffon

(1707-1788), a famous French naturalist.

by men. See the Preface to the Lyrical

Ballads, p. 389.
776. 452. George Sand. Her most famous

novel, La Petite Fadette, is known in
English translation as Fanchon the Cricket.
The author's real name was Mme. Aman-
dine Dudevant.
457. Meinhold.

Johannes Meinhold (1797-1851) was a little-known novelist whom Pater considered significant in the

history of German romanticism. 777. 588. Anima mundi. Soul of the universe. 778. 703. The Ode . . . had its anticipator.

See Henry Vaughan's The Retreat, p. 123. 779. 747. Grandet, Javert. Characters in

Balzac's Eugenie Grandet and Victor
Hugo's Les Misérables, respectively.
785. Antique Rachel. In Dante's Pur-
galorio, xxvii, Rachel is a type of the
contemplative life.
797. One who had meditated. Lord



772. 36. Most serious critical efforts. See the

selections from the Preface to the Lyrical
38. The excesses of 1795. The culmina-

tion of the Reign of Terror.
773. 117. Disciplina arcani. Discipline, or

learning, of the mystery.
158. Senancour. Obermann, by Etienne
de Senancour (1770-1846), is characteris-
tic of this interest in nature. Gautier
(1811-1872) was an enthusiastic Roman-
ticist, a dramatist, poet, and playwright.
161. Rousseau. The importance of Rous-
seau's La Nouvelle Héloïse in awakening
people to the influence of nature upon the
soul, and the influence of Rousseau's
theories concerning the “ state of nature,'
have been often pointed out. Chateau-

780. 24. Dule tree. A tree used as a gallows.
781. 104. The blue-peter. A blue flag indicat-

ing that a ship was about to sail.
141. The valley at Balaclava. The scene
of the famous charge of the “ Light Bri-
gade” in the Crimean War.
145. Curtius. A hero of Roman legend
who leaped into a chasm in the Forum,
and sacrificed his life that the gulf might
be closed.
159. Caligula.

The third emperor of
Rome, who proclaimed himself a god.
782. 187. The sheet. The rope by which the

position of a sail is controlled. If it be
tied, or “made fast,” a sudden gust of
wind may upset a small boat before the
sailor has an opportunity to loosen the
206. Omar Khayyam ... Walt Whit-
man. Omar Khayyam was a Persian
poet who died c. 1123. Walt Whitman,
an American poet famous for his whole-
sale violations of the conventions of po-
etry, died in 1892.
214. The same stuff with dreams. See
Shakespeare's Tempest, IV. i. 156:

* We are such stuff
As dreams are made on, and our little life

Is rounded with a sleep." 783. 303. As the French say. A cul-de-sac.

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