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617. 22. The Three. Enemies of the man,

unidentified; one seems to be closely re

lated to the woman: cf. l. 107. 618. 127. Giudecca. One of the canals of

Venice. 619. 186-192. The pictures seem to be imagi

nary, though the artists are well known. Haste-thee-Luke. A nickname for Luca Giordano, a Neapolitan.




A GRAMMARIAN'S FUNERAL As My Last Duchess illustrates the artistic taste of the Renaissance period, and The Bishop Orders His Tomb the love of luxury, so this poem exemplifies the devotion to pure learning which characterized some of the Renaissance scholars. Grammarian should be taken in a rather wide sense; it is equivalent to philologist, one who loves learning. Certain of the Grammarian's disciples are carrying the body of their master for burial in one of the Italian hill towns. 26. 'Ware the beholders! An adjuration to the pall-bearers to make a good appearance before spectators: There people watching us-put your best foot forward!

Apollo was god of song and poetry, and patron of manly beauty; the implication is, therefore, that the Grammarian was not only a handsome man in his youth, but that, if he had chosen, he might have written lyric poetry: 45, 46. The world Bent on escaping. The masterpieces of classical literature which had for centuries lain mouldering in libraries.

50. Gowned. Put on the scholar's gown. 621. 129-131. Hoti, Oun, De.

ticles. Though to some these might have seemed subjects so minute as to be ridiculous, the Grammarian had said the last word on them.

620. 33, 34.

liness, inconsistency, pride, hypocrisy, ignorance of itself, love of art, of luxury,

and of good Latin." 621. 5. Gandolf. A fellow churchman of the

Bishop's, and a rival in matters ecclesias-
tic and secular.
8. And as she died so must we die our-
selves. Here, as in lines 51 and 101, the
dying Bishop assumes for an instant the

of the professional preacher.
Such lapses are, however, brief.
21. The epistle-side. The right-hand
side, as one faces the altar, from which
the epistle was read in the service.
26. Tabernacle. The Bishop's effigy was
to recline upon a basalt slab covering the
sarcophagus, and over it was to be a stone

roof, borne upon nine columns. 622. 29. Peach-blossom marble. Particularly

fine marble of a pinkish hue.
31. Onion-stone. Italian cipollino (little
onion), inferior greenish marble,
readily splitting into thin layers, like the
coats of an onion.
46. Frascati. A wealthy summer resort
near Rome.
49. Jesu Church. Il Gesu, the church
of the Jesuits, in which is an image of
God, bearing a representation of the
earth, made of lapis lazuli.
51, 2. Job, vii: 6, 9. “My days are
swifter than a weaver's shuttle.... So
he that goeth down to the grave shall
come up no more.”
55. My frieze.

Running around the sarcophagus, beneath the slab of basalt. 58. Tripod, thyrsus. Both Pagan symbols: the former connected with the worship of Apollo, whose priestess at Delphi sat upon a tripod when receiving the divine inspiration; the latter the vinewreathed staff carried by the followers of Bacchus. 74. Brown. I. e., with age. 77. Tully's. Cicero's, whose Latin style is the model of good use and elegance. 79. Ulpian. A Roman jurist of the second century A. D., whose Latin has not the classic perfection of Cicero's. His. Gandolf's. 82. God made and eaten. I. e., in the sacrament of the mass. 87. Crook. Symbol of the Bishop's au

thority as shepherd of his people. 623. 95. Saint Praxed at his sermon on the

mount. The dying man's mind confuses
the two elements of his bas-relief men-
tioned in 59-60. Praxed was a female
99. Elucescebat. The correct form is
elucebat; this is presumably an example
of Gandolf's “gaudy ware,” l. 78.
101. Cf. Genesis, xlvii: 9:“ And Jacob said
unto Pharaoh, The days of the years of
my pilgrimage are an hundred and thirty
years: few and evil have the days of the
years of my life been.”

Greek par



The Bishop embodies certain tendencies of the Renaissance. No one who studies that marvellous period, whether in its history, its literature, or its plastic art, can fail to be profoundly struck by the way in which Paganism and Christianity, philosophic scepticism and gross superstition, the antique and the modern, thusiastic love of the beautiful and vile immorality, were all mingled together without much, if any, consciousness of incompatibility or inconsistency.” (W. J. Alexander: Introduction to the Poetry of Robert Browning.) Ruskin says, in Modern Painters: I know no other piece of modern English, prose or poetry, in which there is so much told, as in these lines, of the Renaissance spirit-its world

626. 241. Scudi. Plural of scudo, a coin

worth about a dollar; scudo means shield, and the coin bore on the obverse the

shield of the prince who issued it. 627. 263. Leonard. Leonardo da Vinci.

623. 108. Visor. A mask, like those worn by

ancient actors. Term. A bust terminat-
ing in a square pedestal, like the repre-
sentations of Terminus, god of bound-
109. Lynx.

An animal which figures
largely in representations of the Bacchic
orgies. All the objects mentioned in
II. 107-110 are commonly found on
ancient sarcophagi.
116. Gritstone. A coarse sandstone.


Written in the autumn following Mrs.
Browning's death. The title
“ Look forward."




ABT VOGLER “ This poem was suggested by a portrait Abt (Abbé) Vogler (1749-1814), a Gerof Andrea and his wife, painted by him- man Catholic priest, and famous musiself and now hanging in the Pitti Gallery cian. He invented new form of the at Florence. Andrea is a painter who organ, called the orchestrion, upon which ranks high among the contemporaries of he gave performances all over Europe, Raphael and Michel Angelo, especially his improvisations being especially reby reason of his technical execution, markable. which was so perfect as to win for him 3. Solomon. According to Mohammedan the surname of “The Faultless Painter.' legends, Solomon, thanks to a ring on Early in life he enjoyed the favor of

which was engraved the name of God Francis I, at whose court he for a time

(1. 7), had control over the demons and resided; but having received a large sum genii of the underworld. of money from Francis for the purchase 628. 23. Rome's dome. The dome of St. of works of art in Italy, he, under the Peter's. influence of his wife, a beautiful but

34. Protoplast.

“ The first-formed,” the unprincipled woman, embezzled it, ap- original, the model; the figures of those plying it to the erection of a house for

not yet born, to be born in a happier himself at Florence.” (W. J. Alexander: future, are lured by the power of the Introduction to the Poetry of Robert music to appear before their time. Browning.)

43-52. A comparison of the process of 15. Fiesole. A hill town near Florence.

composition three arts-painting, 26. Serpentining. Suggesting a certain poetry, music: in the first two the process sinuous, undulant type of beauty.

is subject to certain well understood laws; 35-40. The key-note of the poem.

with music, on the other hand, the result 624. 57. Cartoon. A preliminary sketch, or

appears to be produced by no tangible working design.

means, to be in subjection to no natural 82. Low-pulsed forthright craftsman's law. Hence the composer, in the freehand. Mechanically facile and accurate, dom of his creation, approaches God, who but uninspired.

creates by merely willing. 93. Morello.

A spur of the Apennines, 629. 91. Common chord. The chord produced north of Florence.

by the combination of any note with its 105. The Urbinate. Raphael, born in

third and fifth. Urbino, died 1520.

93. A ninth. An interval exceeding an 106. Vasari. Italian painter and writer octave by a tone (major), or by a semiof the 16th century, author of Lives of tone (minor). the Painters; he includes a life of Andrea, 96. C Major. The “natural” scale, to which Browning is indebted for ma- having neither sharps nor flats. The last terial in this poem.

six lines of the poem give symbolic ex626. 130. Agnolo. Michel Angelo.

pression to the idea that from his supernal 146. The Paris lords. Courtiers of visions the musician descends gradually Francis I, who would have reproached to the realities of every day. Andrea for his embezzlement. 150. Fontainebleau. A royal palace near Paris. 153. Humane. Francis a great

Ben Ezra was a distinguished Jewish patron of arts and letters, of the hu- scholar of the twelfth century, noted espemanities.

cially for his commentaries on the Old Tes155. Mouth's good mark that made the tament. The ideas expressed in the poem smile. Apparently means no more than were to some extent suggested to the poet smiling mouth.

by Ben Ezra's writings, but Browning de626. 210. Cue-owls. So-called from the sound velops them in his own way, and makes of their call; the Italian form is chiu.

the poem one of the best expressions of 220. Cousin. Lucrezia's gallant, who his philosophy of life. whistles for her to come to him.

17. Low kinds. The lower animals, living



but for the day, untroubled by doubt,

uninspired by hope. 629. 24. The awkward inversions are charac

teristic of Browning: does care irk, etc.?

does doubt fret, etc.? 630. 48. Its lone way. In Ben Ezra's commen

tary on the Psalms we find this sentence:
“The soul of man is called lonely because
it is separated, during its union with
the body, from the Universal Soul into
which it is again received when it departs
from its earthly companion.”
49-72. Browning here argues against the
ascetic ideal, so popular during the
Middle Ages, which proclaimed that
spiritual advancement was to be gained
through mortification of the flesh.
74. Youth's heritage. The heritage of
experience given to age by youth.

87. Leave the fire. If the fire leave. 631. 124, 125. Supply whom after I and they.

151. Potter's wheel. Cf. Isaiah, lxiv: 8: “We are the clay, and Thou our potter; and we are all the work of Thy hand.' The metaphor is effectively used by Fitzgerald ' in his translation of the Rubaiyát of Omar Khayyam. See page 643, 1. 325.ff.

EPILOGUE TO ASOLANDO 632. This is Browning's final cheery word on

the problem of life and death; it is the
epilogue to his last volume of poems, en-
titled Asolando, published in London on
the day Browning died in Venice.
5. Pity me? Will you pity me, dead?
17. The unseen. The dead; the author

his Rubáiyát (a plural form; the singular rubáiy means quatrain) in the twelfth century. Fitzgerald describes them, and his own verses, as follows:

The original Rubaiyát are independent Stanzas, consisting each of four Lines of equal, though varied, Prosody; sometimes all rhyming, but oftener (as here imitated) the third line a blank, sometimes as in the Greek Alcaic, where the penultimate line seems to lift and suspend the Wave that falls over in the last. As usual with such kind of Oriental Verse, the Rubaiyát follow one another according to Alphabetic Rhyme-a strange succession of Grave and Gay. Those here selected are strung into something of an Eclogue, with perhaps a less than equal proportion of the “ Drink and makemerry,” which (genuine or not) occurs over frequently in the Original. Either way, the Result is sad enough: saddest perhaps when most ostentatiously merry: more apt to move Sorrow than Anger toward the old Tent-maker, who, after vainiy endeavoring to unshackle his Steps from Destiny, and to catch some authentic Glimpse of Tomorrow, fell back upon Today (which has outlasted so many Tomorrows!) as the only Ground he got to stand upon, however momentarily slipping from under his Feet."

Fitzgerald's method was not so much one of literal translation as of combination and paraphrase; the first edition of 1859 contained 75 quatrains, the second 110, the third and fourth (here reprinted) 101. Most of the changes were in the nature of improvement; it is generally felt, however, that the first stanza was finest in its original form, where it ran as follows: “ Awake! for Morning in the Bowl of

Night Has flung the Stone that puts the Stars to



This title serves to veil the fact that the sonnets are addressed to Robert Browning, and express with perfect sincerity Mrs. Browning's feeling about the love and marriage of the two poets. For an account of their origin see the Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning (Smith, Elder & Co., 1898), vol. I., pp. 316-17.


633. Occasioned by an official report on the

employment of children in mines and factories. Mrs. Browning said of the rhythm: “The first stanza came into my head in a hurricane, and I was obliged to make the other stanzas like it.” Letters, I. 156.


RUBÁIYAT OF OMAR KHAYYAM 636. Omar Khayyam (Omar the Tent-Maker),

And Lo! the Hunter of the East has

The Sultan's Turret in a Noose of Light."
The wonderful success of the stanza form
invented by Fitzgerald, the successi ve
stanzas rolling on in subdued splendor
one after another with the stateliness of
a pageant, needs no comment.
In the text Fitzgerald's usage with re-
gard to capitals and apostrophes has
been preserved. The notes that follow

are based upon Fitzgerald's own.
637. 5. The phantom of False morning. A

transient light on the horizon about an
hour before the true dawn.
15. White Hand of Moses. Moses
brought his hand forth from his bosom
“ leprous as snow," Exodus, iv: 6; the
metaphor is applied to the blooming of
the flowers.
16. Jesus . . . suspires. “According to
the Persians, the healing power of Jesus
resided in his breath."

a Persian astronomer and poet, wrote

" the

637. 17. Iram. An ancient Persian garden,

now sunk in the sands of Arabia.
18. Jamshyd's Seven-ring'd Cup. Jam-
shyd was a legendary King of Persia;
his cup was symbolical of the seven heave
ens, seven planets, seven seas, etc.
22. Pehleví. The old literary language
of Persia.
36-40. Kaikobád ... Hátim. The
proper names are those of Persian heroes;
for Zal and Rustum see Arnold's Sohrab
and Rustum.

44. Mahmud. The Sultan. 638. 99. Muezzin. The crier who calls the

faithful to prayer in Mohammedan

countries. 639. 122. Saturn. Lord of the seventh heaven.

127. Me and Thee. Some dividual existence or personality distinct from the whole.

131. Signs. Signs of the zodiac. 641. 225. My computations.

Omar was profound mathematician, and helped to reform the calendar.

237. Allah-breathing. Allah-worshipping. 642. 271. Lantern. Fitzgerald's note

pressed in the chapter here printed are Carlyle's own. At the same time he comments, in his own person, on the ideas propounded by the German, forestalling criticism, and occasionally explaining oracular utterances. The chapter on Natural Supernaturalism is really

the culmination of the whole work. 644. 6. The Clothes-Philosophy. The idea that all appearances

are merely the clothing of the Divine Idea which alone

has ultimate reality. 645. 34. Miracles. Carlyle objected to

science because it tended, so he thought,
to remove wonder and worship from
human life. It tried to explain
phenomena of life which Carlyle con-
sidered divinely miraculous.
47. Schlagbaum. Carlyle sprinkles Ger-
man words and phrases through Sartor
Resartus as proof of the fact that he is

merely reviewing Teufelsdröckh's book. 646. 153. Fortunatus. The hero of Thomas

Dekker's play Old Fortunatus, well known in popular legend, possessed such a hat. 100. Wahngasse of Weissnichtwo. The city in which Teufelsdröckh is supposed to live Carlyle calls “ Weissnichtwo”; “I know not where.” Wahngasse; dreamlane.

168. Groschen. Small German coin. 647. 264. Thaumaturgy. The art of perform

ing miracles.
275. Stein-bruch. Stone-quarry.
278. Ashlar houses. Houses of hewn or
squared stone.
321. Johnson went to Cock Lane.

See Boswell's Life of Johnson, p. 308. 648. 397. Cimmerian Night. See note



describes a Magic-Lanthorn still used in India; the cylindrical Interior being painted with various Figures, and so lightly poised and ventilated as to revolve round the lighted Candle within." 277. The ball, etc. The reference is to the game of polo, of ancient Persian origin.

302. Dervish. A Mohammedan devotee. 643. 326. Ramazán. The Mohammedan

month of fasting, when no food is eaten
between sunrise and sunset.
327 ff. With this use of the metaphor of
the potter and the clay compare Brown-
ing's in Rabbi Ben Ezra, page 631, 1. 150.
346. Sufi. An adherent of a Persian sect
whose belief was pantheistic.
358. The little Moon ... that all were
seeking. The new moon marking the
end of the fasting month.
360. Shoulder-knot a-creaking. With
the burden of the jars of wine.

L'Allegro, 1. 10.
429. “We are such stuff,” etc. From
The Tempest, IV. i. 156 ff.




649. 60. Ezekiel. There is no reference to a

potter's wheel in Ezekiel. Carlyle has
probably confused the “ Vision of the
Wheels,” Ezekiel, i: 15-21, and the refer-
ence to the potter's wheel in Jeremiah,
xviii: 1-6.
121. Sir Christopher. Şir Christopher
Wren (1632-1723), was the architect en-
trusted with the rebuilding of St. Paul's
Cathedral, destroyed in the London fire
of 1666. Nell Gwyn was a favorite of
Charles II, whose title included the
phrase “Defender of the Faith.”


644. This, the most influential of Carlyle's

works, appeared as a serial in Fraser's Magazine during the years 1833-4. It is an attack upon the materialistic selfsatisfaction of England; an attempt to show that the only ultimate reality is spirit, is God, and that everything material is merely clothing for the Divine Idea, visible manifestation of God. In form the book is somewhat grotesque. It purports to be a long review of a work on clothing, the magnum opus of Diogenes Teufelsdröckh, a German philos

Carlyle speaks through the mouth of Teufelsdröckh; the views ex

REWARD 661. 4. Brahmins, Antinomians, Spinning

Dervishes. Brahmins are members of the highest social order, or caste, among the Hindoos; Antinomians, a sect of heretics originating in Germany about 1535; Spinning Dervishes, Mohammedan fanatics whose chief claim to sanctity is based


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on their ability to whirl round like human

tops. 661. 37. Shovel-hat. A particular sort of hat

worn by the English clergy. Talfourd-
Mahon Copyrights. A bill passed in 1842
guaranteeing the author's copyright for
forty-two years.
68. Kepler calculations, Newton medita-
tions. Johann Kepler (1571-1630), was
a famous German astronomer; Sir Isaac
Newton (1642-1727), the author of the
Principia, was one of the world's greatest

mathematicians. 652. 106. Mayfair. A fashionable residence

district in London.
124. The sad and true old Samuel. Per-
haps Carlyle has in mind Samuel John-
son's statement: “I have been an idle
fellow all my life.” See line 1970, selec-
tions from Boswell's Life, this volume.
133. My Corn-Law friends. The “ Corn-

imposed high duties on grains
imported into England. They were
abolished in 1846.
140. St. Stephen's. The Parliament
159. Owen's Labor-bank. Robert Owen
(1771-1858), a British social reformer,
undertook to improve the condition of
English laborers, through the establish-
ment of small “ideal communities," in-
cluding co-operative banks and stores.
168. Downing Street. Many of the
offices of the British government are in

Downing street. 663. 261. Manes. The souls of the dead, con

sidered as gods of the lower world.
268. Acheron. One of the four rivers of
the classical Hades.
270. Dante. The greatest of all Italian
poets (1265-1321). The quotations are
from his Divine Comedy.
278. Se tu segui, etc. If thou followest
thy star.”
287. Eccovi l'uom, etc. “ Behold the
man who has stood in Hell.”
288. As poet Dryden says. See Absalom
and Achitophel, II. 79-80.
295. Eurydice from Tartarus. See note

on L'Allegro, l. 150. 664. 313. Lath-and-plaster hats. A method of

advertising then practiced in London.
318. Law-wards. Carlylese for Lords,
etymologically incorrect. Anglo-Saxon
hlafweard means guardian of the loaf,
the bread, not of the law.
334. In a Great Taskmaster's eye. An
adaptation from the last line of Milton's
sonnet On His Having Arrived at the Age
of Twenty-three. See p. 152:
341. Galvanism. Electricity.
344. Midas-eared. King Midas, whose
touch converted any object into gold, had
the ears of an ass.
352. Plugson of Undershot. The typical
British manufacturer, to whom Carlyle
had devoted a previous chapter in Past
and Present. Taillefer of Normandy.


BATTLE OF DUNBAR 656. The battle was fought September 3 (13),

1650. Cromwell's army was suffering from
want of food; had Leslie and the Scots
remained on Doon Hill, it is probable that
Cromwell would have withdrawn by sea.
9. Lambert. John Lambert (1619-1683),
Cromwell's second-in-command; one of
the most successful of the Parliamentary
11. Lesley. David Leslie, afterwards
Lord Newark (d. 1682), commander of
the Scottish forces. He had previously
fought with Cromwell against Charles I.
27. Committee of Estates. The govern-
ing committee, in charge of the whole
31. Bishop Burnet. Gilbert Burnet
(1643-1715), Bishop of Salisbury; best

known for his History of His Own Time. 666. 79. Monk. George Monk, first Duke of

Albermarle (1608-1670), Parliamentary
commander during the Civil War, com-
mander of a brigade at Dunbar; later
influential in securing the restoration of
Charles II.
123. Major Hodgson. John Hodgson
(d. 1684), serving in Lambert's regiment.
His Memoirs give the best contemporary
account of the battle of Dunbar.
124. A Comet.

The lowest grade of commissioned officer in the British cavalry; the grade is now extinct.

RUSKIN MODERN PAINTERS: SUNRISE AND SUNSET From chapter 4, “ Of Truth of Clouds," (Part II, section 3, of entire work). Ruskin is arguing that Turner has been more true in his representations of nature than others with whom he is compared; the omitted portions, indicated in the text, are repetitions of the question

“Has Claude given this?” 667. 14. Atlantis. À mythical city lost be

neath the waves of the Atlantic. 668. 126. Who has best delivered this His

message? Ruskin's answer is, of course, Turner.

THE TWO BOYHOODS Part IX, chapter 9; the entire chapter is reprinted. 5. Giorgione. Italian painter (14771510), born at Castel-franco.

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