« AnteriorContinuar »
at Calais, 30 miles from its mouth. 6. The St. John river rises a liitle north of Chesuncook lake, and after passing through three great lakes, runs in a northeasterly course for some distance, and then, turning to the southeast, enters New-Brunswick, and discharges itself into the bay of Fundy. With the exception of iwo places, where there are short portages, it is navigable for boats from its mouih to its source, a distance of more than 300 miles,
Face of the Country. An extensive district in the northwestern and central parts of the state lying around ihe head waters of the Kennebeck, Penobscot and St. John is mountainous, and some of the summits are very losty, particularly Katahdin, situate i 80 miles north of Bangor, and supposed by some to be the highest land in the United States. The rest of the state is generally hilly, and the hills diminish in height on every side as you recede from the mountains. In the southwestern parts are extensive plains.
Climate.] In all parts of Maine the air is pure an: salubrivus. The summers in most parts of the state are favorable in the growth of all the vegetable productions of the northern states. lo some parts, however, Indian corn, and the plants of a more tender kind, which require a great and uniforin ilegree otheat, are frequently injured, and sometimes destroyed by untimely frosis. In the winter the snow covers the ground to a considerable depth and continues, in some parts, two months, and in others four and erea five. In the interior, the temperature, both in summer and winter, is much more uniform than on the sea coast.
Soil and Productions.] The southwestern part of the state, and the tract of country along the sea coast from 10 to 20 miles wide, is generally poor, though in some places tolerably fertile. The land on the Kennebeck and between that river and the Penobscot is excellent. East of the Penobscot it is less productive. The mountainous tract in the northwest has a poor soil. The lands on St. John's river and its numerous branches are said to be very fertile, but this part of the state is not yet settled. The principal productions are grass, Indian corn, wheat, barley, rye, flax, &c.
Chief Towns.) Portland, the capital, is situated on a peningula in Casco bay 118 miles N. N. E. of Boston. The harbor is safe, easy of access, and seldom frozen over, but is not large, and requires considerable fortifications for its protection. The town is by far the most considerable in the state in population, wealth and commerce, and is connected with an extensive and growing back country. In 1815, it was the eighth town in the United states in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 30,417. The population, in 1820, was 8,581.
Brunswick, the seat of Bowdoin college, is 30 miles north-east of Portland, on the Androscoggin, at the falls, which furnish here many valuable seats for mills and manufactories. The population of the town in 1820 was 2,931.
Buth is on the western side of Kennebeck river, at the head of winter navigation, 12 miles from the sea, and 35 miles N. E. of
Portland. More shipping is owned bere than in any other lown in Maine except Portland; the number of tons in 1815 being 20,627. Population, in 1820, 3,026. Wiscasset is 14 miles N. E. of Bath. The harbor is safe, capacious, easy of access, and open at all seasons of the year. A large amount of shipping is owned bere. The number of tons, in 1815, was 18,429. Population, in 1820, 2,131. Waldoborough, 22 miles east of Wiscas. set, has a large amount of shipping, employed principally in the coasting trade. Population, in 1820, 2,448.
Cestine is important principally as a military position. It is situated on a promontory, nearly at the head of the east side of Penobscot bay. The harbor is excellent for any number of ships of the largest size, and is accessible at all seasons of the year. The town has great strength from its natural situation. From the narrowness of the isthmus wbich connects it with the main, it could be insulated without much labor or expense ; and this mode of defence, in addition to strong batteries, would enable it to resist any force which would probably be brought against it. An enemy in possession of Castine and having the control on the water, commands the whole country between the Penobscot and the St. Croix. This place was taken by the British during the late war, but was restored on the return of peace. Population, in 1820, 975.
Bangor is a flourishing town, 35 miles north of Castine, on the west side of the Penobscot, at the head of navigation. Population, in 1820, 1,221. Machias, situated on a bay of the same dame, 40 miles W. S. W. of Eastport, is a thriving town, and carries on considerable trade, principally in lumber. There are 26 saw-mills within the town, which cut on an average, upwards of 10,000,000, feet of boards in a year. Lubec is situated at the S. E. extremity of the state, on a peninsula, on the west side of Passamaquoddy bay, at the entrance. It is a new town, commenced in 1815, and is well situated for commerce. It has an excel. lent harbor and considerable trade. Population, in 1820, 1430. Eastport, on Moose island in Passamaquoddy bay, 4 miles N. N. W. of Lubec, is favorably situated for commerce. Population, in 1820, 1,937.
York is an ancient towo, on the coast, near the southwest extremity of the state. Population, in 1320, 3,224. Saco at the mouth of the river of the same name, is well situated for trade and manufactures. The principal village is at the falls, which furnish numerous sites for mills and manufacturing establishments. Population, in 1820, 2,532.
Hallowel is a flourishing town on Kennebeck river, 40 miles from its mouth, at ihe head of the tide, in the midst of a fertile country. The river is navigable to this place for vessels of 150 tung. Within a few years the town has increased very rapidly, and is now one of the most waelthy and Aourishing places in Naine. Population, in 1820, 2,919. Augusta, on the Kennebeck, 2 miles above Hallowell
, has 2,457 inhabitants. Vessels of 100 tops
ascend to this place. The most flourishing towns on the Kennebeck above Augusta, are Vassalborough, Wuterville and Norrigewock.
Population.] The population in 1790 was 96,540; in 1800, 151,719; in 1810, 228,705 ; and in 1820, 298,335, baving more than trebled in 30 years. The most populous parts of the state are on the sea-coast and the Kennebeck river. The northern half of the state is as yet uninhabited, and almost unexplored. There is so much vacant, fertile land that the population will probably increase rapidly for many years.
Education.) Bowdoin college, in Brupswick, was incorporated in 1794. In 1822 it had a Presideot and 4 professors, including 2 medical professors ; tutors ; 167 students, including 49 medical students; a complete philosophical apparatus, and a library of about 5,000 volumes. The buildings are pleasantly situated on an elevated plain, commanding a view of the Androscoggin and the adjacent country. The college was endowed by the legislature of Massachusetts with five townships of land, and the sum of 3,000 dollars annually, in money. Since the separation of Maine from Massachusetts the legislature of the new state has continued the annual grant. The principal private benefactor of the college was the late Hon. James Bowdoin, whose donations amounted to 10,000 dollars.
The Maine charity school at Bangor was incorporated in 1814. Its object is to educate young men for the ministry in a shorter time than is usual at other seminaries. The course of study is completed in four years. The qualifications for admission are a knowledge of the English and Latin grammar, and some acquaintance with the Latin classics. The founders of the institution propose by an abridgement of the term of study to fornish religions instructors, at a moderate expense, sufficiently qualified for the services required in new settlements. The school is under the direction of two professors and a preceptor, and in 1819 had 19 students.
A Literary and Theological institution, under the direction of members of the Baptist denomination, has been established at Waterville, on the Kennebeck. It was opened in 1818 with 12 or 15 theological students. Common schools are supported by law in every town in the state.
Religion.] The Congregationalists and Baptists are the prevailing denominations. They have each more than 100 churches.
Government.] Maine was formerly united with Massachusetts under the same government, but in 1820, by a mutual agreement, the union was amicably dissolved, and Maine, after adopt-, ing a republican constitution, was erected into an independent state and admitted into the Union.
Commerce.] large portion of the state is yet covered with forests, and hence lumber at present is the great article of export. It is brought down all the principal rivers in large quana, Hities. The other articles of export are tish, potash, beef and
pork. Maine is fnely situated for commerce. It has an extensive sea-coast abounding with good harbors, and the numerous rivers which intersect it afford an easy communication with the interior dis supply of lumber, and of materials for potash, is immense, and its resources in the fisheries are almost inexhaustible. The people are very generally inclined to commercial pursuits, and perhaps no part of the United States suffers so much from re. strictions on commerce. Io amount of shipping it is the fourth state in the Union. The nearest market for the southwestern section of the state is Portland; for the couotry op the Kennebeck, Hallowell; for the country on the Penobscot, Bangor. The natoral market for the northern half of the state, which is yet unsesttled, will be Quebec in Lower Canada, and Frederickton in New-Brunswick.
Islands. The coast abounds with islands and peninsulas. The largest is Mount Desert island on the west side of French. man's bay. li is 15 miles long and 12 broad. Deer isle is on the east side of Penobscot bay, about 8 miles S. E. of Castine.
Situation and Extent.] New-Hampshire is bounded N. by Lower Canada ; E. by Maine; S. E. by the Atlantic; S. by Massachusetts; and W. by the western bank of Connecticut river, which separates it from Vermont. The eastern boundary is Piscataqua river, and a line drawn N. 2° W. from the source of that river, to the highlands which divide the waters falling into the St. Lawrence from those falling into the Atlantic. The stale extends from 42° 41' to 45° 11' N. lat. and from 70° 40' to 72° 28' W. Jon. It is 170 miles long from N. to S. and 90 broad at the southern extremity. The area is estimated at 9,491 square miles or 6,074,240 acres.
Divisions.] New Hampshire is divided into six counties and 204 towns.
Counties. Towns. Pop. In 1810, Pop. in 1820. Chief towns.
37 40,988 45,376 Keene.
35 28,462 32,989 Hanover. Coos,
14 3,991 5,549 Lancaster.
Total, 204 214,460 244,161 Lakes.] Winnipiseogee or Wentworth lake, near the centre of the state, is a beautiful body of water, 22 miles long, and from 3 to 12 miles broad. It contains a number of islands. The sur
open a water communication between Portsmouth and the centre of the state.
Various routes have been proposed for a navigable communication from the Derrimack to the Connecticut. One plan is to 'unite Baker's river with the Connecticut; another, to connect the Contoocook with Sunapee lake ; and a third, to connect the Con. toocook with the Ashnelot.
Chief Towns.) Porthsmouth, the largest town in the state, stands on the south side of Piscataqua river, about two miles from the sea.
The harbor is one of the best in the United States. It is landlocked on every side, and perfectly safe, of sufficient depth for the largest vessels at all times of the tide, and, owing to the rapidity of the current, is never frozen, The main entrance is about a mile wide, and is well defended by two forts. There is an island in the inner harbor, opposite ihe town, on which is a United States navy yard, containing good timber docks, and all The conveniences for building ships of the largest class. Several ships of the line bave been built here. Portsmouth has consider. able trade. In 1815, it was the ninth town in the United States in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 30,41). The population in 1320 was 7,327.
Concord, the capital of the state, is a flourishing town on the Merrimack, at the head of navigation, and well situated for trade. Dlach of the produce of the Upper country is brought here, and passes down the Merrimack river and Middlesex canal to Boston. Among the public buildings are a handsome state-house and stateprison, both of stone. Population, in 1820, 2,838.
Dover is 12 miles N. W. of Portsmouth. The village is at the head of the tide on Cocheco river, 4 miles above its junction with the Piscataqua. It has various mills and manufacturing establishments, and daily communication with Portsmouth by a packet. Population, in 1820, 2871. Exeter is pleasantly situated at the head of the tide on Exeter river, a branch of the Piscalaqua, 15 miles S. W. of Portsmouth, and about the same distance N. W. of Newburyport in Massachusetts. It has numerous manufacturing establishments. Among the public buildings are a court-house and an academy. Population, in 1820, 2,114.
Amherst is a tile west of the Merrimack, near the southern boundary of the state, 30 miles south of Concord. Plymouth is on the Merrimack, at the mouth of Baker's river, 43 miles north of Concord. Keene is a pleasant town in the southwestern part of the state on the Ashuelot, 55 miles S. W. of Concord.
The principal towns on Connecticut river are Walpole, 13 miles N. W. of Keene ; Charlestown, 12 miles N. of Walpole ; Hanover, the seat of Dartmouth college ; Huverhill, 27 miles N. of Hanover; and Bath, adjoining Haverhill, at the head of boat navigation.
Education.) Dartmouth college, at Hanover, was founded in 1769, and received its name from the Earl of Dartmouth, one of its earliest and most generous benefactors. In 1821 it had a pres. ident, 3 professors, including 3 medical professors; 2 tątors; and