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125. 23. Cæsar's. Charles the First's. 120. 15. Coal. I. e., on the Day of Judgment.

24. Through his laurels. In spite of his

royal crown. THE COLLAR

29. His private gardens. Until the out

break of the Civil War Cromwell had 6. In suit. Suing for the favor of a su

lived in retirement. perior.

41. Nature, that hateth emptiness. A 8. Me. For me; an example of the so variant of the well known phrase “ Nature called ethical dative.

abhors a vacuum.22. The attempt to weave a rope of sand 42. Allows of penetration less. Two was a typical example of folly.

bodies cannot occupy the same space.

47. Hampton. It was long believed that CRASHAW: IN THE HOLY NATIVITY OF OUR

Cromwell connived at the flight of LORD GOD

Charles from Hampton Court to Caris122. 91 ff. She sings Thy tears asleep, etc.

brooke Castle in 1647. The stanza offers a typical example of a

57. He. The King. This fine passage conceit." It is thus explained by

has done much to keep the poem alive. Schelling (Seventeenth Century Lyrics):

66. Assured the forced power. Made the “ The Virgin sings to her babe until,

Commonwealth secure.

69. A bleeding head. Pliny tells, in his falling asleep, his tears cease to flow.

Natural History (xxviii. 4), an anecdote ' And dips her kisses in Thy weeping eye,'

of the finding of a head while workmen she kisses lightly his eyes, suffused with tears. Here the lightness of the kiss and

were digging on the Tarpeian hill for the the over-brimming fullness of the eyes

foundation of a temple to Jupiter; the

omen was interpreted as indicating a suggest the hyperbole and the implied metaphor, which likens the kiss to some

prosperous future for Rome.

82. In the republic's hand. Submissive thing lightly dipped into a stream. “She

to the Commonwealth's wishes. spreads the red leaves of thy lips,' i. e., kisses the child's lips, which lie lightly

86. A Kingdom. Ireland.

92. Heavy. I. e., with her prey. apart in infantile sleep, and which are

| 126. 101, 2. Cromwell shall be to France what like rosebuds in their color and in their childish undevelopment. “Mother-dia

Cæsar was, to Italy what Hannibal was.

104. Climacteric. The force that brings monds' are the eyes of the Virgin, bright

about the result at a critical time. as diamonds and resembling those of the child. “Points' are the rays or beams of

106. Parti-colored. Variegated, i. e.,

fickle. There is a play on the word Pict, the eye, which, according to the old

derived from “ pictus,” painted, applied physics, passed, in vision, from one eye

to the ancient Celts who were accusto another. Lastly, the eyes of the child are likened to those of a young eagle, and

tomed to paint their bodies. the Virgin tests them against her own as

111. Lay ... in. To send dogs into

cover. the mother eagle is supposed to test her nestling's eyes against the sun.'


127. “ Written in 1665, when the author, at 123. The idea of this poem suggests Words the age of twenty-eight, had volunteered worth's Intimations of Immortality, and

under the Duke of York in the first Dutch it is probable that Wordsworth was in

war. It was composed at sea the night fluenced by Vaughan.

before the critical engagement in which

the Dutch admiral Opdam was blown up, MARVELL: HORATIAN ODE

and thirty ships destroyed or taken. It

may be considered as inaugurating the 124. Written in 1650 after Cromwell had re

epoch of vers-de-societé.” (E. Gosse, in turned from putting down a rising in Ward's English Poets.) Ireland.

27. Whitehall stairs. The royal palace 126. 15. His own side. In 1647 the Puritan of Whitehall was situated on the bank of party was split between Independents and

the Thames. Presbyterians, the latter advocating the

44. A merry main. To throw a main was immediate disbanding of the army which to cast dice in a game of chance. was largely made up of Independents; Cromwell led the army to London, and forced the Presbyterians to yield.

BROWNE 17–20. An ambitious man makes no dis

HYDRIOTAPHIA tinction between enemies (of an opposing party) and rivals (in his own party),

The Urn-Burial sets out to be an historical and in the case of such a man (“ with account of the methods of dealing with such ”) it is more difficult to restrain

the dead, but turns into a meditation him than to oppose him.

upon the brevity and vanity of the life of man. It was suggested by the digging 130. 205. Lucina. Goddess of childbirth; here

up of some Roman burial urns in Norfolk. equivalent to midwife. 128. io. Sic ego, etc. Thus I should wish to 211. Our light in ashes. “According to

be laid at rest when I am become bones. the custom of the Jews, who place a 20. Considerable. Worthy of considera

lighted wax-candle in a pot of ashes by tion.

the corpse.” (Browne's note.) 24. To retain a stronger propension unto 212. Brother of death. Sleep. them. I. e., such souls clung more 224. To weep into stones. A reference to strongly to the bodies.

the fable of Niobe. 36. Archimedes. The famous Syracusan 131. 257. Mummy is become merchandise. mathematician and physicist of the third A medicinal preparation made, or supcentury B. C.

posed to be made, from mummies, was 37. The life of Moses his man. The life highly regarded in the old medicine. of man as described by Moses, in the so

258. Mizraim. The Biblical name for called Prayer of Moses, the ninetieth

Egypt; Browne seems to use it as symbolic Psalm.

of Egypt's great men. 42. One little finger. “ According to 268. Nimrod. The Hebrew equivalent the ancient arithmetic of the hand, of the Greek Orion. wherein the little finger of the right hand 269. The dog-star. Sirius. contracted, signified an hundred." 274. Perspectives. Telescopes. (Browne's note).

298. Scape. Oversight. 54. Alcmena's nights. Jupiter, in love 309. Sardanapalus. Last king of Aswith Alcmena, mother of Hercules, made syria, who, when his besieged city of one night as long as three.

Nineveh was about to be captured, gath65. What name Achilles assumed. Thetis, ered together his household and treasure mother of Achilles, to prevent him from and burned all, with himself, in his palace. going on the expedition against Troy, 316. Gordianus. An emperor of Rome in had him disguised as a girl; Ulysses pene

the third century. Man of God. Moses, trated the stratagem.

buried by the hand of God; cf. Deu69. Ossuaries. Receptacles for bones.

teronomy, xxxiv: 6. 77. Provincial guardians, or tutelary ob

321. Enoch. “And Enoch was not, for servators. Guardian spirits of the lo

God took him.” Genesis, v: 24. Elias. cality.

Elijah was taken up to heaven in a chariot 83. Pyramidally extant. Known by a of fire; 2 Kings, ii: 1-12. tombstone.

327. Decretory. Established by decree. 93. Atropos. The one of the three Fates 346. Alaricus. King of the Visigoths, who cuts the thread of life.

who captured and sacked Rome in 410; 99. Meridian. The noon, or middle point, he was buried, with vast treasure, in the of the world's existence.

bed of a river. 106. Prophecy of Elias. “That the world 348. Sylla. Roman general and dictator may last but six thousand years.”

(138-78 B. C.) (Browne's note.)

132 357. That poetical taunt of Isaiah. See 107. Charles the Fifth ... Hector. Isaiah, xiv: 16-17. “Hector's fame lasting above two lives of 367. St. Innocent's churchyard. In Paris. Methusaleh, before that famous prince 371. Moles of Adrianus. Hadrian's (i. e.. Charles) was extant.” (Browne's Mole, or tomb, now known as the Castle note.)

of St. Angelo.
115. One face of Janus ... the other.
The past and the future.
1 26. Setting. Declining.

130. 136. The mortal right-lined circle. O,
the character of death.

THE GOOD SCHOOLMASTER 147. Gruter. Jan Gruter (1560-1627), | 133. III. Cockering. Coddling. a continental scholar; author of Inscrip 113. Peculiar. A parish exempted from tiones Antiquæ (1603).

the jurisdiction of the bishop within 157. Cardan. Italian philosopher of the whose diocese it lies; here applied to : sixteenth century.

condition of exemption from the usual 160. Hippocrates. Greek physician (460

regulations. 377 B. C.).

132. De insolenti carnificina. Of the ex164. Entelechia. A word coined by Aris

cessive torture. Conscindebatur ... totle to denote the actual being of a thing singulos. He was lashed with whips seven in distinction to its capacity for being.

or eight times a day. 167. Canaanitish woman. See Genesis, 136. Tusser. Thomas Tusser, an English xlvi: 10.

poetaster of the sixteenth century. 178. Adrian. Hadrian, Emperor of Rome.

143. Udall. Nicholas Udall, headmaster 182. Thersites. A foul-mouthed coward

of Eton 1534-1541; best known as author in the Iliad, where Agamemnon is leader of the first regular English comedy, of the Greek host.

Ralph Roister Doister.

141. 433. Sir Thomas Overbury. Overbury

(1581-1613) is famous in literary history for his Characters, one of which, “ The Fair and Happy Milkmaid,” concludes with the sentence here quoted.

145. Orbilius. The schoolmaster of
Horace, who called him plagosus, the
155. In forma pauperis. On the ground

of poverty. 134. 196. Ascham. An English scholar and

writer of the sixteenth century; tutor
to Elizabeth, and author of Toxo philus,
a treatise on archery, and The School-
master, one on education.
199. Dr. Whitaker. William Whitaker
(1548-1595), master of St. John's Col-
lege, Cambridge; famous as a scholar.
200. Mulcaster. Headmaster of the Mer-
chant Tailors' School, and later of St.
Paul's School.

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THE LIFE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 32. Compurgator. A person who swore to his belief in the innocence of one on trial. 69. A fit of the mother. A pun on the old

meaning of mother-hysteria. 136. 121. Ascham. See note on The Good

Schoolmaster, above.
138. Et si ... pudor. And if that wom-

anly bashfulness of mine. 136. 188. Latter Lammas. This rendering of

Græcas Calendas is explained by the fact
that neither a Greek calends nor a later
Lammas (a church festival on August
first) exists; the latter term was used
ironically for “never."
211. Semper eadem. Always the same.
231. This anagrammatist. Edmund Cam-
pion, an English Jesuit, executed for
treason in 1581.
271. Cordial. Invigorating.


THE COMPLETE ANGLER 137. 1. Piscator. The Complete Angler is

written in the form of dialogue; the chief
characters are Piscator, the Fisherman,
and Venator, the Hunter, who is the pupil.
9. Gesner. Conrad Gesner (1516-1565),
a Swiss naturalist.
36. Mercator. Gerard Mercator (1512-
1594), famous for his contributions to

geographical science. 138. 125. Albertus. Albertus Magnus (1206?

1 280), a scholastic philosopher.
160. History of Life and Death. The

Latin Historia Vitæ et Mortis, 1623. 139. 221. The Royal Society. The Royal So

ciety of London for Improving Natural Knowledge was incorporated 15 July, 1662. See Huxley's essay “On the Necessity of Improving Natural Knowledge,” p. 720.

275. Make a catch. Sing a “round.” 140 337. Kit Marlow. Christopher Marlowe.

Marlowe's song and Raleigh's answer
were both printed in England's Helicon
359. A syllabub of new verjuice. A sort of
custard made of cream and fruit juice.


L'ALLEGRO 146. 2. Cerberus. A three-headed dog, guard

ian of the gateway of Hades.
10. Cimmerian. Cimmeria was a land in
which, according to Homer, the sun never
12. Euphrosyne. Mirth.

29. Hebe. The goddess of youth. 146. 45. Then to come in spite of sorrow. The

passage has been much disputed about.
The interpretation which seems most
satisfactory is that L’Allegro finds pleas-
ure in hearing the song of the lark in the
early morning, and then in coming to the
window to look out through sweet briar
and eglantine, to bid good morrow to the
new day.
67. Tells his tale. Counts his sheep.
83. Corydon, Thyrsis, etc. Conventional
names in pastoral verse.
103. She ... he. Persons who are
telling the stories.
125. Hymen. The god of marriage.
132. Jonson's learned sock. Actors in
classical comedy wore a low-heeled
soccus, or slipper. Jonson's plays were
famous for the scholarly learning they

embodied. 147. 145. Orpheus. According to the Greek

myths, Orpheus was the most wonderful of all human musicians. Pluto consented to let Eurydice return with her husband to the earth, but Orpheus, by looking back to be sure she was following, broke the terms of his agreement with Pluto, and Eurydice remained in Hades. Hence the phrase,“ half-regained.”

IL PENSEROSO 10. Morpheus. The god of sleep. 18. Prince Memnon's sister. "Memnon was a handsome king of the Ethiopians, according to Homer. Milton here assumes

that his sister must have been equally
19. Starred Ethiop queen. Cassiopeia,
transformed into the constellation.
23. Vesta. Goddess of the hearth.
53. Fiery-wheelèd throne. Cf. Ezekiel, x.
55. Hist. Probably an imperative,
“ bring silently”; by another interpreta-
tion it is a past participle, “hushed”,
agreeing with Silence.

59. Cynthia. Goddess of the moon. 148. 87. The Bear. The constellation Ursa

Major, which, in northern latitudes, never
88. Thrice-great Hermes. Hermes Tris-
megistus, a learned Egyptian.
99. Thebes ... Pelops' line ... Troy.
All subjects of Greek tragic poetry.
101. The reference here may be to Shake-
speare's tragedies.
102. Buskined. The buskin was the
high-heeled boot worn by actors in clas-
sical tragedy; opposed to the sock of
L'Allegro, 1. 132.
104. Musæus. A mythical Greek poet,
sometimes called the son of Orpheus.
109. Him that left half-told. The refer-
ence is to Chaucer, who left his Squire's
Tale unfinished.
120. Where more is meant than meets the
ear. Where there is an allegorical mean-
ing. Milton probably had Spenser's
Faerie Queene in mind.
122. Civil-suited. Soberly dressed, like
a citizen.
124. Attic boy. Cephalus, whom Aurora
134. Sylvan. Sylvanus, one of the wood-
land deities.
148. His wings. Sleep's wings.
158. Massy proof. Able to support the
weight resting on them.
159. Storied. With Biblical stories in
stained glass.

by Thracian women, and his head cast

into the river Hebrus. 149. 65. Shepherd's trade. The art of poetry.

68. Amaryllis . . . Neæra. Conventional
pastoral names for women.
75. Blind Fury. Atropos, not one of the
Furies, but the Fate who cuts the thread

of life.
150. 77. Phoebus. The god of poetry.

79. Glistering foil. Glittering tinsel; gold
85. Arethuse. Arethusa, a Sicilian
spring, symbolic of Greek pastoral poetry.
86. Mincius. A stream in Italy, near
which Virgil was born. Vocal. Used for
shepherds' pipes.
88. Oat. Daten pipe; symbolic of pas-
toral verse.
89. The herald of the sea. Triton, son
of Neptune, comes“ in Neptune's plea";
that is, to defend his father.
96. Hippotades. Æolus, god of the winds.
99. Panope. One of the Nereids, or sea-
103. Camus. The genius of the river
Cam, beside which stands Cambridge
104. Sedge. Coarse grass and reeds along
the river bank. .
106. That sanguine flower. The hyacinth,
whose petals the Greeks fancied to be
marked with the word meaning alas.
109. The pilot. St. Peter.
115. The fold. The church.
119. Blind mouths. For an excellent es-
position of the phrase cf. Ruskin's Sesame
and Lilies.
126. Wind and rank mist. False teach-
ings of the unprincipled clergy.
128. The grim wolf. The Roman Catho-
lic Church, which was actively proselyting
at the time.
130. Two-handed engine, Milton has in
mind some instrument of retribution
which will punish the corrupt clergy.
132. Alpheus. A river god, here sym-
bolical of pastoral poetry. Milton here
ends his digression on the state of the
149. Amaranthus. The amaranth, sym-
bolic of immortality.
151. Laureate. Crowned with laurel.
158. The monstrous world. The ocean,
abode of monsters.
160. Bellerus. The Latin name for
Land's End had been Bellerium, and
Milton coins Bellerus as the name of an
imaginary hero after whom the promon-
tory was called.
161. The guarded mount. St. Michael's
Mount in Cornwall, where the Archangel
Michael was said to have appeared.
162. Namancos and Bayona. On the
coast of Spain.
184. In thy large recompense. As a re-
189. His Doric lay. His pastoral song.


Lycidas. A pastoral name, taken from classical poetry. A learned friend. Edward King, a fellow student with Milton at Christ's College, Cambridge. 1. Yet once more. Milton is taking up the writing of poetry after a lapse of a few years since the time Comus was

written. 149. 15. Sisters of the sacred well. The

Muses; the Pierian spring, on Mount
23. Nursed upon the self-same hill. At-
tended the same university. Milton
adopts the poetical convention of repre-
senting his characters as shepherds.
36. Damætas. The reference is possibly
to Milton's college tutor.
54. Mona. The island of Anglesey.
55. Deva. The river Dee.
58. The Muse. Calliope.
62. His gory visage. Orpheus was slain

ON SHAKESPEARE 162. This (so-called) sonnet was written for

the second (1632) folio edition of Shakespeare's works.

TO THE LORD GENERAL CROMWELL 7, 8. Darwen stream, Dunbar field. Scenes of two of Cromwell's victories over the Scots. 9. Worcester's laureate wreath. Cromwell won the decisive victory over Charles II and his Scottish allies at Worcester, 3 September, 1651.

ON THE LATE MASSACRE IN PIEDMONT The Vaudois, or Waldenses, a Protestant people living in the northwestern part of Italy, were subjected in 1655 to a bloody persecution because they refused to ac

cept Catholicism. 163. 12. The triple tyrant. The Pope, who

wears a triple crown.
14. The Babylonian woe. The Puritans
frequently applied the name Babylon to
Rome, alluding to the scriptural account
in Revelation, xvii-xviii.

168. 288. The Tuscan artist. Galileo, whom

Milton met while travelling in Italy.
289. Fesole. Fiesole, a hill near Florence.
290. Valdarno. The valley of the Arno.
303. Vallombrosa. Near Florence, in
Tuscany, the ancient Etruria.
305. Orion. The constellation Orion, or
the Huntsman, supposed to bring foul
307. Busiris. Here meaning the Pharaoh
of the exodus. Memphian. Memphis
was the ancient capital of Egypt.
309. Goshen. The portion of Egypt in

which the Jews resided before the exodus. 169. 341. Warping. Usually explained as

Aying with a bending motion, twisting
from side to side. Perhaps, however, it
describes a progress by short stages, in-
stead of continuous flight, as a ship is
warped into harbor: the locusts advance a
short distance, then settle down, and
after devouring everything green, fly on
to the next vegetation, and so on.
351. A multitude like which the populous
north. Referring to the various invasions
of the Roman Empire by the “bar-
barians” from the north.
392. Moloch. Human sacrifice, par-
ticularly of children, played an important
part in the worship of Moloch.
397-9. Rabba. The capital of Ammon.
Argob, Basan, Arnon. The first two,
districts east of Palestine; the third, a
river emptying into the Dead Sea from
the east.

ON HIS DECEASED WIFE This was Milton's second wife, Catherine Woodcock, who died in childbirth in 1658. 2. Like Alcestis. Alcestis, the heroine of Sophocles's drama, offered her life for her husband, but was rescued by Hercules.

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PARADISE LOST: BOOK I 164. 6. Heavenly Muse. Milton is inventing

a Muse of Hebr.w poetry, and appealing
to her for aid in accordance with the
classical epic formula.
15. The Aonian mount. Mount Helicon,

here symbolizing Greek poetry. 156. 74. As from the center thrice to the ut

most pole. The distance between Heaven and Hell was three times the radius of the world. The diagram opposite represents approximately Milton's conception of the

universe. 156. 129. Seraphim. Plural form; the sera

phim were supposed to be the highest in
rank of all the angels.
167. If I fail not. Unless I am mistaken.
197–201. The fables, etc. According to
Greek mythology the Titans warred on
Saturn, and the giants rebelled against
Jove. Briareos, according to one legend,
was a giant; Typhon, son of Tartarus and
Gaea, was a Titan. Leviathan, the sea
monster of the Bible, was identified with

the whale. 167. 232. Pelorus. A Sicilian promontory

near Mt. Ætna.
266. The oblivious pool. A transferred
epithet; the pool which makes one obliv-

Chaos Hell

After the creation of the World

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