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of man. It was suggested by the digging up of some Roman burial urns in Norfolk.

128. 10. Sic ego, etc. Thus I should wish to be laid at rest when I am become bones. 20. Considerable. Worthy of consideration.

24. To retain a stronger propension unto them. I. e., such souls clung more strongly to the bodies.

129. 36. Archimedes. The famous Syracusan mathematician and physicist of the third century B. C.

37. The life of Moses his man. The life of man as described by Moses, in the socalled Prayer of Moses, the ninetieth Psalm.

42. One little finger. "According to
the ancient arithmetic of the hand,
wherein the little finger of the right hand
contracted, signified an hundred."
(Browne's note).

54. Alcmena's nights. Jupiter, in love
with Alcmena, mother of Hercules, made
one night as long as three.
65. What name Achilles assumed. Thetis,
mother of Achilles, to prevent him from
going on the expedition against Troy,
had him disguised as a girl; Ulysses pene-
trated the stratagem.
6g. Ossuaries. Receptacles for bones.
77. Provincial guardians, or tutelary ob-
servators. Guardian spirits of the lo-

83. Pyramidally extant . Known by a

93. Atropos. The one of the three Fates who cuts the thread of life. 99. Meridian. The noon, or middle point, of the world's existence. 106. Prophecy of Elias. "That the world may last but six thousand years." (Browne's note.)

107. Charles the Fifth . . . Hector."Hector's fame lasting above two lives of
Methusaleh, before that famous prince
(i. e., Charles) was extant." (Browne's

115. One face of Janus . . . the other.
The past and the future.
126. Setting. Declining.

130. 136. The mortal right-lined circle. 0, the character of death.

147. Gruter. Jan Gruter (1560-1627),
a continental scholar; author of Inscrip-
tiones Antiques (1603).
157. Cardan. Italian philosopher of the
sixteenth century.

160. Hippocrates. Greek physician (460-
377 B. C.).

164. Entelechia. A word coined by Aris-
totle to denote the actual being of a thing
in distinction to its capacity for being,
167. Canaanitish woman. See Genesis,
xlvi: 10.

178. Adrian. Hadrian, Emperor of Rome.
182. Thersites. A foul-mouthed coward
in the Iliad, where Agamemnon is leader
of the Greek host.

130. 205. Lucina. Goddess of childbirth; here equivalent to midwife.

211. Our light in ashes. "According to the custom of the Jews, who place a lighted wax-candle in a pot of ashes by the corpse." (Browne's note.)

212. Brother of death. Sleep.

224. To weep into stones. A reference to the fable of Niobe.

131. 257. Mummy is become merchandise.
A medicinal preparation made, or sup-
posed to be made, from mummies, was
highly regarded in the old medicine.
258. Mizraim. The Biblical name for
Egypt; Browne seems to use it as symbolic
of Egypt's great men.

268. Nimrod. The Hebrew equivalent
of the Greek Orion. 269. The dog-star. Sirius.
274. Perspectives. Telescopes.
298. Scape. Oversight. 309. Sardanapalus. Last king of As-
syria, who, when his besieged city of
Nineveh was about to be captured, gath-
ered together his household and treasure
and burned all, with himself, in his palace.
316. Gordianus. An emperor of Rome in
the third century. Man of God. Moses,
buried by the hand of God; cf. Deu-
teronomy, xxxiv: 6.

321. Enoch. "And Enoch was not, for
God took him." Genesis, v: 24. Elias.
Elijah was taken up to heaven in a chariot
of fire; 2 Kings, ii: 1-12.
327. Decretory. Established by decree.
346. Alaricus. King of the Visigoths,
who captured and sacked Rome in 410;
he was buried, with vast treasure, in the
bed of a river.

348. Sylla. Roman general and dictator

132. 357. That poetical taunt of Isaiah. See Isaiah, xiv: 16-17.

367. St. Innocent's churchyard. In Paris. 371. Moles of Adrianus. Hadrian's Mole, or tomb, now known as the Castle of St. Angelo.



133. in. Cockering. Coddling.

113. Peculiar. A parish exempted from
the jurisdiction of the bishop within
whose diocese it lies; here applied to a
condition of exemption from the usual

132. De insolenti carnificina. Of the ex-
cessive torture. Conscindebatur . . .
singulos. He was lashed with whips seven
or eight times a day.
136. Tusser. Thomas Tusser, an English
poetaster of the sixteenth century.
143. Udall. Nicholas Udall, headmaster
of Eton 1534-1541; best known as author
of the first regular English comedy,
Ralph Roister Doister.

145. Orbilius. The schoolmaster of Horace, who called him plagosus, the flogger.

155. In forma pauperis. On the ground of poverty. 134. 196. Ascham. An English scholar and writer of the sixteenth century; tutor to Elizabeth, and author of Toxophilus, a treatise on archery, and The Schoolmaster, one on education.

199. Dr. Whitaker. William Whitaker (1548-1595), master of St. John's College, Cambridge; famous as a scholar. 200. Mulcaster. Headmaster of the Merchant Tailors' School, and later of St. Paul's School.


32. Compurgator. A person who swore to his belief in the innocence of one on trial. 69. A fit of the mother. A pun on the old meaning of mother—hysteria. 136. 121. Ascham. See note on The Good Schoolmaster, above.

138. Et si . . . pudor. And if that womanly bashfulness of mine.

136. 188. Latter Lammas. This rendering of Groxas Calendas is explained by the fact that neither a Greek calends nor a later Lammas (a church festival on August first) exists; the latter term was used ironically for " never."

211. Semper eadem. Always the same.
231. This anagrammatist. Edmund Cam-
pion, an English Jesuit, executed for
treason in 1581.
271. Cordial. Invigorating.



137. i. Piscator. The Complete Angler is written in the form of dialogue; the chief characters are Piscator, the Fisherman, and Venator, the Hunter, who is the pupil. 9. Gesner. Conrad Gesner (1516-1565), a Swiss naturalist.

36. Mercator. Gerard Mercator (15121594), famous for his contributions to geographical science.

138. 125. Albertus. Albertus Magnus (1206?1280), a scholastic philosopher.

160. History of Life and Death. The Latin Historia ViUe et Mortis, 1623.

139. 221. The Royal Society. The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge was incorporated 15 July, 1662. See Huxley's essay "On the Necessity of Improving Natural Knowledge," p. 720.

275. Make a catch. Sing a "round."

140. 337. Kit Marlow. Christopher Marlowe. Marlowe's song and Raleigh's answer were both printed in England's Helicon (1600).

359. A syllabub of new verjuice. A sort of custard made of cream and fruit juice.

141. 433. Sir Thomas Overbury. Overbury (1581-1613) is famous in literary history for his Characters, one of which, "The Fair and Happy Milkmaid," concludes with the sentence here quoted.



142. The selection is section 2 of Chapter i, with the omission of one paragraph.

143. 89. Escurial. The royal palace in Madrid. 94. Where . . . interred. Westminster Abbey.

141. Thyades. Women who celebrated the Bacchic orgies.

144. 165. Chrisom-child. Newly baptized child.

171. Squinancy. Quinsy.

185. Calends. The first day of the month.



146. 2. Cerberus. A three-headed dog, guard-
ian of the gateway of Hades.
10. Cimmerian. Cimmeria was a land in
which, according to Homer, the sun never

12. Euphrosyne. Mirth.
29. Hebe. The goddess of youth.

146. 45. Then to come in spite of sorrow. The passage has been much disputed about. The interpretation which seems most satisfactory is that L'Allegro finds pleasure in hearing the song of the lark in the early morning, and then in coming to the window to look out through sweet briar and eglantine, to bid good morrow to the new day.

67. Tells his tale. Counts his sheep.

83. Corydon, Thyrsis, etc. Conventional

names in pastoral verse.

103. She . . . he. Persons who are

telling the stories.

125. Hymen. The god of marriage. 132. Jonson's learned sock. Actors in classical comedy wore a low-heeled soccus, or slipper. Jonson's plays were famous for the scholarly learning they embodied.

147. 145. Orpheus. According to the Greek myths, Orpheus was the most wonderful of all human musicians. Pluto consented to let Eurydice return with her husband to the earth, but Orpheus, by looking back to be sure she was following, broke the terms of his agreement with Pluto, and Eurydice remained in Hades. Hence the phrase, " half-regained."


10. Morpheus. The god of sleep.
18. Prince Memnon's sister. Memnon
was a handsome king of the Ethiopians,
according to Homer. Milton here assumes

that his sister must have been equally beautiful.

ig. Starred Ethiop queen. Cassiopeia, transformed into the constellation. 23. Vesta. Goddess of the hearth. 53. Fiery-wheeled throne. Cf. Ezekiel, x. 55. Hist. Probably an imperative, "bring silently"; by another interpretation it is a past participle, "hushed", agreeing with Silence. 59. Cynthia. Goddess of the moon. 148. 87. The Bear. The constellation Ursa Major, which, in northern latitudes, never sets.

88. Thrice-great Hermes. Hermes Tris-
megistus, a learned Egyptian.
99. Thebes . . . Pelops' line . . . Troy.
All subjects of Greek tragic poetry.

101. The reference here may be to Shake-
speare's tragedies.

102. Buskined. The buskin was the
high-heeled boot worn by actors in clas-
sical tragedy; opposed to the sock of
VAllegro, 1. 132.

104. Musaeus. A mythical Greek poet,
sometimes called the son of Orpheus.
109. Him that left half-told. The refer-
ence is to Chaucer, who left his Squire's
Tale unfinished.

120. Where more is meant than meets the
ear. Where there is an allegorical mean-
ing. Milton probably had Spenser's
Faerie Queene in mind.
122. Civil-suited. Soberly dressed, like
a citizen.

124. Attic boy. Cephalus, whom Aurora

134. Sylvan. Sylvanus, one of the wood-
land deities.
148. His wings. Sleep's wings.

158. Massy proof. Able to support the
weight resting on them.

159. Storied. With Biblical stories in stained glass.


Lycidas. A pastoral name, taken from classical poetry. A learned friend. Edward King, a fellow student with Milton at Christ's College, Cambridge, i. Yet once more. Milton is taking up the writing of poetry after a lapse of a few years since the time Comus was written. 149. 15. Sisters of the sacred well. The Muses; the Pierian spring, on Mount Helicon.

23. Nursed upon the self-same hill. At-
tended the same university. Milton
adopts the poetical convention of repre-
senting his characters as shepherds.
36. Damcetas. The reference is possibly
to Milton's college tutor.

54. Mona. The island of Anglesey.
55. Deva. The river Dee. 58. The Muse. Calliope.

62. His gory visage. Orpheus was slain

by Thracian women, and his head cast into the river Hebrus. 149. 65. Shepherd's trade. The art of poetry. 68. Amaryllis . . . Neaera. Conventional pastoral names for women. 75. Blind Fury. Atropos, not one of the Furies, but the Fate who cuts the thread of life. 160. 77. Phoebus. The god of poetry.

79. Glistering foil. Glittering tinsel; gold leaf.

85. Arethuse. Arethusa, a Sicilian spring, symbolic of Greek pastoral poetry.

86. Mincius. A stream in Italy, near which Virgil was born. Vocal. Used for shepherds' pipes.

88. Oat. Oaten pipe; symbolic of pastoral verse.

89. The herald of the sea. Triton, son of Neptune, comes " in Neptune's plea"; that is, to defend his father. 96. Hippotades. ^Eolus, god of the winds. 99. Panope. One of the Nereids, or seanymphs.

103. Camus. The genius of the river Cam, beside which stands Cambridge University.

104. Sedge. Coarse grass and reeds along
the river bank.

106. That sanguine flower. The hyacinth,
whose petals the Greeks fancied to be
marked with the word meaning alas.
109. The pilot. St. Peter.
115. The fold. The church.
119. Blind mouths. For an excellent ex-
position of the phrase cf. Ruskin's Sesame
and Lilies.

126. Wind and rank mist . False teach-
ings of the unprincipled clergy.
128. The grim wolf. The Roman Catho-
lic Church, which was actively proselyting
at the time.

130. Two-handed engine. Milton has in
mind some instrument of retribution
which will punish the corrupt clergy.
132. Alpheus. A river god, here sym-
bolical of pastoral poetry. Milton here
ends his digression on the state of the

161. 149. Amaranthus. The amaranth, sym-
bolic of immortality.
151. Laureate. Crowned with laurel.
158. The monstrous world. The ocean,
abode of monsters.

160. Bellerus. The Latin name for Land's End had been Bellerium, and Milton coins Bellerus as the name of an imaginary hero after whom the promontory was called.

161. The guarded mount. St. Michael's Mount in Cornwall, where the Archangel Michael was said to have appeared.

162. Namancos and Bayona. On the
coast of Spain.

184. In thy large recompense. As a re-
189. His Doric lay. His pastoral song.


162. This (so-called) sonnet was written for the second (1632) folio edition of Shakespeare's works.


7, 8. Darwen stream, Dunbar field. Scenes of two of Cromwell's victories over the Scots.

o. Worcester's laureate wreath. Cromwell won the decisive victory over Charles II and his Scottish allies at Worcester, 3 September, 1651.


The Vaudois, or Waldenses, a Protestant people living in the northwestern part of Italy, were subjected in 1655 to a bloody persecution because they refused to accept Catholicism.

163. 12. The triple tyrant The Pope, who wears a triple crown.

14. The Babylonian woe. The Puritans frequently applied the name Babylon to Rome, alluding to the scriptural account in Revelation, xvii-xviii.


This was Milton's second wife, Catherine Woodcock, who died in childbirth in 1658. 2. Like Alcestis. Alcestis, the heroine of Sophocles's drama, offered her life for her husband, but was rescued by Hercules.


164. 6. Heavenly Muse. Milton is inventing a Muse of Hebrew poetry, and appealing to her for aid in accordance with the classical epic formula.

15. The Aonian mount. Mount Helicon, here symbolizing Greek poetry.

166. 74. As from the center thrice to the utmost pole. The distance between Heaven and Hell was three times the radius of the world. The diagram opposite represents approximately Milton's conception of the universe.

166. 129. Seraphim. Plural form; the seraphim were supposed to be the highest in rank of all the angels. 167. If I fail not. Unless I am mistaken. 197-201. The fables, etc. According to Greek mythology the Titans warred on Saturn, and the giants rebelled against Jove. Briareos, according to one legend, was a giant; Typhon, son of Tartarus and Gaea, was a Titan. Leviathan, the sea monster of the Bible, was identified with the whale.

167. 232. Pelorus. A Sicilian promontory near Mt. /Etna.

266. The oblivious pool. A transferred epithet; the pool which makes one oblivious.

168. 288. The Tuscan artist. Galileo, whom Milton met while travelling in Italy.

289. Fesole. Fiesole, a hill near Florence.

290. Valdarno. The valley of the Arno. 303. Vallombrosa. Near Florence, in Tuscany, the ancient Etruria.

305. Orion. The constellation Orion, or the Huntsman, supposed to bring foul weather.

307. Busiris. Here meaning the Pharaoh of the exodus. Memphian. Memphis was the ancient capital of Egypt. 309. Goshen. The portion of Egypt in which the Jews resided before the exodus. 169. 341. Warping. Usually explained as flying with a bending motion, twisting from side to side. Perhaps, however, it describes a progress by short stages, instead of continuous flight, as a ship is warped into harbor: the locusts advance a short distance, then settle down, and after devouring everything green, fly on to the next vegetation, and so on. 351. A multitude like which the populous north. Referring to the various invasions of the Roman Empire by the "barbarians " from the north. 392. Moloch. Human sacrifice, particularly of children, played an important part in the worship of Moloch. 397-9. Rabba. The capital of Ammon. Argob, Basan, Anion. The first two, districts east of Palestine; the third, a river emptying into the Dead Sea from the east.

[graphic][merged small]

169. 403. Opprobrious hill. The Mount of Olives, where Solomon built a temple to Moloch.

404, 5. Hinnom. A valley south of the
Mount of Olives. Tophet, Gehenna.
Synonyms for hell. Gehenna means, lit-
erally, " Valley of Hinnom."
406. Chemos. A god of the Moabites.

160. 411. The Asphaltic pool. The Dead Sea. 420. The brook that parts. The river Besor.

422. Baalim and Ashtaroth. Phoenician
gods, here used in the plural form for
deities of the sun and moon.
438. Ashtoreth. Goddess of love, corre-
sponding to the Aphrodite of the Greeks.
444. That uxorious king. Solomon.
446. Thammuz. Corresponding to the
Greek Adonis, slain by a wild boar.
450. Adonis. A river in Phoenicia whose
water is reddened by the soil through
which it flows.

455. Ezekiel. See Ezekiel, viii: 14.
462. Dagon. A Philistine deity; see
.- Samuel, v.

464-6. Azotus . . . Gaza. Philistine

471. A leper, etc. See 2 Kings, v.
478. Osiris, Isis, Orus. Egyptian gods.

161. 484. The calf in Oreb. See Exodus, xii: 35-6, and xxxii: 4. The rebel King. Jeroboam; see i Kings, xii: 28-9.

488. Equalled with one stroke. See Exodus, xii: 29.

490. Belial. Milton's personification of wickedness.

495. As did Eli's sons. See / Samuel, ii: 12-17.

502, 3. Sodom, Gibeah. See Genesis, xix; Judges, xix.

508. Ionian. Greek. Of Javan's issue. By the descendants of Javan (Noah's grandson). The account of the supplanting of Titan by Saturn, who was in turn deposed by Jove, is the accepted classical myth.

519. Doric. Greek.

520. Adria. The Adriatic Sea. Hesperian. Western; i. e., of Italy.

550. Dorian mood. Martial music like that of the Spartans.

162. 573. Since created man. Since man was created.

575, 6. That small infantry Warred on by cranes. The battle between the pygmies and the cranes, to which Homer refers at the beginning of the third book of the Iliad.

577. Phlegra. On the west coast of Italy, where gods and giants fought a great battle.

580. Uther's son. King Arthur, hero of many romances.

583-7. Aspramont . . . Fontarabbia. The names are those of places mentioned in mediaeval romances describing conflicts between Christians and Saracens.

Charlemain and all his peerage. Charlemagne and his twelve knights are the heroes of the Chanson de Roland, which gives an account of their defeat in the pass of Roncesvalles, not far from Fontarabbia.

163. 674. The work of sulphur. It was formerly believed that ores could not exist independent of sulphur.

678. Mammon. God of riches.

164. 720. Belus, Serapis. The first an Assyrian god, the second an Egyptian. 728. Cressets. Hanging iron vessels, open at the top, containing a burning illuminant.

737. Orders. The nine ranks of angels in the celestial hierarchy.

738. His name. Hephaestus, the Greek god of fire; analogous to the Latin Vulcan.

739. Ausonian land. Italy.

166. 756. Pandemonium. "The hall of all the devils." Milton coined the word on the analogy of Pantheon, "the hall of all the gods."

769. The Sun with Taurus rides. The sun is in the sign of Taurus, or the Bull, from the middle of April till the middle of May. Cf. Chaucer's Prologue, 1. 7.


2. Ormus. The island of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. 167. 74. That forgetful lake. The lake of liquid fire into which the angels had fallen. 100. At worst on this side nothing. In as bad a condition as we can be and still exist.

168. 152. Let this be good. Granting that absolute annihilation be good. 169. 224. For happy. As regards happiness. 170. 336. To our power. To the extent of our power.

173. 531. The goal. The turning-post in a chariot race.

539. Typhoean rage. Rage like that of
Typhon, who, according to the fables,
was imprisoned beneath a volcano.
542. Alcides. Hercules.

174. 592. Serbonian bog. An Egyptian lake, near the city of Damietta and Mt. Casius.

638. Bengala. Bengal.

639. Ternate and Tidore. Two of the Molucca Islands.

641. Ethiopian. The Indian Ocean. Cape. Cape of Good Hope. 176. 660. Vexed Scylla. Scylla, transformed into a monster like Sin, cast herself into the sea between Italy and Sicily, and became a menace to navigation. 709. Ophiucus. One of the northern constellations.

178. 904. Barca, Cyrene. Cities of northern Africa.

922. Bellona. The Roman goddess of war.

179. 945. Pursues the Arimaspian. The legendary Arimaspians, of Scythia, fought

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