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Seventh stamped a small coin called Dandiprat, and first I read coined Shillings.'
Leake, also, in his Historical Account of English Monies (1748), p. 182, mentions, the same; and the definition of the word in Bailey's Dictionary is, "a small coin made by Henry the Seventh;" but in the reign of that Monarch we do not find mention of any such thing, unless it be possible that the farthing of this reign, in Snelling's Silver Coins, Plate II. fig. 43, being very minute, might be so nick-named.
I have therefore, Mr. Urban, troubled you with the above, in hopes that some of your Correspondents may have it in their power to inform us from what source the words Dandy and Dandiprat may have originated, and if from a Coin, as above hinted, what it was, and whether it had rise in the reign of King Henry the Seventh, or in that of any other of the Kings of England.
HAVE of late paid particular attention to the variation produced in Flowers by planting them in gardens, in a richer soil than what they are accustomed to in a wild state; and I am convinced many popular errors yet remain to be eradicated respecting the causes and extent of this variety in the colour and multiplication of the petals of plants. I shall not, at present, enter into any
discussion respecting the causes, but
merely state a few facts which have fallen under my notice.
In two borders, contiguous to each other, some common garden poppyseeds were scattered. In one of these borders, in which grew an abundance of white flowers, all the poppies (which were double) acquired a whitish colour, and were only tinged with red, while in the other border, containing none but red flowers, all the seeds scattered produced poppies, which, though doubled, produced red flowers. The vulgar opinion is, that the poppies acquired their colours from the other flowers which grew immediately about them. This, however, I disbelieve; but I propose a question: Could the soils be so different, from some accidental mixture, as to produce the variety in colour,
while the soil which produced the whitish-coloured poppies was so favourable to the growth of certain plants with white flowers as to induce them to flourish there? Another popular notion, which I should be glad to see cleared up, is, that by planting many single or wild flowers near double ones, the former will become double? If this be true, it must be by the accidental mixture of the farina.
I should like to know, through the medium of your Miscellany, what is the opinion of botanists generally with regard to the garden-poppy. Is it merely a variety of the white poppy, papaver somniferum? I am inclined to think not; for the white poppy has some essential characteristics, among others the bigness of the capsule, and colour of the seed. It is urged, on the other hand, that the white poppies sown in gardens become variegated, that is, they do not go on sowing themselves as white poppies. But may not this be owing to the white kind not bearing the cold of winter, and the seeds perishing, while the seeds of the garden or variegated poppy remain unhurt, and spring up again in summer?
P.S. I have seen recently many intermediate varieties between the garden and the white poppy; and many seem to have sprung from seeds out of the same capsula.
June 26. ISS Porter, in a late work, speaks
Moretched set of beings which
she says existed in the Southern parts of France in great numbers during the middle ages; she also asserts that they still exist, though not so frequent: to these degraded outcasts she gives the name of Cahets, and describes them as equal in misery to the Parias of the East. An attempt is made to point out their origin, which may be ingenious enough, for any thing I know to the contrary, but until the existence of the Cahets, either in former or in the present times, be ascertained, any explanation of that kind is obviously premature. Pray, Mr. Urban, do have the kindness to unravel this knot, or cut it, if you please, by declaring it a fiction; and you will much oblige,
Yours, &c. A CONSTANT READER.
DParkes delin * 1818. from the original Painting in the Grand Jury Room in the
VICE ADMIRAL BENBOW.
Ir Basire. sc.
Shrewsbury, May 6. S your pages preserve the por
tions of many of the valorous sons of Britain, both naval and military, I wish to add another, in the renowned naval bero Admiral BENBOW. The painting from which I copied the enclosed drawing, (see the Frontispiece to this Volume) is in the grand Juryroom of his native town, presented by his sister Mrs. Eleanor Hind. There is another portrait of him amongst the British Admirals at Hampton Court Palace.
John Benbow was born in a house at Cotton Hill*, Shrewsbury, in the year 1650. His uncle, Thomas Benbow, was Colonel in the service of King Charles I. and was shot at Shrewsbury. John, a younger brother, and father of the Admiral, was also a Colonel in the King's army; but on the ruin of the King's party, after encountering many difficulties, he retired and lived privately during the Usurpation. On the Restoration, being considerably advanced in years, and his affairs having been ruined in consequence of his loyalty, he was glad to accept a small office in the Tower, where he was accidentally found by the King. On his Majesty observing the Colonel, he exclaimed, "My old friend, Col. Benbow! what do you here?" "I have," returned the Colonel," a place of fourscore pounds a year, in which I serve your Majesty as cheerfully as if it brought me in thousands." "Alas!" said the King," is this all that could be found for an old friend at Worcester! Colonel Legge, bring this gentleman to ine to-morrow, and I will provide for him and his family as it becomes me." This promise was not fulfilled; the worthy Benbow, overcome by so sudden a reverse of fortune, set down on a bench, and expired, before the King was well out of the Tower. It does not appear, however, that the gay Monarch took any notice of the son; for, at the age of 15, he is said to have been under the necessity of becoming a waterman's boy, for his immediate subsistence; probably showing an early predilection for that profession, to which he afterwards be
* A view of the house is given in vol. LXXIX. p. 1097.
GENT. MAG. July, 1819.
came so great an ornament. Little is said of him till he was near 30 years of age, when he became master, and, in a great measure, owner, of a ship called the Benbow frigate, employed in the Mediterranean trade. In 1686, an incident occurred, which gave a sudden turn to his fortune, and brought him to serve in the British Navy. Being attacked on his passage to Cadiz, by a Sallée rover, Benbow defended himself, though very inferior in number, with the utmost bravery, till at last the Moors boarded him, but were beat out of the vessel, with the loss of 13 men, whose heads he ordered to be cut off, and thrown into a tub of pork pickle. Upon his arrival at Cadiz, he went on shore, followed by a negro servant, with the Moors' heads in a sack, to be examined by the Magistrates in Cadiz, as the Captain had refused to have his luggage examined by the Custom House officers, asserting that the bag contained only salted provisions for his own use. Upon the Magistrates insisting on seeing the contents, the Captain ordered his servant, Cæsar, to throw them on the table, adding, "I told you they were salt provisions, and, gentlemen, if you like them, they are at your service !" This adventure recommended him to the notice and admiration of Charles II. King of Spain, who not only made him a handsome present, but also wrote a letter to King James II. of England, who, upon his return, gave him the command of a ship in the Royal Navy; but it was not till after the Revolution that he particularly distinguished himself. Benbow, it should be observed, rose to the first offices in the Navy by pure merit, without any court interest, or private intrigue. He signalized himself by several descents upon the French coast, and pursued for some time, the famous Du Bart. He was afterwards sent to the West Indies, where he signalized himself in relieving the British colonies; and, in some disputes with the Spaniards, he maintained the honour of his flag. For these services, on his return home, the greatest respect was shown to him. The closing scene of his naval career was the most important, though the most unfortunate. In 1701, in order, as was said, to disappoint the French
in their views upon the Spanish suc cesion, it was thought necessary, among other arrangements, to send a strong squadron to the West Indies. It was necessary this squadron should be put under the command of a tried and skilful officer, and Benbow was named by the ministry; but the King (William 111.) refused to listen to this, alledging that it would be hard to send that faithful officer to a quarter from which in a manner he had but just returned, and where he had net with so many difficulties. Several officers were accordingly named, but they all contrived to get them selves excused; upon which the King said jocosely to his ministers, "Well, then, I find we must spare our beaus, and send honest Benbow." His Majesty accordingly sent for him, and asked him whether he was willing to go to the West Indies, assuring him at the same time, that if he was not, he would not give offence by desiring to be excused. Benbow, with characteristic bluntness, replied, "he did not understand such compliments, he thought he had no right to choose his station; and if his Majesty thought fit to send him to the East or West Indies, or any other part of the globe, he would with the utmost cheerfulness obey his orders." The com nand of the West India squadron was conferred on the Vice-Admiral, and he departed in October 1701. His squadron consisted of two third-rates, and eight fourths, which was all the force that could then be spared. The strict discipline which he found necesMary for the good of the service, and of which he was an eminent example, created a jealousy and disgust in the minds of several of the Captains under his command. On the 19th of August, 1702, he fell in with the French fleet, off the coast of Carthagena, commanded by M. de Casse, an officer of considerable skill aud bravery. The enemy's force consisted of ten sail, four of them from sixty to seventy guns, one a great Dutch built ship, of forty, another full of soldiers, three small vessels, and a sloop. Had the English Captains behaved as men, the result would have been a glorious era in naval warfare; but five of his vessels out of seven did Dot obey his signals, and the French aquadron, which he must have cap tured if his officers had done their
duty, eluded his grasp. Benbow followed up the French for four days; on the 23d of April he was severely wounded, his right leg being broken by a chain-shot. In this condition he was carried down to be dressed; and while the surgeon was at work, one of his Lieutenants expressing great sorrow at his misfortune, Benbow said, "I am sorry for it too; but I had rather have lost both my legs than have seen this dishonour brought upon the English nation. But, d'ye hear, if another shot should take me off, behave like brave men, and fight it out." As soon as it was practicable, he desired to be carried up, and placed, with his cradle, upon the quarter-deck, and nobly continued the fight; but finding himself absolutely without support, he deter mined to return to Jamaica. When he arrived in Port Royal harbour, Vice-Admiral Benbow ordered, the officers on shore, who had so scandalously misbehaved, and immediately after directed a commission to RearAdmiral Whetstone to hold a courtmartial for their trial, which was accordingly done, and, upon the clearest evidence that could be desired, some of the most guilty were condemned, and suffered according to their de serts. From this time our Admiral's health rapidly declined, partly by the heat of the climate, but more from the grief which this miscarriage occasioned, as appeared by his letters to his lady, in which he expressed much more concern for the condition in which he was likely to leave the public affairs in the West Indies, than for his own. During the whole of his illness, he showed great calmness and presence of mind; giving the necessary directions for stationing the ships of his squadron, for protecting the commerce, and incommoding the enemy. Thus he continued discharging his duty to the last moment. He died November 4, 1702. He was a man so remarkable for temperance, that none of his most intimate ac
quaintance ever saw him disguised in liquor. He was of an undaunted resolution, and intrepidly daring. The name of Benbow is still of great and undiminished popularity in the British Navy.
Benbow seems to have been as much the idol of the people in his time, as Nelson in the late war.