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intended as a present for the sultan. Very high words passed between CoBut wbilst the vessels were still within lonna and Don Carlos Dávalos, who a few miles of the coast, they were commanded a strong body of infantry suddenly destroyed by the explosion on board the Spanish galleys. Doria of their powder magazines, nothing interposed his authority, and ordered remaining of them but a few planks his subordinate to retire, or the quarrel floating on the water. Some histo- might have come to blows. Doria then rians attribute their destruction to required that Colonna should show accident; others, adopting a more him his authority for acting as he did; romantic version, declare it to bave and it soon became evident that the been the work of one of the captives, three powers had made no express a beautiful girl, who preferred death arrangement on the important subject to dishonour. Of the catastrophe of command, but that each pretended there can be no doubt, but its cause to be independent, and even to a right must ever remain uncertain.

of commanding the other two ; whilst, The loss of Nicosia, quickly fol- in the instructions given to the genelowed by that of the whole island, is rals, no provision had been made for attributed by Señor Rosell, with settling the difficulties that could every appearance of reason, and upon hardly fail to spring up from the want the strength of Italian authorities, to of one directing head. Finally, a few the neglect of the Venetians. Had days after the stormy councils, the they, when they first perceived the fleets separated, but met again at hostile intentions of the Turk, em- Candia, whence Doria, the season no ployed a part of their resources to longer allowing of naval operations strengthen and garrison their colo in those seas, departed, early in Ocnies, and especially Cyprus, Selim's tober, for Sicily, with the consent of avowed object, instead of attending Colonna and Zanne, which he had solely to the fitting out of a fleet thought proper to ask out of courtesy. which came too late to save the island, The conduct of the three admirals after they might have retained their valu- the fall of Nicosia, their disputes and able colony. Such was the advice their separation, have given rise to given them by the celebrated Duke of much discussion amongst historical Alba, in a letter dated from Brussels, writers. Señor Rosell vindicates Doria the 31st March 1570, to be found in and casts blame upon Colonna, taxing the appendix to Señor Rosell's work, him with presumption, and with havin which the duke strongly recom- ing, in concert with Zanne, abandoned mends to them to cargar sus plazas, the Spanish fleet. It is not unnatural to supply their fortresses well with that a Spanish writer should take this the best soldiers they have, so tbat view of the question, but he also brings they may gain time—the greatest Italian authorities to his support. The enemy, he says, of those who besiege controversy, however, is not now of strong places-until at last, the num- sufficient interest to be worth dilating bers of the foe being diminished, re- upon in this place. lief may be taken to the besieged. Leaving a garrison in Nicosia, But at the same time he recom- Mustafa laid siege to Famagusta. He mends that the places should be pitched his camp at three miles from so provided as if they never were the town, and daily sent horsemen to to be relieved. It has been seen how ride up to its walls, and to exhibit to little the republic profited by these its inhabitants the heads of the prinwise counsels.

cipal persons killed at Nicosia stuck When the news of the fall of Nicosia upon the heads of lances. Neither Teached the combined fleet, another this bloody menace, nor the fair procouncil of war was held, at which con- mises of which he afterwards was lavtrary opinions were emitted, and some ish, had the slightest effect upon the angry discussion took place. Colonna defenders of Famagusta, who were reattempted to assume the supreme solved, as they afterwards showed, command, and to control Doria, who to fight to the death, and who, in two declared that he acknowledged no sallies, drove the Turks from their superior but Don John of Austria, trenches, destroying, with the guns of captain-general of the Spanish navy. the fortress, three redoubts that they

gary that had fallen under the Moslem yoke, but his treasury was low; he was bound by a truce of eight years, signed with the Grand Seignior, and he could not seriously entertain the proposals of the Venetian ambassador. The conferences were prolonged, many difficulties intervened, and at one time Venice, doubting of a favourable result, and cherishing little hope of alone bringing the war to a successful issue, was near entering into negotiations with the Porte, when Muhammed, the Grand Vizier, jealous of Mustafa's triumph, had persuaded Selim to offer peace to the senate-a principal condition of which would have been the cession of Cyprus by the latter, or at least the payment of a tribute, if they were allowed to retain the island or the town of Famagusta. Before, however, these negotiations had commenced, the Pope, learning that Venice had sent a special envoy to Constantinople, nominally to negotiate an exchange of prisoners, feared some underhand dealings, and despatched Colonna to assure the Doge and senators of his desire to carry out the league, and of his willingness to yield certain points that had proved impediments to its completion. The conferences were resumed, and finally, on the 25th May, a perpetual treaty of alliance against the Turks, and also against the Moors of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, was sworn to, and signed by the th ambassadors, on the part of T Spain, and Venice. Don Austria was appoint ral of the league replace him accident



had thrown up. The reduction of the place not appearing so easy as had been anticipated, Mustafa postponed it until the spring, and went with the fleet in quest of that of the Christians, which he knew from his spies to have separated into two portions. Deprived of the assistance of the Spaniards, the Venetian and Roman squadrons were not in condition to make head against the Turk, the news of whose approach was very unwelcome to them, especially as they had just lost eleven galleys, and had others damaged by a storm at sea. Fortunately, high and contrary winds frustrated Mustafa's design, and he at last changed his plan, and went to winter at Constantinople. Zanne took advantage of his absence to throw a reinforcement of sixteen hundred infantry into Famagusta, and thence went to Corfu, to seek orders from the senate, by whom he was shortly afterwards, either by reason of his ill health, which incapacitated him for the command, or because his conduct of the campaign was disapproved (Señor Rosell says the latter was the cause), removed from his command. It was bestowed upon the proveditore, Sebastian Veniero, who had for his lieutenant Agostino Barbarigo, a man, says Señor Rosell, of singular discretion, and very well beloved by his fellow-citizens. Meanwhile Colonna, passing through many perils, and suffering much damage-including the loss of his own galley, which was struck by lightning and reduced to ashes-at last reached Rome, where, although he arrived with scarcely a shadow of his squadron, he was received with great demonstrations of joy.

Such was the unsatisfactory state of affairs at the close of the campaign of 1570. Meanwhile, Pius V used every exertion to bring al the much- desired league, object was to be the hum the power of the Turk. Co were held at Rome h representatives of King of Spain, an Venice; and Ma was again urged jected alliance have reconqu


tracing the results of the league, we ings were afterwards effected in the must revert for a moment to the Turks islands of Cerigo, Zante, and Cephaand to Famagusta.

lonia, where barbarous cruelties and On the approach of spring, Selim devastations were committed ; and in ordered a numerous fleet to be got the month of July, Uluch Aali entered together, with the purpose of rein- the Adriatic, took two galleys, seized forcing the army in Cyprus, and of upon Dulcino and Antivari, passed by falling upon the Venetian squadrons Curzola, where the women-there bewherever they were to be found. He ing very few men in the place-dressed made various changes. Piali, accused themselves as soldiers, and showed of having suffered the enemy's galleys themselves on the walls, making the to escape in the previous autumn, was Turks believe in the presence of a disgraced, and replaced by Aali Pasha; numerous garrison, and sacked the whilst Perten, an experienced officer, island of Liesena. Venice, beholding took command of the land forces. the enemy so near, whilst her own Uluch Aali, viceroy of Algiers, squadrons remained in shameful inbrought a good number of galleys, and action, was in consternation ; but Hassan Pacha, a son of the celebrated Uluch knew his business too well to Barbarossa, also came with a squad- remain long in the Adriatic, whose ron, so that the fleet altogether was entrance might suddenly be closed to of two hundred and fifty sail. When him, so he rejoined Aali at the mouth this strong force was united, Selim of the Cattaro, and sailed with him gave orders to his captains not to re- to Corfu, to seek intelligence of the main idle a single day, and they im- fleets of the league. mediately attacked various Venetian During the time occupied by this possessions, landing at Canea in Can- daring expedition, Mustafa was busy dia, where, however, they were set at Famagusta. When the middle of apon by the inhabitants as they re- April arrived, and with it weather tired to their ships, and suffered great favourable to military operations, he loss. At Retimo, in the same island, established his camp on the spacious the ferocious Uluch Aali* was more plain, three miles in extent, that insuccessful; for, although repulsed at tervenes between the city and the sea. first by the admirable artillery-prac- This army was very numerous : some tice of about a hundred men who com- writers have stated it at 200,000 posed the garrison, he soon discovered

Serior Rosell estimates it at with how slender a force he had to 80,000, but adds that it is difficult to deal, returned to the assault, and fix its numbers exactly, owing to the sacked and burned the town. Land- great number of adventurers who had


This renegade was born of poor parents, in the Neapolitan province of Calabria, and was brought up as a fisherman and boatman. Captured by a Greek renegade corsair, he for many years pulled an oar in a galley. Having lost his hair from a skin disease, the other Christian slaves affronted him, and would neither eat with him nor row upon the same bench. It chanced one day that a soldier struck him ; he concealed his anger, but vowed revenge, and, as the only means to secure it, he abjured his religion, and became a Mussulman, an act of desperation characteristic of the man, and which was the commencement of his fortune. As a Turk, he rose to be boatswain of a galley, then associated himself with others to arm a brigantine, and finally became one of the principal corsairs in Algiers. He entered the service of Dragut-arraez, lord of Barbary, who sent him to Constantinople in 1560, to solicit assistance from the Grand Seignior. He returned to Africa with Piali Pasha, and assisted at the battle of Gelves, where he highly distinguished himself. Piali took a great liking to him, made him governor of Tripoli, and in the year 1568 obtained for him the regency or sovereignty of Algiers. In the following year, Uluch Aali conquered the city of Tunis for the Turks ; in 1570 he obeyed the summons of Selim to reinforce the Turkish armada with his galleys, and hereafter we shall see him figure as one of the Porte’s principal generals. Further details of his life are to be found in the Epitome de los Reyes de Argel, by Fr. Diego de Haedo, from which we have extracted these particulars.--(Note by Señor Rosell, Historia del Combate naval de Lepanto, &c., pp. 62-3.)

flocked to the spot in hopes of booty. before the eyes of the besieged. On The Turks, in their hyperbolical style, the 21st of June it was sprung with said that if every one of their fighting terrific effect; the whole city rocked, men threw one of his sandals into the wall fell in ruins, an assault was the moat they would fill it up, and given and resisted with equal valour. might walk into the town. The camp. The combat lasted five hours ; five ing ground of this great army was

hundred Italians remained upon the most agreeable. True that the inha- ground, but remained as victors; the bitants had destroyed the gardens and Turks, although five or six times rethe groves of orange and cedar that inforced, were fain to retreat. This before embellished the vicinity, but they triumph redoubled the courage of the had been unable to stop the numerous besieged. Within their shattered wall rivulets that meandered through the they formed a new line of defence, plain, fertilising the soil, and offering composed of casks and bags full of wet delightful refreshment in that burning sand. Two other assaults followed, climate. To defend the town, Astor at intervals of eight and fifteen days, Baglione, the governor, and Marco in the second of which Astor Baglione, Antonio Bragadino, a brave and inde- fighting at the head of his men, fatigable officer, had seven thousand wrenched a Turkish standard from the fighting men, little inured to war, but hands of its bearer. Mustafa was courageous and disciplined.

furious. The wall had fallen, the The besiegers passed a month in ditch was filled, but still the victory fortifying their camp and making their was not his. approaches to the counterscarp. They But the unfortunate besieged, who opened trenches three miles in extent, displayed such heroic courage, were and cut so deep, in some places through now exposed to the horrors of famine. the living rock, that when a man-at- Their provisions expended, they rearms sat on horseback in them, the sorted to the most disgusting aliments; point of his lance was hardly to be dis- these exhausted, their strength failed cerned. Thence their arquebusiers them, though their valour still surincessantly harassed the town. They vived. At last, towards the 20th of also constructed ten forts, of beams, July, the principal citizens represented fascines, and earth, with platforms for to the governor the impossibility of artillery. The besieged, on their part, further defence, and urged him to camade frequent sorties, skirmishing pitulate upon honourable terms. Bagwith the besiegers, interrupting their lione called a council of his captains. works, and habituating themselves to Some of them were for sallying out of those hand-to-hand conflicts which the town and dying with arms in their they afterwards had to maintain on hands; and the result proved that the breaches in their walls. On the theirs was the wisest opinion. But morning of the 19th May, a great others, considering that they had no movement was observed amongst the right thus to leave their fellow-citiTurks, who with fierce shouts waved zens exposed to the fury of the Turks, their lances, pennons, and standards, voted for surrender. The majority and soon seventy-four pieces of heavy coincided, and word was taken to artillery, and four enormous basilisks, Mustafa to send delegates into the thundered against the devoted town. town to arrange terms of surrender. The besieged vigorously replied, This was done ; two Turkish officers causing heavy loss to the enemy, and entered Famagusta, and two Venerendering fifteen of their guns useless; tians went into the enemy's camp: but such was their haste to fire that The terms demanded by the besieged they soon ran short of ammunition, were granted, and on the 4th August and the artillerymen were ordered to the keys were given up to Mustafa, fire no shot without the consent of who received them with signs of joy, their captains. The Turks got pos- lauding the valour of the defenders of session of the ditch and counterscarp, the place, and marvelling especially at and opened several mines. Some of the heroic firmness of Bragadino, these were countermined, but this whom he expressed a wish to see and could not be done to all'; and one speak with that same day. especially, near the arsenal, was made "Accordingly," says Señor Rosell,

"Bragadino, accompanied by Baglione and other captains, all on horseback, and attired in his dress of ceremony, with purple tunic and crimson parasol, betook him to the pasha's tent, with a calm countenance and a tranquil heart, neither fearing any risk nor puffed up by the high praise bestowed upon him. Various discourses passed between Turks and Venetians; but after some time it occurred to Mustafa, or thus he disguised his infernal will, to demand securities for the return of the vessels that were to convey the garrison from the island. Bragadino replied that he was not obliged to give them, because no such condition had been stipulated in the capitulation; and on that pretext, and others no less unjustifiable, the pasha, blind with rage, ordered Baglione, Martinengo, Quirini, and the others, to be taken from his tent, and perfidiously and inhumanly butchered. Bragadino was present at the slaughter of his companions the blood of his friends spurted into his very eyes; from that torment he could not exempt himself. And who can relate the tortures reserved for him? Compelled to carry gabions full of earth, and to kiss the ground when he passed before his tyrant, he dragged out a painful existence until the 17th of August, when, by Mustafa's order, he was flayed alive, and his skin, stuffed with straw, and suspended from the yardarm of a galley, was triumphantly paraded along all their coasts."

The conquest of Famagusta is said to have cost the Turks fifty thousand men, and some of their best officers fell in the course of the siege. Mustafa left twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse to guard the island, and returned to Constantinople, which he entered in triumph, to the great contentment of Selim, and amidst the envy of the courtiers. Famagusta taken, Cyprus had become a Turkish possession. The republic's only hope was now in the fleets of the League.

On the 25th August, Don John of Austria reached Messina, the point of junction of the allied squadrons, where Colonna and Sebastian Veniero anxiously awaited his coming, and where he was received with infinite joy and great magnificence, the streets throng

ed, the windows full of richly-attired ladies, the squares adorned with triumphal arches, columns, inscriptions, and hieroglyphics; the shore crowded with the banners, arms, and plumes of the captains and soldiers of half Europe; by day the thunder of salutes, the rattle of drums, the clang of trumpets, by night illuminations and fireworks. "Such great rejoicing," quaintly remarks Señor Rosell, "could not but be the presentiment of another greater, which Heaven reserved for those who, with lively faith, invoked its holy name." The valiant bastard of Charles V., whose arrival was the signal for a display of enthusiasm which he was soon to justify by his high deeds, was, says Van der Hammer, in his History of Don John of Austria, "of sanguine temperament and lordly presence, somewhat above the middle height, of joyous disposition, and inclined to what was just; quick of wit, and of a good memory. He was very vigorous and strong-so much so that he swam in armour as if he had nothing on him. He was agreeable and courteous, a great respecter of letters and arms, and an excellent horseman. He had a noble, clear, and spacious forehead; his blue eyes were large and lively, with a grave and amorous look; his countenance was handsome, he had little beard, and was of a light and elegant figure." The command reserved for this accomplished and martial prince, who had refused a cardinal's hat to follow the profession of war, was worthy of his high qualities; since the great days of ancient Rome no such fleet had been seen in the Italian waters as that now mustered under his orders. There were more than three hundred vessels, carrying upwards of eighty thousand men, assembled under the banner of the League, in the spacious harbour of Messina. The fighting men amounted to twentynine thousand, including eight thousand of the famous Spanish infantry. The Venetian galleys being thinly manned, Don John ordered Veniero to take on board four thousand Spaniards and Italians, which was done, although not without some opposition and murmuring on the part of the Venetians. Whilst these and other arrangements were making, the Turk

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