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lasting fellowship. We joined them in spirit, prayed for the conversion of the poor blind inhabitants of this country and all lands and nations on earth, for direction in our present difficult circumstances, and for grace to walk as children of God, under the influence of the Holy Spirit. Whenever we partook of the Lord's Supper, we were richly comforted and strengthened, and experienced, that where even only two are met in Jesus' name, He is in the midst of them.

"I must now and then insert some account of the state of Persia, because it throws light upon the subject of our mission.

"December 20th, Adil Shaws' brother, Mirza, made his grand entry into Ispahan, and the king himself could not have been more highly honored. On the 21st, illuminations and bonfires were made upon the Meydan and Tshaarbag, which are the king's gardens. As we were to-day for the first time alone with the resident, we took this opportunity to give him a short account of our church and its views in sending missionaries, and especially in sending us to the Gaures. He observed, that we had done well to apply to him on the subject, as he was able to serve us with some particular information concerning them, and would, if possible, help us to obtain our aim; that the greater part of them lived at Kerman, where they had their principal and best temple: and that the English have also a house there.

"December 22d, we were called in the evening to Hassen Khan, the chief favorite of Mirza. Shach Nadir had ordered his eyes to be put out; but it was not done effectually, and he could see a little. He was troubled with smarting humors in them, for which we told him we might send him some medicines, but as to his eyes and sight, we had no power to restore them. We have been frequently with him, and he seemed thankful for the relief afforded him.—December 24th, Abel

Hassen Khan, who was appointed Beglerbeg of Shiras, sent for us. His eyes were also pierced by Shach Nadir, but having been only partially affected, we could render him more essential service, for which he promised us 600 Thomass, or 1200 rupees. Four days after he set out for Shiras; and as we could not accompany him thither, without losing sight of our first object, we chose rather to remain poor, than become the servants of a Persian prince. They have here an opinion of European physicians far beyond what they deserve. Indeed there is much work for them, for though the air at Ispahan is wholesome, not one person in a hundred is free from disorders arising from a dissolute life.

"December 31st, the king's brother sent the English resident a present of a Persian dress, a turban, and a large shawl to bind round the waist, such as the kings of Persia are used to send to the grandees, or their own relations. On this occasion a feast of three days was held, but every thing was conducted with order and sobriety. Persian music was introduced, which to us appeared rather discordant. In the evening we closed the year in our giving. room, with prayer, praise,and thanks

day of much blessing, and partook "January 13th, 1748, we had a of the holy communion. We regret exceedingly the loss of the books and manuscript accounts from our congregations, of which we had been robbed by the Curdes. Not a line is left us; and if we now and then remember a text or a hymn, that suits our circumstances, we feast upon it, and assist each other in recollecting it.—On the 17th, the interpreter brought us to the king's palace, where we met with many Persians of our caravan, who were glad to see us, and expressed their love for us in kind terms. Two of the ringleaders of the gang which robbed us having been taken with their booty, all of us were called

upon to give in an account of their loss to the Hassan Khan, or Governor. Our interpreter, as we heard afterwards, exaggerated our loss exceedingly. (In the sequel of the narrative, an account is given of the equivocating manner in which, after repeated promises, the restoration of their property was put off from time to time, till they lost all hopes of receiving it.)

"January 23d, we again spoke with the resident concerning our journey to the Gaures at Kerman; but he advised us not to undertake it now, every thing being in the greatest confusion, and the roads extremely unsafe. This was indeed too true, and we were not a little grieved at the present prospect of affairs. Meanwhile the resident took much pains to procure the sum we were reputed to have lost, namely 1200 rupees, or about 150 He applied for it to Mirza, and made use of a stratagem, unknown to us, as we were informed by the interpreter. In January 1747, Nadir Khan had urged him to procure him an European physician, being very ill and given up by the Persian phy, sicians. No European being then in the country, the resident promised to write for one, and now made the Persians believe, that we were the people sent for, who had travelled at their own expence and therefore ought to be reimbursed.

Since there has been so little snow this winter, that the roads are good and the air was growing warmer every day, we spoke again to the resident, and begged him to help us soon to proceed to Kerman, since it was not our purpose to settle at Ispahan. He answered, that he had received letters at the end of last week from Kerman, mentioning the deplorable state of that province, how Shach Nadir, and after him the Afghans, had ransacked and plundered the whole place: that the English house had been entirely plundered and ruined, and now stood empty, and that two Armenians and eight Gaures, who lived in it, had been murdered:

that the Gaures in Kerman, were a good, honest, industrious people, and the best nation in Persia, but most of them have been massacred, or dispersed, and driven away: that those living at Gabeabad were a very poor people, who in the time of Shach Hassein, about the year 1694, were compelled to become Mahometans, and those who would not submit were murdered, and that the town of Gabeabad, which is situated on a hill behind Tulfa, had been called Hassein abad: that the roads to Kerman were even more dangerous on account of numerous gangs of robbers, than those from Shermanchan to Ispahan. This account given us by the resident, which was confirmed from all parts, destroyed at once all our hopes soon to get amongst the Gaures, and filled our hearts with sorrow. We might have settled at Ispahan, and were much encouraged to do so; but we could not believe that it was the will of God, and therefore resolved to return to Europe by way of Bassora and Aleppo. The hopes of soon seeing our brethren again, after so many troubles and dangers, afforded us indeed the most heartfelt pleasure; but when we examined our hearts before the Lord, we were ashamed that we had had too strong a paroxysm of home sickness, and had consulted our own inclinations too much, as a source of comfort, in finding our plan defeated. For we are bound to love and serve our Savior alone, and willingly to sacrifice our all for him, who loved us and gave himself for us. We acknowledged, with repenting tears, our sin and weakness, and devoted ourselves anew to Him.

February 4th, we had a conference together to consider in the presence of God what we should do, after having heard the above account of the Gaures in Kernian. We prayed the Lord to direct us, wishing only to do that which is well pleasing in his sight, and not to follow our own will. We were made willing to suffer all things for his and the Gospel's sake; but after

weighing all circumstances, the result of our deliberations was this: that we should not now go to Kerman, nor remain in any other part of Persia, but return through Bassora to Cairo in Egypt, and there wait an answer to our letters sent to Europe with a proper representa tion of our situation. This resolution we made known to the resident on the 7th. On the 16th, we learnt, that a colony of Gaures had settled at Surat, and should not have been unwilling to go thither in quest of them, could we have obtained more certainty. In the evening we spoke with the French interpreter about the Gaures at Hassein-abad, near Tulfa, and his account was a full confirmation of all the resident had told us. February 25th, it was reported, that Emir Hassein Khan Beglerbeg in Tauris had revolted, and got an army together of bebetween 30 and 40,000 men to go to war with Adil Shaw. On the 29th, Mirza, having arrested Soran Khan, the brother-in-law and favorite of Adil Shaw, and planted the Meidan with cannon, seized on the effects of many Persian nobles. He also engaged the services of several thousand Afghans and Usbeck Tartars, and it was plain that he meant to declare himself king. All Ispahan was in an uproar on this occasion.-March 1st, Mirza sent a messenger to Emir Hassein Khan, at Tauris, to prevail upon him to join his party, and, on the 2d, beheaded Soran Khan. The whole town of Tulfa was laid under contributions, and a rich Armenian from thence kept himself concealed in the resident's house for fear of the collectors. The judgment of God hangs visibly over the Armenians and Greeks, but they will not consider it. They think of nothing but how to get money by merchandise, and are so famous for cheating, that it has become a common proverb here, An Indian cheats a Jew, but an Armenian cheats an Indian.' As to religious matters, they are quite ignorant and stupid, even as to the letter; nei

ther have they any schools among them. In their hearts they are dead as stones; yet they think themselves the best of Christians, because they fast more than the Roman Catholics, and pray more than the Mahometans. They often, in a pharisaical manner, fall on their faces in the streets and mutter some prayers; yet they are so ignorant, that the Mahometans find it easy to make proselytes from among them, and thus whole villages are apostatized. Shach Nadir, who was a scourge to all Persia, was particularly so to the Armenians: he not only drained them of their riches, but treated them in the most cruel manner. The two chief and richest among them, Aradoun and Eminias, he robbed of all their wealth, and afterwards burnt them alive with two Jews and four Indians on the Meidan. Mirza, not having money enough to accomplish his revolt, immediately seized on Tulfa, bastinadoed the Calendar, or Sub-governor, and inflicted divers tortures upon the principal people, whose houses he forced, not even sparing the Armenian monks. On the 3d, he declared himself king, and, on the 5th, sent Selam Beg, whom he had declared Khan, with 10,000 soldiers against Hamadan. It was generally wished that Mirza might soon follow, for no one here was secure from being plundered as long as he staid. At last to the joy of the whole city, he marched out on the 12th, having just before sent a rich present to the English resident. On the 14th, we heard that Kerman was all in an uproar, and that all the roads to Ispahan were blocked up. We could not but feel some perplexity amidst this wild confusion, but remained quiet, and committed ourselves to the Lord.-On the 15th, a Persian messenger arrived from Bassora. We were indeed disappointed in our hopes to receive some accounts from Europe, but were glad of a safe opportunity of sending our letters away. About this time all the shops in Ispahan were shut, and many

people died miserably in the streets for hunger. Mirza wanting money more than troops, ordered that fine place Nashatabad to be pillaged, and the inhabitants of Ispahan were much afraid of experiencing the same fate on his return. On the 21st, we were particularly comforted in recollecting and gathering Scripture texts and hymns; and several occurred to our minds, which were peculiarly adapted to our present precarious situation. On the 23d, the resident made much inquiry concerning the brethren's church and constitution, and seemed well pleased with the account we gave him. We also spoke with him freely of the only way of salvation, through the atonement and merits of a crucified Savior, to which he listened with much attention. He has been a faithful friend to us from first to last."

The subsequent diaries and letters give an account of the continuation of the convulsions and troubles in Persia, till the brethren at last found an opportunity of leaving Ispahan, in June 1748. They set out by way of Bender Buscher, with imminent danger of their lives, and had not proceeded far before the caravan was surprized and robbed. They lost the third time all they had, and came ragged and in debt to Bender Buscher. Here, through the mercy of God, they found a friend in the Dutch agent, who took care of them, paid their debts, and forwarded them on their journey to Bassora, where they arrived in September. Mr. Pomfret, the English resident at Bassora, had received a letter of recommendation in their behalf from Mr. Pierson at Ispahan, and received them kindly. It was their intention to have staid here some time, and by their practice in medicine and surgery to have earned a sufficiency to bear the expences of their journey home; but this plan failing, they were assisted with money, for bills drawn upon London. Rueffer was taken ill at

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Damietta, and departed this life July 26th, 1748. His corpse was interred in the burying ground of the Greeks. Thus the whole plan of bringing the Gospel to the poor people who were the objects of this mission, was frustrated, to the great grief of the Brethren, who never afterwards had any opportunity of renewing the attempt.


Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer.

THE state of our ecclesiastical patronage has long been, and is now more than ever, a source of opprobrium to our beloved church. It certainly is not a satisfactory state of things, when a private individual can thrust upon a parish a clergyman ill qualified to superintend it, and perhaps justly obnoxious either for his doctrines or manner of life; much less is it satisfactory that such a right should be a marketable pro. perty, the best bidder for an advowson having the right to choose the clergyman; and this without any necessary claim of merit, but merely from favour and interest.

But are there no evils on the other side? Is popular suffrage better than private patronage? I doubt it, and am confirmed in my doubts by the following remarks of a respectable American clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Wheaton, who lately published an account of his travels in England. He observes:

"It is difficult for us republicans to reconcile the idea of church patronage as it exists in England with our notions of propriety or expediency. We cannot conceive why a congregation should not be allowed a voice in the choice of their minister, nor imagine that such a liberty would be attended with greater inconveniences in an established church than in our own country, where they are but rarely and lightly felt. Yet there may be

circumstances to render that inexpedient in one case which is found to be perfectly safe in another, With us, the salary of a clergyman is dependent on the votes of the parish it is a voluntary contribution, which may be reduced or wholly withdrawn when he ceases to be acceptable. Keenly contested elections, therefore, will be unknown, so long as a large minority has the power of withdrawing its support from the successful candidate.

"But how does the case stand with regard to the Church of England? To the office of pastor in every church, a salary is secured by law, over which the votes of the parish have no controul. It is a stipend which he is sure to receive so long as he is the incumbent; and in a country where there are more clergymen than livings it becomes an object which many are desirous of securing. Did the choice rest with the people, great exertions would be made by the friends of the different candidates to get a majority of votes, and the parish would be agitated by the disturbances of a violently contested election. Had the disaffected the right, as with us, of withdrawing their share of the pastor's support, these evils could not happen; but in an establishment this check is wanting. The stipend cannot be reduced, and a bare majority of votes would put the successful candidate in possession of it, however unacceptable he might be to three eights of the parish. The experiment of leaving to the people the choice of their own ministers has been made in some of the newly-created parishes, and been followed by the evils I have mentioned. Even those who are not altogether satisfied with many features of the establishment, who see many things which ought to be reformed, are unanimous in deprecating popular elections."

My object in copying this passage, is to shew, that if our present system of ecclesiastical patronage is not unexceptionable, that which

some persons are anxious to see prevail instead of it is also liable to objection. Difficulties like these are not to be got over with a stroke of the pen. We may as easily exchange bad for worse as for better. These are matters to be calmly considered, not declaimed upon; and I should be happy to learn the opinions of some of your judicious correspondents respecting them.




Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer.

So much has of late been said and written upon the necessity of a compurgation of our ecclesiastical establishment, that I could wish to remind your readers that there are two classes of compurgators, men of very different character, aiming at very different objects, and against one of which every true friend of our church and of our common Christianity ought to be upon his guard.

I shall illustrate my meaning by adducing the remark of one of these ultra-reformers, the late Bishop Watson, who gravely wished to see among us "a complete purgation from the dregs of Popery, and the impiety of Calvinism." What his lordship meant by our Popery and Calvinism I might have been at a loss to define; but happily I recollected the facetious dictum of Lord Chatham, that our church consists of "a Popish liturgy, Calvinistic articles, and Arminian clergy." Now, presuming that the Right Reverend philosopher had made the same notable analysis, the result will be that he wished for the abolition of our "Popish liturgy," and our "impious Calvinistic articles;" thus leaving us only a goodly stock of "Arminian clergy:" not, however, meaning by these terms what they rightly imply, but using them in that fashionable sense in which al

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