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1864.]

The Talkative and the Taciturn.

75

games and tableaux-vivants, are made of inner diameter four and one-fourth inches. wood. Any common hard wood will an- The ring for boys and girls has an inner swer, though cherry, birch, and mahogany diameter of four inches, with a body threeare preferable.

fourths of an inch thick. The ring is turned from two pieces of All ring exercises are performed by the board, one-balf of an inch thick, glued to- combined efforts of the students arranged gether, with their grain running in con- in pairs, as in Figs. 22 and 23. They trary directions. It should be varnished should be sedulously practiced; for, while with shellac, at least three coats, and highly they bring into play every joint and muscle polished. Thus made, it is beautiful and of the body, they are peculiarly effective strong. Fig. 21 is a good illustration of a in increasing the volume and power of the mahogany ring.

extensors of the shoulder, arm, and foreTwo sizes afford & sufficient variety. arm-muscles that are usually weak in The body of the ring, for men and women, most persons, and they also give rapid is secen-eighths of an inch thick, and its development to the chest.

THE TALKATIVE AND THE TACITURN

TALK Among the wel depuths whichTaps

TALKATIVE men seldom read. This reasons for this; some of which it would is among few truths

be well if we deny or palliate. In pear the more strange the more we reflect justice to ourselves and him, we ought to upon them: for what is reading but silent, prefer his writings to his speech; for even conversation? People make extremely free the wisest say many things inconsiderately; use of their other senses; and I know not and there probably never was one of them what difficulty they could find or appre- in the world who ever uttered extemporahend in making use of their eyes, particu- neously three sentences in succession, such larly in the gratification of a propensity as, if he thought soundly and maturely which they indulge so profusely by the upon them afterward, he would not in somo tongue. The fatigue, you would think, is sort modify and correct. less; the one organ requiring much motion, Effrontery and hardness of heart are the the other little. Added to which, they characteristics of all great speakers; or ir may leave their opponent when they please, one is exempt from them, it is because and never are subject to captiousness or eloquence in him is secondary to philosophy, personality.

and philosophy to generosity of spirit. In open contention with an argumenta- On the same principle as impudence is tive adversary, the worst brand a victor the quality of great speakers and dispuimposes is a blush. The talkative man tants, modesty is that of the taciturnblows the fire himself for the reception of especially of great readers and composers. it; and we can not deny that it may like- Not only are they abstracted by their wise be suffered by a reader, if his con- studies from the facilities of ordinary conscience lies open to reproach: yet even in versation, but they discover, from time to this case, the stigma is illegible on his brow; time, things of which they were ignorant no one triumphs in his defeat, or even before, and on which they had not even freshens his wound, as may sometimes the ability of doubting. We, my readers, happen, by the warmth of sympathy. may consider them not only as gales that

All men, you and I among the rest, are refresh us while they propel us forward, more desirous of conversing with a great but as a more compendious engine whereby pliilosopher, or other celebrated man, than we are brought securely into harbor, and of reading his works. There are several deeply laden with imperishable wealth.

AN ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY.

to illustrate its problems so much as purchased large and valuable telescopes, astronomy. It is a science which has been which have been mounted in the most apbuilt up by the combined agency of ob- proved methods; and they have added to servations on natural phenomena, and of these all the essential appliances of firstmathematical investigations founded upon class observatories. Praiseworthy as are them. Neither branch of the subject is these efforts to extend this science in this complete in itself. To make observations country, they still fail entirely in giving the upon the heavenly bodies, even with the kind of aid that is wanted to students in most perfect instruments, without bringing the subject. The very costliness and exinto use the agency of mathematics to de- cellence of these instruments unfit them velop them, is at best only a scientific for the uses of class instruction. Their amusement. To study only the laws of delicate adjustments would be utterly astronomy, without going back in our dis- ruined by subjecting them to the handling cussions to the fundamental observations, necessary to explain their principles to a and verifying the methods by which they class of students. If they are to be used were made, is, to say the least, to reason for purposes of instruction, they become without making sure of our premises. utterly unreliable and valueless for the

To teach astronomy intelligibly and suc- refined and delicate observations of the cessfully, both its two great departments scientific observations of the scientific asmust be taken into account. As in land tronomer. No astronomer who desired his surveying, no instruction in the theory is observations to take rank in the scientific valuable without the use of surveying in world, would for one moment think of struments, and as in navigation, the prin- permitting his exquisite instruments, with ciples of the science must be inculcated by all their complicated mechanisms, to be the aid of actual observations, so in astron

turned “to such base uses." As soon omy, no thorough comprehension of its would the surgeon permit the instruments principles, and no ability to expand and with which he can find his way along those apply them, can be attained without a subtle boundaries which skirt the vital reasonably complete knowledge of the organs of the human frame, and with their matter and methods of astronomical obser- exquisite edges can niinbly divide health vation.

from disease, and life from death, to be For these reasons it is to be feared that degraded by being used to carve a turkey most of the instruction in practical astron- for his Christmas dinner. omy in our institutions of learning is very Besides, it would be found that the defective. A knowledge of the facts of details of those ingenious mechanical conastronomy can of course be communicated, trivances, which give such power and but the manner in which the science is accuracy to these instruments in the hands built, the methods by which our knowledge of the skillful observer, would serve to of these facts has been obtained, the mu- confuse and repel the first efforts of the tual dependence of theory and observations, students to master their principles. Comthese can not be made plain without intro- paratively simple and inexpensive apparatus ducing the student into the mysteries of is greatly to be preferred. The instruments an observatory. We venture to say that themselves may be as perfect as possible not one student in a hundred, even of our of their kind. The glasses may be good, colleges, comes out with any definite ideas their arrangement convenient; but great of the vast system of facts and computa- power is not at all necessary, and much of tions which have rendered astronomy the the complex apparatus connected with the most perfect of all sciences.

mounting may be safely dispensed with. To remedy these defects, many institu- The most that can be attained in the limtions of learning have provided themselves ited time usually devoted to astronomy,

1864.]
Education in New York.

77 will be to make clear the great principles The trustees of Rutgers College are eninvolved in astronomical observation. The deavoring to supply precisely this want in minute details of the science, the insight their institution. An equatorial telescope into the improvements which have been , has already been presented to the college introduced into the manufacture of the by a liberal and public-spirited citizen. The best apparatus, and the almost miraculous additional instruments required are: aecuracy which has been attained, must be 1. A meridian circle, serving the purleft to the professional student in astron- poses both of a transit and meridian circle, omy. But the great principles of these and costing, perhaps, $500. astronomical instruments, and the philos- 2. An astronomical clock, costing $300. ophy of the problems of time, latitude, 3. Star catalogues, recording apparatus, and longitude-these can be taught, and etc., $150. they can only be well taught by the use 4. Building, piers, etc., for mounting, of instruments adapted to the purpose, $1,200. neither too good to be handled and exam- We have no doubt that these needs will ined, nor too insignificant to give a clear be speedily supplied, and that this college idea of the working of those which are will then possess facilities for teaching more perfect.

astronomy equal to any in the country.

EDUCATION IN NEW YORK.

THE
HE report of the Superintendent of The work was intrusted, under his direc-

Common Schools for the State of tion, to a competent architect, and will be New York has been presented to the Legis- soon published. It will contain a number lature. The subjoined abstract will afford of separate plans, with full specifications a clear idea of its scope and character. for building of brick or wood, and with

The number of school districts in the due regard to health, comfort, and econState reported in 1863 was • 11,734 ony. In 1862 the number was

. 11,763 There was expended for libraries in 1863, There are 11,753 school-houses, of which $29,465.65, of which sum $23,099.95 was 216 are of logs, 9,969 framed, 995 brick, expended in the rural districts. The numand 573 of stone.

ber of volumes in all the district-school The reports do not show the number of libraries in the State is reported as 1,172,404. school-houses built during the year to re- There is apparently a falling off from the place others of the same material, but only number of the year before. The statistics the amount actually expended for sites, and in this regard are, however, far from being for building, purchasing, hiring, repairing, reliable, because, as is well understood, and insuring school-houses, and for fences, trustees make their reports without even &c., which was in cities, $242,547.53; rural counting the books. The average amount districts, $186,961.40; total, $429,508.93. of library money apportioned annually to

During the last ten years, there have been the rural districts is only $3.05 to each, expended for this purpose $6,322,998.68, and the amount expended, $2.77—a sum and a very large part of this expenditure too small to keep up the waste, to say has been incurred for the erection of better nothing of adding new books. The libraschool-buildings, furnished with more ap- ries are of less value than formerly, for propriate accommodation's..

reasons fully stated in the annual report of The Legislature of 1863 made an appro- 1863, and the Superintendent suggests that priation of $500, to be expended in pre- the people of the districts be allowed to paring designs, specifications, and working. elect whether to expend the library money drawings, for the school-houses and their for books, or apparatus, or for teachers' accessories, under the direction of the Su- wages. Also, that they have the power perintendent of Public Instruction.

of taxing themselves at least ten dollars six;

annually to replenish the libraries. He of age, who do not (and ought not) attend suggests that this would create greater school, and for those between sixteen and solicitude as to the use, care, and preserva- twenty-one, as above stated, and the numtion of the books, and that the authority ber of children of “school age” reported would be exercised by districts in which as not attending any school (372,352) crethe libraries are appreciated.

ates less astonishment. There was expended for school apparatus Of the seventeen school years as fixed by in the cities, $124,580.03; in the rural law, there are therefore, six which are not, districts, $8,626.17; total, $133,206.20 practically, school-going years. (showing a gratifying increase over the Of the 886,815 registered in the common expenditure of the previous year of more schools, only 72,104 attended over 10 than $38,000). Of the amount expended months; 65,161 eight months and less than for libraries and apparatus ($162,671.85), ten; 115,450 six months and less than the sum of $55,000 was from the income eight; 176,221'four months and less than of the U. S. Deposit Fund.

328 two months and less than The number of persons in the State be- four; and 217,551 less than two months. tween the ages of four and twenty-one A majority of the children, therefore, years is 1,357,047 (a reported increase over attend but a very short period each year; the preceding year of 34,224). Of this and a brief calculation will exhibit the number, 453,798 are in cities, and 903,249

virtual loss incurred by this enormous fail. in the rural districts.

ure in the duty of school attendance. The Of the whole number of children of aggregate loss of school instruction, for school ages, 886,815 are reported as having those children who attended less than six been at some time during the year in school. months during the year 1863 amounts to In 1862, there were 892,550, showing a 1,876,185 months, equal to 312,697 school decrease in attendance of 6,745. This is years of six months each, in one official accounted for by the increased demand for school year. If it be assumed that the the services of the youth between the ages 634,100 children, whose attendance exof sixteen and twenty-one years. Of those hibits this deficiency, could have been who are not themselves connected with the taught the whole six months by the corps army, many are withheld from the schools of teachers actually engaged, then, allowon account of the want of necessary labor- ing fifty pupils to each teacher, we have a ers. The decrease in the attendance at the loss equal to the service of more than 5,000 academies may be attributed to the sarne teachers. The loss, therefore, in the recause.

muneration paid to the 15,703 teachers emThere are 771 free schools and 1,668 ployed, will exceed one million of dollars private schools. The attendance upon the annually! and a far more serious and inlatter was 51,023. Two cities do not report jurious loss is inflicted upon the future of private schools. Allowing for these, the our country. The loss of 312,697 school attendance is not far from 60,000.

years is equivalent to the schooling of In the colleges there were 2,688 students, 312,697 children for one school year of six and in the academies and academical de- months. It may be shown that in a single partinents of Union schools, 35,192—ma- decade, as to these now neglected children, king the aggregate attendance upon all the taking one hundred dollars as the minimum chools in the State, 984,695. A little more value of a lifetime of an educated over that han 90 per cent. were in private schools, of an uneducated person, and we gain in

per cent. in academies, and 3-10 per ten years the sum of $62,539,500; and if rent. in the colleges. When so large a

this be added to the amount above estiproportion of the people look to the com- mated at $10,000,000, it makes $72,539,500, mon school for the education of their chil- or an annual relative, none the less real bedren, the character and support of these cause relative loss, of $7,253,950. Large schools are of paramount concern.

as the figures appear, they do not show the Making due allowance for the large num- whole loss. Time (and time is money), the ber of children between four and six years harvest time of youth is lost, and oftentimes 79

In Cities

Total

In 1862....

1864.]

Education in New York. replaced by mischief and damage. Human in the rural districts, $1,431,015.02: total, happiness—all the beneficial results which $2,725,886.67. This amount is upward of most surely flow from the acquisition of a $50,000 less than that expended in 1862, knowledge of our political duties as citizens and the decrease may be accounted for in of a free State, from a proper appreciation part by the diminution in the number o. of the principles of social ethics, and from male teachers, and in part by a more rigid a conscientious understanding of the obli- economy practiced in the rural districts, ingation of obedience to the wholesome duced by the pressure of the times. restrictions of law, both human and divine There were raised by local taxation for --all are jeopardized or lost, or worse than school purposes : lost.

Raral Districts. Few parents are aware of the serious In 1868....$1,595,728.80 $508,181.28 $2,095,910.08 injury wrought by a day's absence once or

1,560,456.40 507,601.34 2,068,057.74 twice a week in the child and in school.

To the amount raised by taxes in the In the mind of the child despondency takes rural districts, it is necessary, in any comthe place of cheerfulness and courage, in parison with the cities, to add that raised difference supersedes animated interest, by rate-bill, which was $363,741.05. This and the apathy of ignorance supplants all will make the sum raised outside of the fruitful desire for intelligence, or for an cities during the past year $886,922.33. honorable and useful career in life. In the

The amount of school money for the school the classes are deranged and demor. fiscal years 1863-4 is as follows: alized, and extra care and labor are imposed From the Common School Fund... $155,000.00 upon the teacher in the government and in

From United States Deposit Fund... 165,000.00 struction of the pupils. In whatever light From the State School Tax.. 1,090,841.11 presented, the non-attendance and irregu

Total.......

$1,410,841.11 larity of the attendance upon the schools, must command the serious attention of the This is apportioned as follows: Legislature.

For Salaries of School Comm'ners.. $56,000.00 It is suggested, that in the rural districts, For District Quotas....

428,168.22 greater regularity of attendance might be For Pupil Quotas..

871,560.74

For Libraries.. secured, if a part of the public money

55,000.00

For Contingent Apporvonment... 112.15 were apportioned on the basis of attendance. This would make it the pecuniary

Total.......

$1,410,841.11 interest of every taxpayer to encourage a

The actual expenditure for the mainteregular and general attendance at school.

nance of the schools for the years 1862–3, This mode of apportionment has been

was: adopted in sister States with happy results.

In the Cities.....

$2,030,598.91 The average time school was taught dur

In Rural Districts..

1,828,560.30 ing the year, not including the cities, was seven months and eleven days—from year

Total.....

$3,859,159.21 to year quite uniform.

The New York Institution for the InThe number of teachers employed in struction of the Deaf and Dumb is effect1862 was 26,500—7,585 males and 18,915 ively fulfilling the purpbse of its establishfemales. In 1863 there were 26,213—6,394 ment. There are among its pupils 257 males, 19,819 females. This includes all beneficiaries of this State; 31 country puwho were employed for any term, however pils, under the act of 1863; 33 supported short.

by their friends, and 11 by the State of The number of teachers reported as New Jersey ; in all 332. Forty-six State having been employed at the same time for pupils have been appointed during the six months or more indicating more nearly year, and 43 reappointed. The “high class” the number required to supply the schools), has been a success, the pupils having very in 1862, was 15,685; in 1863, was 15,703. generally acquitted themselves with credit.

For the payment of teachers' wages, there The health of the inmates is good; no death were expended, in the cities, $1,294,871.65; has occurred during the year.

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