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of the movements of the lips, the paper, having throughout its length, veil of the palate, and the vibrations and exactly in its centre, a raised of the larynx, is put before the world A-shaped boss. The result is that by Mr. Thomas A. Edison, an elec- the chisel or V-shaped point in the trician of great renown in America. centre of the diaphragm rests upon The telephone, of course, uses the the sharp ridge of the A-shaped proelectric circuit for the transmission minence in the strip of paper. Now, of its sounds; but the new and if the clockwork be set in motion, extremely simple apparatus of Mr. and the paper be moved rapidly along, Edison does not necessarily or prima- and if at the same time the chamber rily use electricity. In fact, the of which the metallic diaphragm is method is one which aims at making the bottom be spoken into through the human voice record itself on a the tube, the movements of the diastrip of paper in a permanent form, phragm will be recorded by the inso that it may be reproduced, in every dentation of the chisel point upon the note and articulation, at any subse- delicate boss
for this quent period and, if properly adjusted, being, of course, hollow, is easily with an electric circuit at any required indented. Hence the tones of small distance! The conception is indeed amplitude, it is affirmed, are recorded a bold one : for it promises to pro- by slight indentations, and those of vide us with an instrument which, if fúll amplitude by deep ones. Thus it had existed in the times of, and the fillet of paper is made to receive been used by, Cicero or Demosthenes, a mechanical record of the vocal would, if the medium of transmission vibrations of air-waves from the - the paper which we shall presently movements of the diaphragm. Now describe-could have been preserved all that is needed, Mr. Edison affirms, so long, have enabled us to reproduce is another diaphragm with a point so their orations not only in the very arranged that, by the passage of this spoken words, but with the sonance ridge of paper with its indentations, and intonation employed by them ! under it, at the same rate of motion It is an instrument indeed which, if, as before, causing the point commuas Mr. Edison—a soundly scientific nicating with the diaphragm to enter man-affirms, it can be perfected, in succession all the indentations will enable us to fix sentences or made by the point previously used, phrases, so that, when we are dead, and there will be set up in this second they may be reproduced phonetically diaphragm exactly the same vibraas if we, in our own voice and with tions, and with the same rapidity as our own accents, were uttering them ! those which were produced in the
The apparatus as described is ex- first. And thus all the vibrations tremely simple. It consists essen- superinduced by the voice in the tially of a small sounding-box with first instrument, will be exactly a speaking-tube ; but the base of the reproduced by mechanical vibrations box is a thin metallic diaphragm or in the second ; while this latter may drum-head, which responds power- be put into a circuit with a speaking fully to the vibrations of the voice. telephone, and at the same moment be In the centre of this diaphragm, and transmitted by wire to a distant point. on the under side of it, is fastened a It is affirmed, on most reliable minute and delicate V-shaped point. authority, that this instrument, alImmediately under this point, and though by no means as perfect as Mr. near enough to touch it, is a revolving Edison is confident of making it, has drum worked by clockwork, which been made actually to accomplish the carries forward a continuous strip of results spoken of : and if the further
improvements can be realized, it is It was fortunately perfect in one asserted that it can be so arranged particular,—the structure of the tail, that when, for example, an orator in —which was its essential peculiarity. the House of Commons speaks, with Instead of the group of modified the phonograph properly arranged, an bones forming the short tail of known indented strip of paper is the result, birds, there was a long tail composed so far as this instrument is concerned : of vertebræ, and along the sides of this is made to travel under a second which the feathers were attached. apparatus, which is in connection But for the feathers the tail might with a telephone; and the speaker
have been that of a lizard : it was could be heard in Birmingham or longer than the body, which was Penzance ; and not only so, but by about the size of that of a crow, and, using the same strip to-morrow or a in the main, coincident with the decade hence, precisely the same known type of birds. This specimen result would follow. Thus we are was the only one extant up to a very promised an instrument which not recent date, and was purchased at a only fixes what may have been said large cost by the authorities of the by any speaker, and makes it trans- British Museum. In the interval, a missible anywhere, but that immor- remarkable group of birds with teeth, talizes the very tones in which he and with reptilian forms of vertebræ, uttered it, and makes those capable have been discovered by Professor of reproduction at any time.
Marsh in America ; and thus birds The telephone of Professor Bell is with reptilian vertebræ, with teeth already practically employed in many distinctly socketed in the jaw and ways. It is specially useful for with a lizard-like tail, were held to mining purposes. One of the instru- point strongly to a close linking of ments employed in coal mining is the reptiles and birds; at least, it was Aerometer; which is a whirling in
evident that the old definition of a strument for measuring the velocity
bird would have to be modified. of air currents in collieries. This has Just at this juncture a new fossil has recently, in some mines, been con- been discovered in the Solenhofen nected with the telephone, upon
slates. At first it was thought to be a which the spring of the Aërometer is pterodactyle, but was soon found to made to vibrate. By putting his ear be an archæopteryx, more perfect than to the telephone on the surface, the the one now in the British Museum. manager knows at once the rate at The defect of that specimen was that which a current of air is running the head was wanting ; and, therefore, through the mine.
it was impossible to answer the ques
tion raised by Professor Marsh's Geologists and Palæontologists
fossils : · Had the archæopteryx have been delighted recently by a jaws with teeth in them?' But the most valuable discovery. It is well more recently-discovered fossil is said known that until lately there were to be perfect in the region of the skull; no traces of birds in the strata of the and, therefore, when examination has earth earlier than the Mesozoic rocks, been carefully made this question except in the case of the remarkable can be settled. It was strongly specimen Archæopteryx found in the hoped, in some quarters, that the lithographic slates of Solenhofen, British Museum authorities would which belongs to the upper Oolites. have purchased this second fossil. First, the impression of a fossil It was offered to the Munich Museum feather was found ; and, eventually, for twenty-five thousand seven hunan imperfect skeleton of the bird.. dred and ten marks, but it was not
purchased. It has since, however, romantic. There are ants that live been proved to be so remarkably well together under domed habitations, preserved that the price was raised to built by themselves, and so aggrethirty-six thousand marks; and at gated as to form vast and populous that high value it has been purchased cities ;' they exercise apparently a by Dr. Otto Volger on behalf of the distinct jurisdiction, so far as ant Freie Deutsche Hochstift, and is now life is concerned, over the adjoining at Frankfürt. We shall anticipate territory ; they lay out regular roads, with much eagerness the scientific make tunnels under what to them report of this remarkable fossil.
are vast rivers, station guards at the
entrance to their town, carefully Professor Worthington Smith has remove offensive matter, organize a been examining the remains of a regular group of public guardians, fungus found growing in the tissue or police,' throughout their colony; of one of the great flowerless trees they make extensive hunting expedifossilized in the Coal Measures. He tions ; wage systematic war upon other finds the fungus, which is fossilized great colonies of ants ; take prisoners in a fossil, to 'belong to one of the and reduce them to a state of slavery; simple primordial plants of the great cultivate the soil, gather in and garner family of fungi.' This is one more a harvest; keep and pen aphides as of the evidences that disease—for cattle for the sweet milky fluid they such, of course, the fungus was to the exude; and do many other equally Lepidodendron during its life in the remarkable things.
It has been immeasurable past-existed amongst established that when a colony is the most ancient organic forms that being formed the ground is deterflourished in the remotest ages. mined on, evidently by deliberation
and concert, and is then carefully Our interest in the intellectual cleared of all stones and rubbish. characteristics of the most intelli- A minute species of grain resembling gent animals must constantly deepen: rice is sown in a space of about four and, where it can be done, there will feet cleared all round the settlement, be many ready to devote themselves and is then kept free from weeds and to the study of these. The habits of guarded against marauding insects
, bees have long been carefully con- until ripe, when it is reaped, the seed sidered by man : but, to some extent,
dried and carried to a garner. But this attention was dictated by the if such an effort at colonization should prospect of benefit derivable from be made near a large city' already the fruits of their instinct. It is not established, it is treated as an intruso with ants; yet they are now all sion, and issues in actual war, over the world the subjects of very destructive of one party or the other. careful study. In a sense far deeper Close observation has been made than is generally understood we may recently on the fact that, in a formiand do at this time, 'go to the ant' to cary, an old inhabitant of it that has learn. Few things are more striking been kept away from it for months, than their social and individual life, if placed in it again, is received with when we see it in a more complete all friendliness; but if one who is manner.
somewhat a perfect stranger, and has never been lengthy account of their habits in in the colony before, be put there, it the pages of The City-Road Magazine is instantly killed.' So there is 3 some years since ; but since that wonderful capacity for distinguishing time the facts that have come to us, individuals. They even seek and as the result of research, are almost endeavour to procure what to them
We gave a
and not pass
be Comet V., 1877.
are luxuries. There is a species of passes through luminous vapours of acacia which, when the leaves decay, the same, and in doing so the light is produces a minute form of fungus, absorbed. In the case of the oxyand the ants actually cut off these gen, it must come directly from the leaves and lay them down to decay, incandescent gas
through that they may get the delicacy of any absorbing medium. This is a mushroom diet.
ant is in
new departure in solar, perhaps also trouble from accident, it is not un
in stellar, chemistry. usual for others at once to go to its relief and help; and if a worker' Further information is to hand becomes permanently idle and refuses concerning the satellites of Mars. The to work, it is at once, and by common periods of revolution are 30 h. 17.3 m. consent, killed. The extensive ob- and 7h. 38.5 m. respectively. This servations that have been so rapidly
when expressed in Martial siderealtime here summarized, have been made is 29 h. 31 m. and 7 h. 27 m. So that by carefully-trained observers, who the outer satellite passes any given have extended their researches to meridian on the surface of Mars in every country from England to something more than 5 days, while Australia.
the inner one passes from west to east
—the reverse of the other and of the A new comet was discovered by M. majority of the bodies in the solar Coggia, at Marseilles, on the 14th of
system-in 10 h. 48 m.
The astronSeptember. It was faint, round, and
omers on this orb are indeed fashowed the trace of a tail. This will voured with conditions suitable for the
exact development of their science.
The mass of Mars has been more The Astronomer Royal has pub- accurately determined during a few lished a report of the results of the days, by observations on his outer telescopic observations on the Tran
satellite, than by a preceding century sit of Venus in 1874. They give of observations and calculations witha mean distance for the sun of
out it. The result is that our esti93,300,000 miles. Sir G. Airy be
mate of Mars' mass is proved to have lieves that this result will not be
been about thirty millions of millions seriously altered by the publication of millions of tons too great.
It is The Americans suggest that these a somewhat greater distance than was
satellites should be named Romulus anticipated from previous calcula
and Remus; but classical scholars tions, but can in no way be more
have been reminded that Homer, in accurately given until the transit of
the fifteenth Book of the Iliad, which 1882 has been observed and re
depicts Ares as preparing to descend to the earth, has given names by
anticipation to the two followers of Draper has been able to demonstrate By spectroscopic means, Professor Mars, thus :
“Ως φάτο' και δ' ίππους κέλετο Δεϊμον τε presence of oxygen in the sun, and
Φόβον τε to photograph it. It discloses itself
Ζευγνύμεν. . by the presence in the solar spectrum of its characteristic bright lines. The
Deimus and Phobus would be at metals are demonstrated in the solar
least distinctive. spectrum by means of dark absorption lines ; their darkness being due
We regret to announce the death to the fact that the light of the metal
of Leverrier, who as a man of science was truly great in his generation.
of results from other sources.
'I AM HE THAT LIVETH, AND WAS DEAL.
(REVELATION I. 18.)
BY THE REV. GEORGE LUPTON ALLEN.
At Bethany have ere been mine,
No sitting at the Master's feet
Absorbed in talk divine.
Yet is He with me, and the spell I never kissed His feet or brow,
Of His pure presence holds my heart, Nor listened to His words of grace, While thought, emotion, passion swellYet is He with me now!
I have the better part.'
SELECT LITERARY NOTICES.
A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, deceitfully the history and theology of the Critical, Doctrinal and Homiletical, etc. Books of Samuel and Kings in the interBy J. Peter Lange, D.D., in connection ests of the hierarchy. He adduces strong with a number of eminent European proof that the materials for the Chronicles Divines. Translated from the German, are distinct and independent. and Edited, with Additions original and The Introductions to the various Books in selected, by Philip Schaff, D.D., in con- this volume are as scholarly, thoughtful and nection with American Scholars of readable as those of the preceding exposivarious Evangelical Denominations. Vol. tions in this inestimable series. That to VII. of the Old Testament. Containing Ezra is especially wise and well-considered. Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther. In the comparatively few instances in Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark. 1877.- which Dr. Zöckler deflects in the direction The Books of Chronicles have been com- of wayward, destructive criticism, Dr. mitted by Dr. Lange to Dr. Otto Zöckler, Murphy corrects his aberrations with exwhose laborious and able work is translated emplary judiciousness. But Dr. Zöckler by Dr. J. G. Murphy, of Belfast. Pro- himself powerfully repels neological asfessor Schultz, of Breslau, has undertaken saults. Weighty Scriptural and Church Ezra and Esther, tbe former being trans- principles are deduced from the Chronicles. lated, enlarged and edited by Dr. Briggs, The light which the Book of Ezra casts of New York; the latter by Dr. Strong, of on the history of Redemption is beautifully Drew Theological Seminary. The Com- brought out. This is one of the most mentary on Nehemiah is altogether the striking and instructive parts of the volume. work of Dr. Crosby, of New York, with The Introduction to the Book of Esther is the exception of the homiletic sections of remarkably rich, and the canonicity and Dr. Schultz. The character and the religious importance of the Book are sources of the latest historical Books of strikingly and successfully maintained the Old Testament are examined with ad- against the fairly and even strongly-stated mirable candour, moderation, judiciousness objections of its assailants. But we do and learning, and in a very interesting not think the exposition of Esther on a style. This is a seasonable service in the level with that of the other Books, or present stage of Biblical science. Drs.
equal to some previous commentaries on Zöckler and Schultz, from different start- this part of Scripture. The heroic faith ing points, arrive at the same conclusion : of Esther seems to us to be strangely that the Books of Chronicles, Ezra and underrated. The exegesis in this volume, Nehemiah were not the work of the same though shorter and less minute than that writer. Dr. Zöckler refutes the rational- in its predecessors, is in no respect leas istic charge that the Chronicles handle valuable. A new translation is given of