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PROVINCE OF NEW MEXICO. Santa Fe, to the east Population 40,200.
of the great river del Extent of surface in square
3600 leagues 5709.
8900 The New Californias contain a po- Caraccas are included five other subpulation of about 25,000, who live in ordinate provinces or governments, seattered settlements and villages. namely, the province of Venezuela in
In no part of Spanish America has the centre; the government of Mathe fame of civil commotion raged racaibo on the west ; Guiana on the more fiercely than in Mexico. The south ; the government of Cumana insurgents who took up arms against on the east ; and the island of Margathe dominion of the mother-country, retta on the north-east. It is boundannounted at one period to about ed on the north from the Cape de 10,000. Advancing upon the ca- Vela, to the point of Paria by the pital with a commanding force, they Carribean Sea; on the east by the war foiled by the prudence and ac- Atlantic; on the south by Dutch tivity of Venegas the governor, who, Guiana ; and on the west by the kingpursuing them in their retreat, at last dom of Santa Fé. From its position, succeeded in dispersing them, and in which is between the 12th degree of N. seizing the ringleaders, who, with lat. and the equinoctial line, this counFast numbers of other unfortunate try might be expected to be subject to persons embarked in the same cause, a scorching sun, and to be scarcely haperished miserably on the scaffold. bitable on account of its excessive The insurgents thus failing in the heat. In many parts, however, inore efforts of regular war, dispersed in especially towards the interior, the snall guerilla parties, occupying all heat is tempered by the elevation the avenues and roads, and ha- of the ground, so that the inhabirassing their enemies by every mode tants enjoy a pleasant medium beof irregular annoyance. The accounts tween the opposite extremes of heat received of the state of this country and cold. They are indebted for this are exceedingly imperfect; but if they singularity of temperature to a chain can at all be relied on, the royalist are of the Andes of moderate height, and mies seem, for the present, to have in breadth generally from about 20 triumphed over their enemies.
to 10 leagues, which traverses the In the southern provinces the insur- whole extent of their country, windrection against the dominion of themo- ing in a direction generally from ther-country, was carried on with vari- E. to W., and finally loses itself in the ous fortune;
but, ultimately, the advan- island of Trinidad. The elevation of tage appears to have been on the side of this chain varies in different parts, the insurgents. Their forces, according and those inequalities of surface to the accounts received, have been give rise to such varieties of temoften beaten and dispersed. But the perature, that numerous diversities of spirit of resistance never appears to the vegetable tribes, which in other have been crushed. The insurgent countries grow to maturity under very armies have always rallied, and at pre- different degrees of latitude, are sent they have taken the field with brought together and Aourish in this recruited strength, and have, in dif- more favoured spot. To the north of ferent points, gained the most signal these mountains, in the great valley victories over their opponents. In of the Orinoco, by which river they the Caraccas, of which we shall now are bounded to the south, immense give a brief account, they have been plains stretch out on a dead level for successful in repeated battles against several hundreds of miles; and here the royal troops ; and, as a proof that the heat is intense, sometimes risthis is no vain boast, they are in posses- ing to 115 degrees of Fahrenheit. sion of some of the most important On these plains grows a tall and rank places of the country.
herbage, on which numerous herds of In the mii nzive province of the cattle are fed, and these constitute the
principal wealth of the landed pro- Orinoco by a variety of channels, and prietors of these desert traets. The which, with its numerous tributary aspect of the country is agreeably di streams, inundates, during the rainy versified by lakes and rivers. Of the season, a great proportion of the lakes, those of Maracaibo and Valencia country through which it flows. This are the largest. The breadth of the inundation covers a larger space as the former is 50 leagues, and its length rivers approach the ocean; and, at the 30; the latter is 14 leagues in breadth, mouth of the Orinoco, the fat counand 6 in length. Every part of the try presents a vast sea of fresh water country abounds in rivers, which, if to the extent of nearly 600 miles. they have not a sufficient quantity of The rise of the rivers commences in water for navigation, would, however, April, and about October they begin afford a far greater quantity for irri- to retire from the flat country, and gation than is at present required for continue falling till the end of Fethis purpose by the indolent inhabi- bruary, when they generally are at tants of this fertile country, We the lowest. have already mentioned, that a ridge The population of the Caraccas is of the Andes, of molerate elevation, chiefly concentrated on the northern runs through the whole of the Carac- declivity of the mountains which tracas, in a winding course, from east to verse the country. The principal west. This range is the highest towns are also established in this ground in the country, and, conse quarter ;-these are, Caraccas, the caquently, forms the dividing ridge be- pital, containing 34,000 inhabitants, tween the streams which run south and situated in 10° 31' N. lat., at an and those which run north. The lat- elevation of 460 toises, which secures ter rise on the northern declivity of it against the scorching heats usual in these mountains, and fall into the Car- the tropical regions ; Cumana, conribean Sea. The principal of these taining 24,000 inhabitants, and siare the Guiges, Tocuyo, Aroa, Yara- tuated on the coast of the Carribean cuy, Tuy, Unara, Neveri, Manza- Sea, in lat. 10°37' N.; Porto Cabello, nares. Their course is generally down or Cavello, containing 7500 inhabia channel of considerable declivity, tants, situated in 10° 20' N. lat., 90 and is therefore rapid; and their miles west from Caraccas, on the shore banks are so high, that they form a of the Carribean Sea ; Valencia, connatural barrier against the irruption taining 6500 inhabitants, situated on of the stream, so that it seldom over- the beautiful lake of the same name, flows. All the rivers which have in lat. 10° 9' N.; Maracay, popula, their rise on the southern declivity tion 9400 ; Guira, population 6000, of these mountains run southward, situated on the coast of the Carribean and descend into the common chan- Sea, and liable to patrid fevers in nel of the great Orinoco, into which this place Reaumur's thermometer flow all the waters of that vast val- rises to from 35° to 28. degrees it is ley which is bounded on the north 15 miles west from Caraccas; Tulby the ridge of mountains already mero, containing 8000 inhabitants, mentioned, and on the south by the and situated on the Lake of Valencia; ridge which divides the streams that Victoria, 18 miles east of Tulmero, fall into the Orinoco from those that and containing 7800 inhabitants; fall into the Amazons or Maranon. L'oro, containing 10,000 inhabitants, As these rivers have their course and situated in N. lat, 10° 8', 72 miles through level plains, their beds are west from Caraccas; Carora, containshallower than those which run down ing 6200 inhabitants, situated in N. the declivity of the mountains; and, lat. 10°, 45 miles east of Lake Mara in the rainy senson, accordingly, they caibo, and 270 west of Caraccas; Barmingle their waters during a great quisimeto, population 11,300, situated part of the year, and resemble rather in 9° 45' N. lat. The heat in this one vast sea than rivers which have place is frequently 28o and 29° of overtiowed their banks. The most Beaumur-it is 120 miles WSW. of considerable of those rivers which fall Caruceas ; Tocuyo, population 10,000, into the Orinoco are the Mamo, the situated in N. lat. 9° 35', 270 miles Pariagon and Pao, the Chivata and SW. of Caraccas; Guanara, population Zoa, the Cachimamo, the Aracay, the 12,300, situated in 8° 14' N. lat., 279 Manapira and Espino, and, lastly, the miles SW. from Caraccas. great river Apure, which enters the
(To be continued.)
EITRACTS FROM THE CORRESPON- however, I do not feel knocked up at
DENCE OF A TRAVELLER VISITING all, and hope to stand out to the end. ITALY.
I shall not at present enter into parti[These letters were not written with the culars about my journey from Paris intention of being published, which is one to Morez, fourteen and a half leagues of their recommendations. They contain from Geneva, but shall endeavour to the natural expression of the feelings and give you some faint idea of what I observations of a well informed traveller saw yesterday ; 'a day on which I reon a most interesting route, and appeared ceived impressions never to be effa. to the friend to whom they were addressed ced. We left Morez at four o'clock to contain both information and enter in the morning, and passed through it tainment, which would be acceptable to on foot, the moon shining brightly upon others)
the dark wooded rocks and hills that
surround this town. We continued Geneva, 29th September 1817.
to walk on about two miles to save the I write to you from Les Balances, horses during a steep ascent; the the best inn of this deservedly cele- moon disappearing gradually behind brated place. I arrived here yester- the hills, while from the east stepday at half past five in the afternoon, ped forth the morning,” truly the on the ninth day of my journey, hav- jododáxTUROS rows. The equal difing left Paris on the 20th, at eight A. fusion of a fine crimson colour on the M. I had to wait two hours in the clear sky of the mountainous horizon, street that morning in consequence of foretold a delightful day, and it was the stupidity of a Sicilian, who had s0,-warm, pure, and bright. We mot got his passport, and the laziness passed the custom-house at Les Rouso Pasta and his wife, (who sang at ses, without being searched, our passthe Opera House in London lately,) ports only were demanded ;-beautiand in consequence of the toilet busi- ful scenery all the way ;-our road ness of some of the ladies, my fellow wound along the sides of the mountravellers. We were to have started tain, and overhung beautiful valleys, at six. My journey hither has been, from the sides of which shot up tali upon the whole, pleasant enough. fir-trees, their tops level with our Domenico Cervelli (the voiturier) is mountain path ;-the road in many very complaisant and attentive ; a big, places narrow, and bordering on the Fery robust, and formidable looking, most giddy precipices ;—the bottoms good natured Roman, between forty of the valleys seen at a most profound and fifty. I have been extremely for- depth, with a few small houses scata tunate in procuring the services of an tered here and there. About ten o'clock Italian domestic of a mature age, Vincenzo (my servant) came to the door (about fifty,) who has been in service of the vetturinn, and desired me to with a number of very respectable alight, and come with him. I did so, people, and who has a most excellent and he led me to the summit of a character for sobriety, honesty, good- little hill which rose by the side of nature, attention, and economy. He the road, between the barrier hills, has been in England, Spain, Portugal, through which we were passing ; we and the West Indies, and has travel were in the department of Lain. led through France, Italy, Germany, Pointing towards what I conceived and Switzerland, several times, with (without a glass) to be an immense his different masters. The Vetturinc assemblage of dark clouds, with white is hard enough work for me, although edges, on the distant horizon, he utcertainly preferable, in most respects, tered the electrical words, to the Diligence. I rise every morning Mont Blanc !" On looking through at four, at the latest, because we go on my glass, I beheld a scene that probut slowly, and it is necessary to set duced a thrilling, impression which off very early every day, in order to I cannot describe. The sudden view accomplish the set distance before of this stupendous mountain, and his night-fall, as the vetturino does not gigantic Alpine brethren, with the travel during the night. I have been beautiful dark blue lake of Geneva thrice roused at three in the morning, reposing at their feet, amidst a richly the other times at four. Wegeneral- cultivated valley, produced a strange ly reached our Auberge for the night and overpowering emotion of mingled about seven or eight in the evening ; awe, wonder, and pleasure. The eter
nal snows that crown this lofty region some of the Alpine summits that were of silence, and solitude, and majesty, visible in the morning. I am sitting in appeared at first view to be white a vine arbour in the garden, with my clouds; but they were motionless back to the lake Leman ; behind the masses shining in pure whiteness un- Auberge rises that range of hills calder a cloudless morning sun. The led Mont Jura, from which we dehigher and more distant summits were scended into the valley ; to the right enveloped in a thin vapour. These rises the village church, with its short enormous masses of rock stretched to white steeple; the bell is at this mothe right and to the left, until the eye ment ringing for prayers; the people lost the extremities of the line behind here ought to be devout-Mont Blanc the mountains of Savoy, and of the would inspire devotion in an atheist. cantons of Vaud and Freyberg. No sound disturbed me in the contem
Milan, 7th October. plation of this magnificent picture, I am now in the land of wonders excepting the faint tinkling of distant and far-famed beauty, Italy! We bells carried by some cattle feeding on arrived here yesterday about 7 o'clock the hills of l’Aix. The sight has in the afternoon, and shall remain wrought deeply upon me. It is most till to-morrow morning. We have truly “ the monarch of mountains," as had hard work of it in passing the Byron emphatically terms it. What a Alps by the Simplon, the weather magnificent theatre for the appalling ac- was so exceedingly bad ; heavy and tion of thunder and lightning, and all constant rain and thick mist clothing the cloudy majesty of storms! The day the mountain from top to bottom. was clear and beautiful; and from On leaving Glyss (near Brieg, at the the heights of Mount Jura I drank end of the Vallais) we took guides, some drops of heightened, though in- and three additional horses to each describable, feeling. There was
voiture. Cervelli was very unwilling scene before me such as no pencil to set out, on account of the dangers could paint, no language describe-it arising from continued rain and imwas a glimpse of the land of magic penetrable mist; but the love of moand lofty wonders !
ney got the better of his fears, and he About 12 o'clock we reached Gex, resolved at last to venture rather than after a long and fatiguing alternation pay expences at Glyss. Off we set of ascents and descents, dangerous before day break, (about half-past 2 enough for heavy carriages and un in the morning,) and began to'ascend ruly horses, as our horses are on ac the celebrated road by the Simplon, count of their entireness. They are one of the most lasting and stupenhot-blooded, and restive, but small dous monuments of Bonaparte's enand slender compared with the Eng- terprising spirit. I can give you no lish carriage horses. Our passports idea of the wildness and horrible suwere examined here. I am now (half blimity of the scenery. After sunrise past 12) sitting at the vine-encom- the mist began to clear away partialpassed window of our Auberge, at ly, although the rain continued, and Gex, from which I have a view of we had occasional glimpses of the Mont Blanc, presenting his elevated high and barren mountains, and deep and impassive snows, to the sultry and solitary valleys among which we beams of the noonday sun. The still passed. The road winds along the blue waters of the lake of Geneva side of the Simplon, (in Italian Semare sleeping quietly in its fertile vale pione,) a very high mountain, on the ley, so richly variegated with vines, top of which are six glaciers. The and trees, and hedges, and green road borders on the most hideous spots of meadow ground, and brown precipices, and you hear below you, at shorn fields, of which the harvest has an immense depth, the rushing of a been gathered. On the left, part of stream, that passes through the midthe lake is concealed by a gently slop- dle of the valley. This stream is seling hill, on which are cultivated fields, dom visible, on account of the freand a few houses half hiduen by trees. quent mists that overspread these On the right, the extremity of the regions of thick ribbed ice.” About lake is visible, and seems to stretch 10 o'clock in the morning we reached almost to the feet of the hills of Savoy. the village of the Simplon, the highest A thin bluish vapour has overspread point of the road, and rested there for
an hour or two at one of the houses of this colossus. We reached Sesto of refuge, built for the accommodation Calende about 8, crossing the Tesino of travellers. We had some poor fare on a raft. Evening dreadfully bad ; by way of breakfast, and warmed our piercingly cold, and dense mist, and bénum bed limbs by the side of a wood heavy rains. The sides of the road fre that blazed on the liearth. The from Gravelona to the ferry, emair extremely chill. Set off again and bellished with the most beautiful begun to descend on the other side, plantations of vines ; the vines supheving left the three additional horses ported by rude wooden frames, and and our guide before we reached the the huge thick clusters of ripe purbarrier near the village of Simplon. ple and white grapes hanging down We passed innumerable bridges, and from the top, ready for the hand of &veral long excavations, or tunnels, any one who entered into these luxucut through the solid rock. These riant labyrinths. One of my fellow dark hideous passages are among the travellers ventured to alight and pull most extraordinary works of this sin- some of the grapes, but wis seized in rular road.
One of them is about the act by a most singular figure of 3M feet in length, and cut through an Argus, who rushed out of a thicket the eternal ice of a glacier! But it is of vines from the opposite side of the medless to attempt a description of road, and presented an old musket to the route,—to know what it is, you the thief's head,--the matter was acDet see it. You would imagine it commodated after a horrible squabble de result of the labours of Aladdin's in good Italian, bad Italian, and ingde, not of human beings. It was different French. This guardian had expleted in three years, at an im- half of an old sabre sticking out from Bense expence, and by the daily and his rump in the most grotesque manmightly efforts of a vast number of ner imaginable, and was altogether a workmen. We reached Domo d'Os- perfect caricature of armed humanity sda when it was quite dark, so could We started at six from Sesto Calende see nothing of the place. We left and reached Milan about seven. The it at 3 o'clock next morning, and ar- road was not particularly interesting, rived at Gravelona, beside the Lago and the weather execrable; a number Maggiore, about 10 o'clock in the of houses by the way were adorned for noon. Mist and rain hindered us with paintings of Madonnas and scripfrom seeing the beauties of the scenery tural subjects in fresco upon the at this place. Weather excessively plastered walls; some of the paintings evid. Rested two hours, and set off very good, but all injured by time and for Sesto Calende, where we were to weather. slæp. The mist cleared away a little, and allowed us (in passing along the
Florence, 15th Oct. side of Lago Maggiore) to see the I am at last safely lodged at Schneibeautiful Borromean Islands in the der's Hotel, in the midst of this beaulake
. One of them is covered with tiful city, and its still more beautiful beautiful Italian buildings, and rich environs. The Arno flows within a tres and shrubs, and is the occasional few yards of the door,-it is the bounresidence of the family to whom these dary of one side of the street. I ara isi wds belong, and from whom they rived here this morning at half-past uke their name. Near Arona there nine, having passed two days and a is an immense colossal statue of the half among the Appenines, being half famous Charles Borromeo, upon the a day longer than we took to pass the surrmit of a hill on the left side of Alps. On both occasions exceedingly the road going to Sesto Calende. This bad weather. It is now very cold, statue is of bronze, and is 66 feet in much colder than I expected to find height, exclusive of the pedestal, it, in this garden of Italy, as Tuscany which is 46 feet; it rises most majesc is commonly called. My usual wintie.lly out of the trees that cover the ter flannels are all put in requisition. hill
, and is seen a great way off. It I am just as well pleased now that is reckoned a very fine work of art. I did not go on to Naples, as I once There is a stair-case inside, by which intended. This journey has been quite you ascend to the head. An Italian enough for me, -upon the whole hard author says that a man (not very big) work;-latterly roused at half-past two nay sit down conveniently in the nose or three o'clock in the morning, after