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pulpit ministrations; for by concentrating his atten- as before. In a word, though I might have made him tion on one or two points at a time, and pressing a more upright and honourable man, I might have these home with almost unexampled zeal and ani- left him as destitute of the essence of religious prinmation, a distinct and vivid impression is conveyed ciple as ever. But the interesting fact is, that during to the mind, unbroken by any extraneous or dis- the whole of that period in which I made no attempt cursive matter. His pictures have little or no back against the natural enmity of the mind to God, while ground—the principal figure or conception fills the I was inattentive to the way in which this entity is canrass. The style of Dr Chalmers is far from being dissolved, even by the free offer on the one hand, and correct or elegant-it is often turgid, loose, and de- the believing acceptance on the other, of the gospel clamatory, vehement beyond the bounds of good salvation ; while Christ, through whose blood the taste, and disfigured by a peculiar and by no means sinner, who by nature stands afar off, is brought near graceful phraseology. These blemishes are, however, to the heavenly Lawgiver whom he has offended, was more than redeemed by his piety and eloquence, the scarcely ever spoken of, or spoken of in such a way originality of many of his views, and the astonishing as stripped him of all the importance of his character force and ardour of his mind. His • Astronomical and his offices, even at this time I certainly did press Discourses' contain passages of great sublimity and the reformations of honour, and truth, and integrity beauty, and even the most humble and prosaic sub- among my people; but I never once heard of any ject, treated by him, becomes attractive and poetical. such reformations having been effected amongst them. His triumphs are those of genius, aided by the If there was anything at all brought about in this deepest conviction of the importance of the truths way, it was more than ever I got any account of. I he inculcates.

am not sensible that all the vehemence with wbich I Dr Chalmers is a native of Anstruther, in the urged the virtues and the proprieties of social life had county of Fife. A fugitive memoir states that he the weight of a feather on the moral habits of my was born about the year 1780, that he studied at St parishioners. And it was not till I got impressed by Andrews, and was soon ' a mathematician, a natural the utter alienation of the heart in all its desires and philosopher, and, though there was no regular pro- affections from God; it was not till reconciliation to fessor of that science at St Andrews, a chemist.' him became the distinct and the prominent object of After his admission to holy orders, he officiated for my niinisterial exertions; it was not till I took the sometime as assistant to the minister of Wilton, before them; it was not till the free offer of forgive

Scriptural way of laying the method of reconciliation near Hawick. He afterwards obtained the church of Kilmany, in his native county, and here the acti- ness through the blood of Christ was urged upon their vity of his mind was strikingly displayed. In addi- acceptance, and the Holy Spirit given through the tion to his parochial labours, he lectured in the channel of Christ's mediatorship to all who ask him, different towns on chemistry and other subjects; he

was set before them as the unceasing object of their became an officer of a volunteer corps ; and he wrote dependence and their prayers; it was not, in one a book on the resources of the country, besides word, till the contemplations of my people were turned pamphlets on some of the topics of the day; and of a soul providing for its interest with God and the

to these great and essential elements in the business when the Edinburgh Encyclopædia was projected, he was invited to be a contributor, and engaged to

concerns of its eternity, that I ever heard of any of furnish the article “Christianity," which he after- made the earnest and the zealous, but, I am afraid


those subordinate reformations which I aforetime wards completed with so much ability.'* At Kilmany Dr Chalmers seems to have received more ministrations. Ye servants, whose scrupulous fidelity

at the same time the ultimate object of my earlier serious and solemn impressions as to his clerical has now attracted the notice and drawn forth in my duties, for in an address to the inhabitants of the hearing a delightful testimony from your masters

, parish, included in his tracts, there is the following what mischief you would have done had your zeal remarkable passage :

for doctrines and sacraments been accompanied by

the sloth and the remissness, and what, in the pre[Ineficacy of mere Moral Preaching.] vailing tone of moral relaxation, is counted the allow.

able purloining of your earlier days ! But a sense of And here I cannot but record the effect of an actual your heavenly Master's eye has brought another iethough undesigned experiment which I prosecuted for fluence to bear upon you ; and while you are thus upwards of twelve years amongst you. For the greater striving to adorn the doctrine of God your Saviour in part of that time I could expatiate on the meanness all things, you may, poor as you are, reclaim the of dishonesty, on the villany of falsehood, on the great ones of the land to the acknowledgment of the despicable arts of calumny-in a word, upon all those faith. You have at least taught me that to preach deformities of character which awaken the natural Christ is the only effective way of preaching morality indignation of the human heart against the pests and in all its branches ; and out of your humble cottages the disturbers of human society. Now, could I, upon the have I gathered a lesson, which I pray God I may strength of these warm expostulations, have got the be enabled to carry with all its simplicity into a thief to give up his stealing, and the evil speaker wider theatre, and to bring with all the power of its his censoriousness, and the liar his deviations from subduing efficacy upon the rices of a more crowded truth, I should have felt all the repose of one who population. had gotten his ultimate object. It never occurred to me that all this might have been done, and yet every

From Kilmany Dr Chalmers removed to the new soul of every hearer have remained in full alienation church of St John's in Glasgow, where his labours from God; and that even could I have established in were unceasing and meritorious. Here his principal the bosom of one who stole such a principle of abhor- sermons were delivered and published; and his fame rence at the meanness of dishonesty that he was pre- as a preacher and author was diffused not only railed upon to steal no more, he might still have over Great Britain, but throughout all Europe and retained a heart as completely unturned to God, and America. In 1823 he removed to St Andrews, 28 as totally unpossessed by a principle of love to Him, professor of moral philosophy in the United college ;

and in 1828 he was appointed professor of divinity Chalmers became the rage in Scotland among the young in the university of Edinburgh. This appointment preachers, but few could do more than copy his defects. he relinquished in 1843, on his secession from the * London Magazine,

established church.


[Picture of the Chase-Cruelty to Animals.]

ill-fated creatures; and whether for the indulgence

of his barbaric sensuality or barbaric splendour, can The sufferings of the lower animals may, when out stalk paramount over the sufferings of that prostrate of sight, be out of mind. But more than this, these creation which has been placed beneath his feet. That sufferings may be in sight, and yet out of mind. This beauteous domain whereof he has been constituted is strikingly exemplified in the sports of the field, in the terrestrial sorereign, gives out so many blissful the midst of whose varied and animating bustle that and enignant aspects; and whether we look to its cruelty which all along is present to the senses may peaceful lakes, or to its lowery landscapes, or its not for one moment have been present to the thoughts. evening skies, or to all that soft attire which overThere sits a somewhat ancestral dignity and glory on spreads the hills and the valleys, lighted up by smilse this favourite pastime of joyous old England; when of sweetest sunshine, and where animals disport themthe gallant knighthood, and the hearty yeomen, and selves in all the exuberance of gaiety-this surely the amateurs or virtuosos of the chase, and the full were a more befitting scene for the rule of clemency, assembled jockeyship of half a province, muster to-than for the iron rod of a murderous and remorseless gether in all the pride and pageantry of their great tyrant. But the present is a mysterious world wherein eriprize—and the panorama of some noble landscape, we dwell. It still bears much upon its materialism of lighted up with autumnal clearness from an unclouded the impress of Paradise. But a breath from the air of heaven, pours fresh exbilaration into every blithe and Pandemonium has gone over its living generations; choice spirit of the scene--and every adventurous and so the fear of man and the dread of man is now heart is braced and impatient for the hazards of upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the coming enterprise--and even the high-breathed the air, and upon all that moveth upon the earth, coursers catch the general sympathy, and seem to fret and upon all the fishes of the sea ; into man's hands in all the restiveness of their yet checked and irri- are they delivered : every moring thing that liveth is tated fire, till the echoing horn shall set them at meat for him; yea, even as the green herbs, there liberty-even that horn which is the knell of death have been given to him all things' Such is the extent to some trembling victim now brought forth of its of his jurisdiction, and with most full and wanton lurking-place to the delighted gaze, and borne down license has he revelled among its privileges. The upon with the full and open cry of its ruthless pur whole earth labours and is in violence because of his

Be assured that, amid the whole glee and cruelties; and from the amphitheatre of sentient ferrency of this tumultuous enjoyment, there might Nature there sounds in fancy's ear the bleat of one not, in one single bosom, be aught so fiendish as a wide and universal suffering—a dreadful homage to principle of naked and abstract cruelty. The fear the power of Nature's constituted lord. which gives its lightning-speed to the unhappy ani- These sufferings are really felt. The bcasts of the mal; the thickening horrors which, in the progress of field are not so many automata without sensations exhaustion, must gather upon its flight; its gradually and just so constructed as to give forth all the sinking energies, and, at length, the terrible certainty natural signs and expressions of it. Nature hath not of that destruction which is awaiting it; that piteous practised this universal deception upon our species. cry which the ear can sometimes distinguish amid These poor animals just look, and trenuble, and give the deafening clamour of the bloodhounds as they forth the very indications of suffering that we do. spring exultingly upon their prey; the dread massacre Theirs is the distinct cry of pain. Theirs is the unand dying agonies of a creature so miserably torn ;- equivocal physiognomy of pain. They put on the all this weight of suffering, we admit, is not once same aspect of terror on the demonstrations of a sympathised with ; but it is just because the suffering menaced blow. They exhibit the same distortions of itself is not once thought of. It touches not the sen- agony after the infliction of it. The bruise, or the sibilities of the heart ; but just because it is never burn, or the fracture, or the deep incision, or the present to the notice of the mind. We allow that the fierce encounter with one of equal or superior strength, hardy followers in the wild romance of this occupa- | just affects them similarly to ourselves. Their blood tion, we allow them to be reckless of pain, but this is circulates as ours. They have pulsations in various not rejoicing in pain. Theirs is not the delight of the parts of the body like ours. They sicken, and they sarage, but the apathy of unreflecting creatures. grow feeble with age, and, finally, they die just as we They are wholly occupied with the chase itself and do. They possess the same feelings; and, what er. its spirit-stirring accompaniments, nor bestow one poses them to like suffering from another quarter, moment's thought on the dread violence of that in- they possess the same instincts with our own species. fliction upon sentient nature which marks its termi- | The lioness robbed of her whelps causes the wilderness nation. It is the spirit of the competition, and it to wring aloud with the proclamation of her wrongs; alone, which goads onward this hurrying career; and or the bird whose little household has been stolen, even he who in at the death is foremost in the triumph, fills and saddens all the grove with melodies of deepest although to him the death itself is in sight, the agony pathos. All this is palpable even to the general and of its wretched sufferer is wholly out of mind. unlearned eye : and when the physiologist lays open

Man is the direct agent of a wide and continual the recesses of their system by means of that scalpel, distress to the lower animals, and the question is, Can under whose operation they just shrink and are conany method be devised for its alleviation ? On this vulsed as any living subject of our own species—there subject that Scriptural image is strikingly realised, stands forth to view the same sentient apparatus, * The whole inferior creation groaning and travailling and furnished with the same conductors for the transtogether in pain,' because of him. It signifies not to mission of feeling to every minutest pore upon the surthe substantive amount of the suffering whether this face. Theirs is unmixed and unmitigated pain-the be prompted by the hardness of his heart, or only per- agonies of martyrdom without the alleviation of the mitted through the heedlessness of his mind. In hopes and the sentiments whereof they are incapable. either way it holds true, not only that the arch-de- When they lay them down to die, their only fellowvourer man stands pre-eminent over the fiercest chil- ship is with suffering; for in the prison-house of their dren of the wilderness as an animal of prey, but that beset and bounded faculties there can no relief bo for his lordly and luxurious appetite, as well as for afforded by communion with other interests or other his service or merest curiosity and amusement, Nature things. The attention does not lighten their distress must be ransacked throughout all her elements. as it does that of man, by carrying off his spirit from Rather than forego the veriest gratifications of ranity, that existing pungency and pressure which might ele he will wring thein from the anguish of wretched and be overwhelming. There is but room in their mysterious economy for one :omate, and that is, the absorb- and probability. It may hurry our globe towards the ing sense of their own single and concentrated anguish. sun, or drag it to the outer regions of the planetary And so in that bed of torment whereon the wounded system, or give it a new axis of revolution--and the animal lingers and expires, there is an unexplored effect, which I shall simply announce without explaindepth and intensity of suffering which the poor dumb ing it, would be to change the place of the ocean, and animal itself cannot tell, and against which it can bring another mighty flood upon our islands and conoffer no remonstrance - an untold and unknown tinents. amount of wretchedness of which no articulate voice These are changes which may happen in a single gives utterance. But there is an eloquence in its instant of time, and against which nothing known in silence ; and the very shroud which disguises it only the present system of things provides us with any serves to aggravate its horrors.

security. They might not annihilate the earth, but

they would unpeople it, and we, who tread its surface [Insignificance of this Earth.]

with such firm and assured footsteps, are at the mercy

of devouring elements, which, if let loose upon us by Though the earth were to be burned up, though the the hand of the Almighty, would spread solitude, and trumpet of its dissolution were sounded, though yon silence, and death over the dominions of the world. sky were to pass away as a scroll, and every visible Now, it is this littleness and this insecurity which glory which the finger of the Divinity has inscribed make the protection of the Almighty so dear to us, on it were extinguished for ever-an event so awful and bring with such emphasis to every pious bosom to us, and to every world in our vicinity, by which so the holy lessons of humility and gratitude. The God many suns would be extinguished, and so many varied who sitteth above, and presides in high authority over scenes of life and population would rush into forget all worlds, is mindful of man; and though at this fulness—what is it in the high scale of the Almighty's moment his energy is felt in the remotest provinces of workmanship? a mere shred, which, though scattered creation, we may feel the same security in his prori. into nothing, would leave the universe of God one en-dence as if we were the objects of his undirided care. tire scene of greatness and of majesty. Though the It is not for us to bring our minds up to this mys earth and the heavens were to disappear, there are terious agency. But such is the incomprehensible other worlds which roll afar; the light of other suns fact, that the same Being, whose eye is abroad orer shines upon them; and the sky which mantles them the whole universe, gives vegetation to every blade of 18 garnished with other stars. Is it presumption to grass, and motion to every particie of blood which cir say that the moral world extends to these distant and culates through the veins of the minutest animal; unknown regions ? that they are occupied with people? | that though his mind takes into his comprehensive that the charities of home and of neighbourhood dou- grasp immensity and all its wonders, I am as much rish there? that the praises of God are there lifted up, known to him as if I were the single object of his atand his goodness rejoiced in? that there piety has its tention; that he marks all my thoughts; that he gives temples and its offerings ? and the richness of the birth to every feeling and every morement within me; divine attributes is there felt and admired by intelli- and that, with an exercise of power which I can neither gent worshippers ?

describe nor comprehend, the same God who sits in the And what is this world in the immensity which highest heaven, and reigns over the glories of the firteems with them; and what are they who occupy it? mament, is at my right hand to give me every breathi The universe at large would suffer as little in its which I draw, and every comfort which I enjoy. splendour and variety by the destruction of our planet, as the verdure and sublime magnitude of a forest would suffer by the fall of a single leaf. The leaf

TRAVELLERS quivers on the branch which supports it. It lies at the mercy of the slightest accident. A breath of wind

Recent years have witnessed an immense influx tears it from its stem, and it lights on the stream of of books of travels and voyages-journals and nar water which passes underneath. În a moment of time ratives of personal adventure—the result of that the life, which we know by the microscope it teems spirit of scientific discovery, religious zeal, and enwith, is extinguished ; and an occurrence so insigni- lightened curiosity, which characterise the nineficant in the eye of man, and on the scale of his ob- teenth century. In physical geography large adservation, carries in it to the myriads which people vances have been made. The extension of commerce this little leaf an event as terrible and as decisive as and improvement of navigation have greatly facilithe destruction of a world. Now, on the grand scale tated foreign travelling; steamboats now traverse of the universe, we, the occupiers of this ball, which both the Atlantic and Mediterranean; and the performs its little round among the suns and the sys- overland route to India has introduced us to a more tems that astronomy has unfolded—we may feel the intimate acquaintance with the countries, so fertile same littleness and the same insecurity. We differ in interesting and romantic associations, which lie from the leaf only in this circumstance, that it would between India and Britain. Indeed, if we except require the operation of greater elements to destroy us.

some of the populous regions in the interior of But these elements exist. The fire which rages within Africa-still guarded by barbarous jealousy and may lift its devouring energy to the surface of our bigotry-almost every corner of the earth has been planet, and transform it into one wide and wasting penetrated by British enterprise; and those counvolcano. The sudden formation of elastic matter in tries endeared to us from the associations of Holy the bowels of the earth—and it lies within the agency Writ, the gorgeous and fascinating fictions of Eastern of known substances to accomplish this—may explode fable, or the wisdom and beauty of the classic phiit into fragments. The exhalation of noxious air from losophers and poets, have been rendered familiar to below may impart a virulence to the air that is around every class of British society. Even war has been us; it may affect the delicate proportion of its ingre- instrumental in adding to our knowledge of foreign dients; and the whole of animated nature may wither nations. The French invasion of Egypt led to the and die under the malignity of a tainted atmosphere. study of Egyptian antiquities--for Napoleon carried A blazing comet may cross this fated planet in its savans in his train—and our most valuable informaorbit, and realise all the terrors which superstition tion regarding India has been derived from officers has conceived of it. We cannot anticipate with pre- engaged in hostile missions and journeys caused by cision the consequences of an event which every astro-war. The embassies of Macartney and Amherst to nomer must know to lie within the limits of chance China (the first of which was highly satisfactory)

were prompted by the unfriendly and narrow-minded uniformly, and without exception, followed them all. conduct of the Chinese ; and our late collision with Fame, riches, and honour, had been held out for a the emperor has also added to our previous scanty series of ages to every individual of those myriads knowledge of that vast unexplored country, and these princes commanded, without having produced may yet be productive of higher results.

one man capable of gratifying the curiosity of his

sovereign, or wiping off this stain upon the enterprise JAMES BRUCE.

and abilities of mankind, or adding this desideratum

for the encouragement of geography. Though a mere One of the most romantic and persevering of our private Briton,

I triumphed here, in my own mind, travellers was JAMES BRUCE of Kinnaird, a Scottish over kings and their armies ! and every comparison gentleman of ancient family and property, who de- was leading nearer and nearer to presumption, when voted several years to a journey into Abyssinia to the place itself where I stood, the object of my vain discover the sources of the river Nile. The foun- glory, suggested what depressed my short-lived tains of celebrated rivers have led to some of our triumph. I was but a few minutes arrived at the most interesting exploratory expeditions. Super- sources of the Nile, through numberless dangers and stition has hallowed the sources of the Nile and the sufferings, the least of which would have overwhelmed Ganges, and the mysterious Niger long wooed our me but for the continual goodness and protection of adventurous travellers into the sultry plains of Providence: I was, however, but then half through Africa. The inhabitants of mountainous countries my journey, and all those dangers through which I still look with veneration on their principal streams, had already passed awaited me on my return; I and as they roll on before them, connect them in found a despondency gaining ground fast, and blastimagination with the ancient glories or traditional ing the crown of laurels which I had too rashly woven legends of their native land. Bruce partook largely for myself.' of this feeling, and was a man of an ardent enthu- After several adventures in Abyssinia, in the siastic temperament. He was born at Kinnaird course of which he received high personal distincHouse, in the county of Stirling, on the 14th of tions from the king, Bruce obtained leave to depart. December 1730, and was intended for the legal pro- He returned through the great deserts of Nubia fession. He was averse, however, to the study of into Egypt, encountering the severest hardships and the law, and entered into business as a wine-mer- dangers from the sand-floods and simoom of the desert, chant in London. Being led to visit Spain and and his own physical sufferings and exhaustion. Portugal, he was struck with the architectural It was not until seventeen years after his return ruins and chivalrous tales of the Moorish dominion, that Bruce published his travels. Parts had been and applied himself diligently to the study of East- made public, and were much ridiculed. Even Johnern antiquities and languages. On his return to son doubted whether he had ever been in Abyssinia ! England he became known to the government, and The work appeared in 1790, in five large quarto it was proposed that he should make a journey to volumes, with another volume of plates." The Barbary, which had been partially explored by Dr strangeness of the author's adventures at the court Shaw. At the same time the consulship of Algiers at Gondar, the somewhat inflated style of the narbecame vacant, and Bruce was appointed to the rative, and the undisguised vanity of the traveller, office. He left England, and arrived at Algiers in led to a disbelief of his statements, and numerous 1762. Above six years were spent by our traveller lampoons and satires, both in prose and verse, were at Algiers and in various travels (during which he surveyed and sketched the ruins of Palmyra and Baalbec), and it was not till June 1768 that he reached Alexandria. From thence he proceeded to Cairo, and embarked on the Nile. He arrived at Gondar, the capital of Abyssinia, and after some stay there, he set out for the sources of Bahr-el-Azrek, under an impression that this was the principal branch of the Nile. The spot was at length pointed out by his guide—a hillock of green sod in the middle of a watery plain. The guide counselled him to pull off his shoes, as the people were all pagans, and prayed to the river as if it were God.

‘Half undressed as I was,' continues Bruce, 'by the loss of my sash, and throwing off my shoes, I ran down the hill towards the hillock of green sod, which was about two hundred yards distant; the whole side of the hill was thick grown with flowers, the large bulbous roots of which appearing above the surface of the ground, and their skins coming off on my treading upon them, occasioned me two very severe falls before I reached the brink of the marsh. I after this came to the altar of green turf, which was apparently the work of art, and I stood in rapture above the principal fountain, which rises in the middle of it. It is easier to guess than to describe the situation of my mind at that moment, standing in that spot which had baffled the genius, industry, and inquiry of both ancients and moderns Staircase at Kinnaird House, Stirlingshire-Scene of for the course of near three thousand years. Kings had attempted this discovery at the head of armies, directed against him. The really honourable and and each expedition was distinguished from the last superior points of Bruce's character—such as his only by the difference of numbers which had perished, energy and daring, his various knowledge and acand agreed alone in the disappointment which had quirements, and his disinterested zeal in undertaking


Bruce's Fatal Accident.

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such a journey at his own expense-were overlooked by the Duchess of Devonshire) is thus relatiul in this petty war of the wits. Bruce felt their at- The traveller had reached the town of Sego, tive tacks keenly; but he was a proud-spirited man, and capital of Bambarra, and wished to cross the river did not deign to reply to pasquinades impeaching towards the residence of the king :

1 his veracity. He survived his publication only four

I waited more than two hours without having years. The foot, which had trodden without failing an opportunity of crossing the river, during which the deserts of Nubia, slipped one evening in his own staircase, while handing a lady to her carriage, and he tion to Mansong, the king, that a white man was

time the people who had crossed carried informia died in consequence of the injury then received, April waiting for a passage, and was coming to see him. 16, 1794. A second edition of the Travels, edited by He immediately sent over one of his chief men, who Dr Alexander Murray (an excellent Oriental scholar), informed me that the king could not possibly see toe! was published in 1805, and a third in 1813. The style until he knew what had brought me into bis country; of Bruce is prolix and inelegant, though occasion and that I must not presume to cross the river with: ally energetic. He seized upon the most prominent out the king's permission. He therefore advised me points, and coloured them "highly. The general to lodge at å distant village, to which he pointed, for accuracy of his work has been confirmed from diffe- the night, and said that in the morning he would rent quarters. Mr HENRY Salt, the next Euro- give me further instructions how to conduct myself. pean traveller in Abyssinia, twice penetrated into This was very discouraging. However, as there was the interior of the country-in 1805 and 1810-but no remedy, I set off for the village, where I found, to without reaching so far as Bruce. This gentleman my great mortification, that no person would admit! confirms the historical parts of Bruce's narrative; me into his house. I was regarded with astonishand MR NATHANIEL PEARCE (who resided many ment and fear, and was obliged to sit all day without years in Abyssinia, and was engaged by Salt) victuals in the shade of a tree; and the night threatverifies one of Bruce's most extraordinary state-ened to be very uncomfortable--for the wind rose, and ments—the practice of the Abyssinians of eating there was great appearance of a heavy rain-and the raw meat cut out of a living cow! This was long wild beasts are so very numerous in the neighbour. ridiculed and disbelieved, though in reality it is not hood, that I should have been under the necessity of much more barbarous than the custom of the poor climbing up the tree and resting amongst the branches. Highlanders in Scotland of bleeding their cattle in About sunset, however, as I was preparing to pass winter for food. Pearce witnessed the operation : the night in this manner, and had turned my horse a cow was thrown down, and two pieces of flesh, loose that he might graze at liberty, a woman, reweighing about a pound, cut from the buttock, after turning from the labours of the field, stopped to obwhich the wounds were sewed up, and plastered serve me, and perceiving that I was weary and over with cow-dung. Dr Clarke and other tra- dejected, inquired into my situation, which I briefly vellers have borne testimony to the correctness of explained to her; whereupon, with looks of great Bruce's drawings and maps. The only disingenu- compassion, she took up my saddle and bridle, and ousness charged against our traveller is his alleged told me to follow her. Having conducted me into concealment of the fact, that the Nile, whose sources her hut, she lighted up a lamp, spread a mat on the have been in all ages an object of curiosity, was the floor, and told me I might remain there for the night. ! Bahr-el-Abiad, or White River, flowing from the Finding that I was very hungry, she said she would west, and not the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Blue River, procure me something to eat. She accordingly went which descends from Abyssinia, and which he ex- out, and returned in a short time with a rery fine j plored. It seems also clear that Paez, the Portu- fish, which, having caused to be half broiled upon guese traveller, had long, previously visited the some embers, she gave me for supper. The rites of source of the Bahr-el-Azrek.

hospitality being thus performed towards a stranger | in distress, my worthy benefactress (pointing to the

mat, and telling me I might sleep there without ap MUNGO PARK, &c.

prehension) called to the female part of her family, Next in interest and novelty to the travels of Bruce who had stood gazing on me all the while in fised are those of MUNGO Park in Central Africa. Mr astonishment, to resume their task of spinning cotton, Park was born at Fowlshiels, near Selkirk, on the in which they continued to employ themselves great 10th of September 1771. He studied medicine, and part of the night. They lightened their labour by performed a voyage to Bencoolen in the capacity of songs, one of which was composed extempore, for I assistant-surgeon to an East Indiaman. The Afri- was myself the subject of it. "It was sung by one of can Association, founded in 1778 for the purpose of the young women, the rest joining in a sort of chorus promoting discovery in the interior of Africa, had The air was sweet and plaintive, and the words, litesent out several travellers—John Ledyard, Lucas, rally translated, were these :— The winds roared, and Major Houghton-all of whom had died. Park, and the rains fell. The poor white man, faint and however, undeterred by these examples, embraced weary, came and sat under our tree. He has no the society's offer, and set sail in May 1795. On mother to bring him milk-no wife to grind his corn. the 21st of June following he arrived at Jillifree, on he, &c. &c. Trifling as this recital may appear to

Chorus.—Let us pity the white man-no mother has the banks of the Gambia. He pursued his journey the reader, to a person in my situation the circum: towards the kingdom of Bambarra, and saw the great object of his mission, the river Niger flowing stance was affecting in the highest degree. I was towards the east. The sufferings of Park during fled from my eyes. In the morning I presented


oppressed by such unexpected kindness, and sleep his journey, the various incidents he encountered, his captivity among the Moors, and his description compassionate landlady with two of the four bras of the inhabitants, their manners, trade, and cus

buttons which remained on my waistcoat-the only 1 toms, constitute a narrative of the deepest interest. recompense I could make her. The traveller returned to England towards the His fortitude under suffering, and the natural piety latter end of the year 1797, when all hope of him of his mind, are beautifully illustrated by an incihad been abandoned, and in 1799 he published his dent related after he had been robbed and stript uf travels. The style is simple and manly, and replete most of his clothes at a village near Kooma :with a fine moral feeling. One of his adventures After the robbers were gone, I sat for some time (which had the honour of being turned into verse looking around me with amazement and terror.

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