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sight, the batteries limbered up, and seated on a gun-limber, Lord Raglan advanced in pursuit.

rode up and questioned him. Io reThe battle, it will be seen, had thus ply, he said that the number of the rolled back to the right rear of the Russians was about 50,000; that they Russians. On the extreme right did not expect we should ever take of their original position, at the top the position; and added that they had of the heights, was a battery be- come to fight men, and not devils, as hind an epaulment, with a flank for our red-coats seemed to be. When seven guns, thrown back to prevent taken on board ship, he complained the right being turned. The brigade that one of his captors had deprived of Highlanders being on the left of him of his silver snuff-box. Inquiry the British line, found themselves, was made, and the artilleryman who when the first division crossed the had it gave it up; but it certainly river, directly in front of this battery, seems no more than reasonable to which, before it followed the other expect that, if people choose to take guns in their retreat, poured upon such articles into action, they should them, during their advance, a heavy submit to lose them with a good but ill-directed fire, doing them but grace. little damage. At the top of the hill Two guns were taken, but the printhey met some battalions of the enemy cipal trophy was Prince Menscbikoff's still showing a front, and compelled carriage, with his papers. In one them to retreat with the loss of a good despatch the general assures the Czar many men; and two troops of horse that the position selected on the Alma artillery, which had crossed the river must detain the Allies at least three higher up, coming into action, plunged weeks, and that he confidently hoped into the retreating masses with great it would be found altogether impregeffect. Thus ended the battle of the nable. It was taken in three hours. Alma. The Russians might still be But the Russian general did not seen withdrawing in masses across overrate the strength of his position; the plain ; but the troops, French and his mistake was in his estimate of the English, halted on the ground they troops who were to assail it. It would had won; and the batteries, six in be difficult to find a position more number, which, by advancing, had defensible in itself, and almost imposplaced themselves at the apex of two sible to select another equally strong, irregular lines, found themselves with where the ground in front is so favournothing between them and the enemy. able to the artillery fire of the defendSome withdrew behind the third divi- ers, and so devoid of all shelter from sion, which, together with part of the it. However, one other position as light, bad been moved to the front, strong, or even stronger, exists on the and others were covered by a detach- river Katcha, five miles distant from ment posted for the purpose on the the Alma, on which we expected to plain.

find the Russians had fallen back. In the advance, an officer of Wode- Two men of literary celebrity wit. house's battery, Lieutenant Richards, nessed the action-Mr Layard, who took prisoner a Russian general, whose saw it from the ships, and the author horse had thrown him, and who was of Eothen, who rode with Lord Ragtrying to hide himself. While he was lan's staff throughout the day.

CHAP. V.--THE BATTLE-FIELD. Going out of our camp next morn- its breast pierced, and left arm broken ing, to see where our own division lay, by a round shot. Beside these lay I heard a moaning on my right, on the two other soldiers, one alive, wounded bank of one of the ravines we had fired in the head, and resting, like the up the preceding day. Proceeding other sufferer, on a comrade's corpse, towards the sound, I found it came which lay on its face. The first man, from a wounded Russian, who had by signs and words, earnestly begged made a pillow of the corpse of a for water, which was bronght him, brother soldier which lay on its back, and a surgeon coming up, examined

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his wounds. The flesh of both his thighs had been torn away; he was too badly injured to be moved, or even relieved otherwise than by trying to make him comfortable as he lay; and next morning it was a relief to hear that he had died in the night. On the knoll around were about a dozen wounded men, who had lain there all night in torment, and to whom our soldiers now afforded a temporary relief.

The sides of the ravine, or rather gully, were sprinkled all the way with bodies, and with knapsacks and accoutrements thrown away by the flying enemy. On the slopes, too, and the paths crossing them, were lying dead men here and there, with scattered knapsacks and arms. One dead Russian appeared to have been lying on his back, probably wounded, or perhaps killed, when a shot from our batteries, towards which his head was turned, had carried away all his features, leaving an unsightly block, and had broken his foot short off at the instep, where it hung back as if on a hinge.

But it was not till reaching the plain on which stood the unfinished signal-tower, already mentioned as the contested point in the French attack, that there appeared signs of a sanguinary conflict. Many Russians lay dead there, and they lay thicker near the signal-tower, the hillock on which it was built being strewn with them. Three or four had been bayoneted while defending the entrance; and in the narrow space within, which was divided into compartments, were three or four small groups, slain in the defence. Another spot near contained three or four hundred corpses.

Riding back up the course of the river, we came to the slopes where the British had been most warmly engaged; and here it was that the real nature of the struggle first became apparent. The slope below the epaulment, on which the 18-gun battery had been posted, was covered with men of the 7th, 23d, and 33d, thickly intermixed with greycoated, helmeted Russians. Within the breastwork the enemy lay in ranks. One company seemed to have fallen as it stood; there was no heaping of the bodies one on another, but

it would have been difficult to step between them. Some lay with their faces buried in the soil, as if they had fallen as they turned to fly; others on their backs with bullet - holes through their foreheads; a few had their hands outstretched, as if still grasping their weapons, or grappling with their enemy. Altogether, I estimated the bodies in and about the breast work at seven or eight hundred, of whom two-thirds were Russians; and the returns of the officers charged with the burial duty did not much differ from that conjecture.

Passing onward to the right of the Russian position, the plain was again thickly strewn with dead; the tall bear-skins showing where the Guards had fought. In a narrow hollow way I observed a line of Russians, who seemed to have fallen while using it as a breastwork. Ascending the slope to the top of the position, the bodies there bore the marks of cannon shot; this was where our fire had turned the column. In a spot to the left, fifty or sixty bodies showed where the Highlanders had poured in their fire at the close of the battle; and again, on the plains at the top of the heights, files of slain, with the round shot still in some instances sticking in the farthest body, marked the line of retreat where the artillery had last fired upon the enemy.

All over the ground, so grimly strewn, were numerous parties burying the dead, and carrying off the wounded, both friends and foes. Hospitals had been established in the village north of the river, in some empty houses on each side of the road. Here the surgeons of the army, and some from the navy, were in terribly full practice; and as those whose wounds were already dressed were borne to the sea, others from the field took their places. Parties of sailors carrying hammocks assisted the soldiers, who were provided with stretchers for the wounded, and the road to the beach was crowded with these. Some stray Cossacks were seen during the day hovering on our flank and rear, and a detachment of cavalry patrolled the plain we had been marshalled on the day before, to protect the hospitals and burial parties. As I stood on this plain, sketch

ing the position of the Russian army, One English soldier was said to have a clergyman approached an open found forty gold pieces on a dead body; grave, to the edge of which a party and I heard of a drummer of the Guards of artillerymen brought a body wrapt who, assisting a woanded Rassian in a cloak. It was that of Lieutenant officer, received from him bis purse. Cockerell, whose leg had been carried This the man took care of, and gave away by a cannon shot the day be to the captain of his company, who fore, while in action with his battery forwarded it to the Russian on board near this spot, and who had died after ship; but it was returned, with a reamputation.

quest that the drummer would keep Two entire days were occupied in it as a token of the owner's gratiremoving the traces of contiict and tude. carrying the wounded to the ships. On the plain near the signal-tower, The Russian arms and accoutrements where the struggle was hottest on the left on the field were collected in part of the French, our allies left a heaps, from whence the curious ga- stone, inscribed • Victoire de la thered trophies to hand down to pos. Alma," with the date. The English terity as mementoes of a famous field. left no monument on their fatal hill; The eagles on the front of the helmets but it needs none. The inhabitants of the Imperial Guard eemed in will return to the valley, the burnt greatest request for this purpose; and village will be rebuilt, the wasted though, on the second evening, I ex- vineyards replanted, and tillage will amined some hundreds of these hel- efface the traces of the conflict ; but mets, I found all had been stript of tradition will for centuries continue the ornaments, so I contented myself to point, with no doubtful finger, to with a pouch-belt. Some were so the spot where the British infantry, fortunate as to get excellent rifles, thinned by a storm of cannon shot, but the common muskets were very drove the battalions of the Czar, with shabby in appearance, and were most- terrible slaughter, from one of the ly thrown away after being broken, strongest positions in Europe.


Amid this scene of blood, it seemed tion, it would scarcely have been pru. unnatural that any one could find dent for him to risk a battle where time to die other than a violent death. the pursuit might carry the victors But the cholera still exacted its daily into Sebastopol along with the vantribute. Major Wellesley of the quished. Staff died of it on the morning of the The position on the Katcha is, in battle. Brigadier Tylden, of the En: one respect, more advantageous than gineers, whom I met riding over the that on the Alma. Like the latter, ground in good health on the follow- it has a village on the north bank of ing day, never left the field, but ex- the river, beyond which is a plain ; pired after a few hours' illness ; and but the plain, in this instance, instead there were many others who passed of sloping upwards against the line of unharmed through the combat, only fire, is quite level for about three to die a less soldierly death by pesti- quarters of a mile; and the lower lence.

range of heights on which the cannon The road between the Alma and would have been posted, being less the Katcha, traversed by the army on elevated than the knolls occupied by the 23d, lay as before over dry the artillery at the Alma, every shot grassy plains. Here we expected to that bounded along the plain would find the enemy awaiting us; but, as- have told with double effect. Except cending the ridge which overlooks at the ford, the banks of the river the valley, we saw the heights unoc- were high, and as steep as the sides of cupied. The lesson on the Alma had a trench. It was such a position as been so sharp that the enemy never English troops would have held stood again in the field; and could against the world in arms, and, bad he have found heart to hold the posi- the enemy made a determined stand

there, the conflict would have been no cent." They also praised highly our less desperate and bloody than that artillery, the horses and equipment of the 20tb.

of which were certainly not to be surThough it was scarcely noon when passed. we reached the heights beyond the A yawning rift, half a mile wide, river, we encamped there for the separates the heights on the opposite night. The village extended for some sides of the Balbek. Beyond the distance along the narrow valley, and stream the aspect of the country became, up the stream, extremely changes from grassy plains to bills, pretty, with nice white houses stand- divided by deep ravines, and covered ing amid poplars, and surrounded by with low oak-coppice. A steep road, vineyards, gardens, and stackyards. which the English and French artilThe cottages had been deserted in lery descended together, led us to the evident haste; bedsteads were still river. Down the hill we found two standing ; large chests which had ap- waggons, painted green, abandoned parently held the household gods and by the Russians : they contained a treasures were open and empty; and great number of copper pans and there were cradles from which the in- dishes, and about 20,000 rounds of fants had lately been spatched in rifle ammunition, the balls pointed, hurry and alarm. All the cottages and fitting a two-grooved rifle. The were very neat and clean, and the Russian method of folding a cartridge furniture spoke of comfort. This, as is particularly neat and convenient: well as the doors and rafters, was the end can be twisted off and the appropriated by the soldiers as fire- powder exposed in a moment. wood to cook their rations; and from Passing up the valley to the river, every door-way might be seen emerg- we came to a small villa, which had ing a forager with a beam, a bench, been plundered by the retreating or a chest, and under every camp-fire Russians. I rode up the road leading were blazing the splinters of some to the courtyard, and, tying my horse cherished Lar, or long-descended heir- to the garden railing, entered the loom. Many cats lingered with feline house. On the steps of the porch tenacity about these forsaken thresh- were some broken arm-chairs covered olds, winking lazily at the new-com- with yellow damask. In a room on ers as they suckled their kittens in the right were broken sofas, chairs, the sun, and apparently indifferent, and card-tables heaped together, and so that mice were plentiful, whether a piano, still tnpeable, with the front Russians or British held the village. board torn off, exposing the keys. I carried a small black one, which one Upstairs was a small library, where a of our people picked up on the bank good many French books lay scattered of the river, on my bolsters for some on the floor. Portraits of a lady and time, feeding him with biscuit; but gentleman, of a very low signboardduring my absence from the saddle kind-of-order of art, had been torn he made off. Many ownerless dogs from their frames; and two fine mirmade friends with the army here, and, rors, quite uninjured, in gilt frames, no doubt, will long be found in the leant against the wall amid a heap of ranks, all answering, of course, to the other furniture. In front of the house name of Katcha. At this place the was a garden laid out in flower-beds, Scotch Greys and the 57th regiment with fruit-trees in the midst of them. joined the army.

I climbed into a tree bearing still Between this river and the Balbek some large yellow plums, and found the Allied armies marched so close to them delicious, though rather overeach other, on the 24th, that the red ripe. On the right of the garden was coats almost intermingled with the a vineyard with plenty of grapes. On blue; and the officers of the two na- the left a fence, lined with dahlias in tions rode together, Prince Napoleon full bloom, gay in colour, though not conversing with the Duke of Cam- of high floricultural rank, separated bridge. The Guards and Highlanders the garden from a kind of orchard of were on the right, and were much ad- apples, pears, and peach-trees. Unmired by the French officers, who der the latter the fruit lay thick on called them “superb" and "magnifi- the ground, and before riding off I filled my haversack to furnish a those articles of dress from their oridessert.

ginal blue to a dirty olive-green. Passing the river we ascended a However, the pumpkin, mashed in the narrow, strong, winding road, leading Yankee fashion, and the boiled cabup a steep ravine; and, emerging into bage, turned out so good, that no vain plainer ground at the top, pitched our regrets were expended on my unfor. tents amid the coppice, in the pleasant- tunate contribution to the feast. est camping-ground we had yet found We were now so close to tbe great in the Crimea. While dinner was object of the expedition that, by gogetting ready, the allurements of ing up the road about a mile and a which were heightened by the pre- half, the towers and fortifications of sence of a fine cabbage and a pump- Sebastopol were seen, at no great diskin from the garden of the villa, I tance, in the basin below. This was took off my haversack to display the the north frout of the place, to strengthdessert it contained. Bat the trans- en which all the efforts of the Russian formation of the money in the East- engineers had been directed since the ern tale into dry leaves, was not expedition had been first talked of. more disappointing to the owner than The whole of theground there was supthe spectacle now revealed. The posed to be rendered deadly by batripeness of the fruit had anfitted it teries and mines, and the next move to bear the jolting of my horse. Plums in the game was anxiously awaited. and peaches were squeezed into a We had halted two nights on this shapeless compound, and mixed with ground, during which the cavalry and crumbs of ration biscuit; while in the horse-artillery, who were on outpost centre of the mass lay imbedded a duty, led a hard life. The borses had piece of dried tongue, escaped from neither forage nor water for fortyits envelope ; and the expressed juice eight hours, all which time they reof the fruit, partly running down the mained accoutred and harnessed; and leg of my trousers, partly absorbed by the men and officers did not, for my forage-cap, which was in my these and two other days, taste haversack, bad turned the colour of meat.


Towards noon on the 26th the artil- who might pick off the men and lery of the first division received orders horses, and capture the guns without to march immediately, without wait- risk. ing for the infantry, up the road near Presently Lord Raglan came riding which we were encamped. Proceed- up, followed by his staff, and demanding about a mile, we came to a white ed sharply why we had halted ; and, house on the roadside, in front of going to the troop in front, ordered which Lord Raglan and General them immediately to proceed, himself Airey were seated looking at a map. leading the way. Accordingly, we His lordship motioned us to take a advanced through the wood for about by - road into the woods on our left, three miles farther, when Lord Ragand called out to us to go south- lan and his staff came back in haste, east. Accordingly we went on, steer- inquiring for the cavalry. In an ing by the sun, and following the open space in front of us they had main path, which was overhung with come suddenly on a Russian force, bushes. After proceeding in this marching at right angles to our owu. way for an hour, our progress was Had the enemy, whose numbers stopped by a troop of our horse-artil- were variously estimated at from ten lery, halted in the road in front. to fifteen thousand men, known our Finding themselves unsupported by order of march, they might, by throwcavalry, they had naturally become ing a sufficient force of infantry into alarmed for the safety of their right the wood, have captured, or at any flank and front in a spot where artil. rate disabled, about twenty of our Jery would be taken at a great disad- guns. The cavalry, some squadrons vantage if attacked by skirmishers, of which presently trotted past us to

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