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whip, which he applied with all his force recollected having fetched in water, and of across the shoulders, but which did not ap- having moved from one chair to the other, in pear to make any impression, although a do. the kitchen, being the last two acts previous zen lashes were applied. Immediately af to sinking into the trance. His eyes were ter this, the operation of bleeding was had several times opened by force, and the pupils recourse to, and the conversation occurred as regularly contracted and dilated, but be was related before, during the time the blood was not sensible to vision. It was ascertained flowing. After the arın was tied up, Mr. from his mother, on the Tuesday following, Hewson, jun. told him to take some lights to that twelve months previous he had been at a customer; he answered he bad taken them tacked with fever, which had affected bis in the morning. He was then told by Mr. brain, anu for which he bad been sent to the Hewson, sen. to take some more ; that is of Fever House at Battle Bridge, where bis do use, he answered, I shall have to bring head was shaved and blistered. them back again : in three or four minutes Query? wherber this latter circumstance from this he awoke, and getting up, wonder- could have, in any way, affected the particued at the scene around him, but could notlar nerves oppressed in this trance. tell any thing of what had occurred, or be Benjamin Ridge, Surgeon, &c. made sensible of having done any thing: but
No. 1, Bridge Road, Lambeth.
Eastern Bottles. CHAR "HARDIN informs us, that the Speaking of the Greek convent at Bell
Arabs, and all those who lead a mount, near Tripoli in Syria, he says, wandering life, preserve their water, “ The same person whom we saw offimilk, and other liquors, in leathern ciating at the altar in his embroidered bottles. “ They keep in them more sacerdotal robe, brought us the next fresh than otherwise they would do. day, on his own back, a kid and a goatThese leathern bottles are made of skin of wine as a present from the congoat-skins. When the animal is killed, vent.” MR. BRUCE gives a description they cut off its feet and its head, and of the girba, which seems to be a vese ihey draw it in this manner out of the sel of the same kind as those now men. skin without opening its belly. They tioned, only of dimensions considerably afterwards sew up the places where the larger. "A girba is an ox's skin, legs were cut off and the tail, and when squared, and the edges sewed together it is filled they tie it about the neck, very artificially, by a double seam These nations, and the country people which does not let out water, much of Persia, never go a journey without a resembling that upon the best English small leathern bottle of water hanging cricket-balls. An opening is left at by their side like a scrip. The great the top of the girba, in the same rnanleathern bottles are made of the skin of ner as the bunghole of a cask ; around a he-goat, and the small ones that serve this the skin is gathered to the size of a instead of a bottle of water on the road, large handful, which, when the girba are made of a kid's skin." These boto is full of water, is tied round with whiptles are frequently rent when old and cord. These girbas generally contain much used, and are capable of being re. about sixty gallons each, and two of paired by being bound up. 66 This them are the load of a camel. They they do,” CHARDIN says, “ sometimes are besmeared on the outside with by setting in a piece : sometimes by grease, as well to hinder the water from gathering up the wounded place in the oozing through, as to prevent its being manner of a purse : sometimes they evaporated by the heat of the sun upon put in a round flat piece of wood, and the girba ; which, in fact, happened to by that means stop the hole."
us twice, so as to put us in imminent MAUNDRELL gives a similar account. danger of perishing with thirst."
Vegetable Corrective of Bitter or Brackish Water. Exodus xv. 23, 25. "And they Lord showed him a tree, which when could not drink of the waters of Ma- he had cast into the waters, the waters rah, for they were bitter.–And Mo- were made sweet. *P8 cried unto the Lord; and the The Hebrew word marah signifies
Waters of Marah-Gates of Ancient Cities Asiatic Ox-Goad. 57 bitter. The water of the deserts of ging a well, employ this wood as the the East in general, and in particular underlayer, which is let down into the in a part of the great Arabian desert, is water, and stones built over it. bitter and brackish. It has likewise In Peru there is a plant, called by been discovered, that there are several the Spaniards Yerva Caniani, which kinds of plants by which this water is has the power of purifying and renderrendered drinkable. Thus, a certain ing drinkable any water, however free growing on the coast of Coroman- brackish and corrupt. The Peruvians, del, which is called in the Tamul lan- when they travel to Buenos Ayres or guage nellimaran, possesses this pow. Chili, always carry the herb with them, er. A missionary of the name of Kir- and do not hesitate to drink any water nander states, that in the year 1744 which they meet with on the way, they had the misfortune to have a fine when they have purified it with this spring, in the garden of the missiona- herb; which is done by pouring the ries turn bitter from a want of rain, water upon it, and letting it stand a few which is frequently the case. He was minutes before it is wanted for use. advised to cut down a nellimaram, and The water thus purified, nearly resemto throw it into the spring : he did so, bles warm water poured upon the best and the water became and remained green tea : its colour is light green with drinkable. The Tamulians, when dig- a light yellowish tinge.
The Gates of Ancient Cities. Deuteronomy xxi. 19. “And they enemies in the gate.” It is probable, shall bring him out into the elders of that the room or hall where the magiskis city, and unto the gate of his trates sat, was over the gate, because place.'—The gates of cities were in Boaz is said to go up to the gate : and former times the places of judicature the reason of having it built there and of common resort. Here the gov- seems to have been for the convenience ernors and elders of the city went to of the inhabitants, who, being all hus. hear complaints, administer justice, bandmen, are forced to pass and repass make conveyances of titles and estates, every morning and evening as they and, in short, to transact all the pub- went to and came from their labour, lie affairs of the place. And hence might be more easily called as they the Psalmist remarks, “ They shall not event by, whenever they were wanted be ashamed when they speak with their to appear on any business.
The Asiatic O.x-Goad. Judges ii. 31. “ And after him sharp prickle, for driving the oxen ; was Skangar, the son of Anath, which and at the other end with a small spade slew of the Philistines six hundred or paddle of iron, strong and massy, men with an ox-goad.”—Mr. Maun- for cleansing the plough from the clay drell bas an observation, which at that encumbers it in working. May once explains this transaction, and re we not from hence conjecture that it moves every difficulty from the passage. was with such a goad as one of these, He says, " The country people were that Shamgar made that prodigious now every where at plough in the slaughter related of him, Judges iii. 31 ? fields, in order to sow cotton. It was I am confident that whoever should see observable that in ploughing they used one of these instruments, would judge goads of an extraordinary size. Upon it to be a weapon not less fit, perhaps measuring of several, I found them fitter, than a sword, for such an execuabout eight feet long, and, at the bigger tion. Goads of this sort I saw always end, six inches in circumference. They used hereabouts, and also in Syria, and were armed at the lesser end with a the reason is, because the same person
8 ATHENEUM VOL. 1. new series.
both drives the oxen, and also holds husbandman, holding the plough with and manages the plough; which makes one hand, by a handle like that of a it necessary to use such a goad as is walking-crutch, bore in the other a above described, to avoid the incum- goad of seven or eight feet in length, brance of two instruments."
armed with a sharp point of iron at Maundrell's Journey. one end, and at the other with a plate At Tyre,” Mr. Buckingham ob- of the same metal, shaped like a calkserves, “they were ploughing the ing-chiset. One attendant only was ground for corn. Oxen were yoked necessary for each plough, as he who in pairs for this purpose, and the plough guided it with one hand, spurred the was small and of simple construction ; oxen with the point of the goad, and so that it appeared necessary for two cleared the earth from the plough-share, to follow each other in the same fur- by its spaded heel, with the other." row, as they invariably did. The Buckingham's Travels in Palestine.
Copiousness of Eastern Dews. Judges vi. 38. “ And it was 80: up the Red Sea, when on the Arabian for he rose up early on the morrow, shores, observes, “Difficult as and thrust the fleece together, and find it to keep ourselves cool in the wringed the dew out of the fleece, a day-time, it is no easy matter to defend bowl-full of water. It may seem a our bodies from the damps of the night, little improbable to us who inhabit when the wind is loaded with the heavthese northern climates, where the jest dews that ever fell. We lie exposdews are inconsiderable, how Gideon's ed to the whole weight of the dews; fleece, in one night, should contract and the cloaks in which we wrap oursuch a quantity, that when he came to selves are as wet in the morning as if .wring it, a bowl-full of water was pro- they had been immersed in the sea." duced. Irwin, however, in his voyage
Description of a Desert. Psalm cvii. 4, 5. “ They wandered travellers kill them to extract the little in the wilderness in a solitary way:
liquid which remains in their stomachs, Thirsty, their soul fainted in them.” they themselves cannot advance any " It is difficult to form a correct idea further. The situation is dreadful, and of a desert, without having been in one. admits of no resource. Many perish, It is an evdless plain of sand and stones, victims of the most horrible thirst. It sometimes intermixed with mountains is then that the value of a cup of water of all sizes and heights, without roads is really felt. or shelter, and without any sort of pro
« In such a case there is no distincduce for food.
tion. If the master has none, the ser“Generally speaking, in a desertvant will not give it to him; for very there are a few springs of water, some few are the instances where a man will of them at the distance of four, six, and voluntarily lose his life to save that of eight days journey from one another, another. What a situation for a man, and not all of sweet water; on the con- though a rich one, perhaps the owner trary, it is generally salt or bitter; so of all the caravan. He is dying for a that is the thirsty traveller drinks of it cup of water-no one gives it to him; his thirst is increased, and he suffers he offers all he possesses-no one hears more than before. But when the ca- him; they are all dying, though by lamity happens, that the next well walking a few hours further they might which is so anxiously sought for, be saved. is found dry, the misery of such a situ " In short, to be thirsty in a desert, ation cannot be well described. The without water, exposed to the burning camels, which afford the only means of sun, without shelter, and with no hopes escape, are so thirsty that they cannot of finding either, is the most terrible proceed to another well, and if the situation that a man can be placed in,
and one of the greatest sufferings that a is troublesome even to healthy people, human being can sustain : the tongue or he must be left behind on the sand, and lips swell; a hollow sound is heard without any assistance, and remain so in the ears which brings on deafness, till a slow death come to relieve him. and the brain appears to grow thick No one remains with him, not even his and inflamed.
old and faithful servant; no one will " If, unfortunately, any one falls sick stay and die with him; all pity his fate, on the road, he must either endure the but no one will be his companion.” fatigue of travelling on a camel, which
Belzoni. Eastern Hospitality. Genesis xix. 2. « Turn in, I pray taking my horse by the bridle, ' Friend,' you, into your servant's house, and said he, come and wash thy feet, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, eat bread at my house. Thou art a and ye shall rise up early, and go on stranger, and, since I have met thee your ways.”—The Eastern nations upon the road, never refuse me the fahave always distinguished themselves vour which I desire of thee.' We could by their great hospitality. The follow. not choose but go along with him to his ing instance, froid Tavernier's Travels, house, where he feasted us in the best is truly characteristic.
manner he could, giving us over and " We were not above a musket shot above barley for our horses ; and for from Auna, when we met with a come- ourselves be killed a lamb and some ly old man, who came up to me, and hens.”
Egyptian Onions. Nombers xi. 5. “We remember the Dr. Edward Brown, in his descriponions which we did eat in Egypt free- tion of Larissa, in Thessaly, says, ly.”_“Whoever has tasted onions in “The inhabitants use garlick in most Egypt,” observes Hasselquist,“ must of their dishes, and their onions are exallow that none can be found better in traordinary, as large as two or three any part of the universe. Here they common sized ones with us, and of a are sveet, in other countries they are far better taste; being sharp, quick, nauseous and strong; here they are and pleasantly pungent, without any soft, whereas in the north and other offensive smell. Though I was no parts they are hard of digestion. lover of onions before, yet I found Hence they cannot, in any place, be these exceedingly pleasant. I asked a eaten with less prejudice and more sat- Chiaus, then with us, who had travel. isfaction than in Egypt. They eat led through most of the Turkish dominthem roasted, cut into four pieces, ions, whether he had any where met with some bits of roasted meat, which with as good onions as those of Thesthe Turks in Egypt call kobah ; and saly, who answered me that the onions with this dish they are so delighted that of Egypt were better; which was the I have heard them wish they might en- first time I sensibly understood the exjoy it in Paradise. They likewise pression in the Scripture; and ceased make soup of them in Egypt, cutting to wonder why the Israelites lingered the onions in small pieces: this I think after the onions of that country.” one of the best dishes I ever eat.”
THE SOULS OF THE JUST.
Like light and warmth, once lived below, A loss in every parting ray ;
That long with you to fly away.
Centre and source of brightness all, Of captive spirit sball be free,
And shine with you, all bright and warm, Recalls his beams whep shadows fall. Around one glorious Deity! Nero..
(Blackwood's Edingb. Mag.)
“Quel dommage que tout cela nourrira !
that they are, most conscientiously imOui, Monsieur ! mais cela n'est pas pourri.”
partial ? The same anxious cares may, JOHN BULL and Lord Byron are it is true, be equally bestowed on all
. agreed on one point at least
. Both The same tender and endearing epiassert “ cant” to be the prevailing mo- thets be applied to all-but the eye ral feature of the age we live in. In- will linger longest on the sweet countenumerable scribblers have caught up nance of the lovely little one,
parenthe same note, and spun it out in end- tal kiss will dwell more fondly on its less variation, and I, among the small cherub lip, and the voice, in speaking fry of literature, am fain to join in the to it, will be involuntarily modulated to chorus. Of all cants, then, one of the softer and more tender tones. most sickening to my taste is that of not arguing that this preference, howsome parents who pretend (for I give ever involuntarily and unconscious it them little credit for sincerity) to de- may be, is even then wholly defensible, precate for their female offspring the or that, if knowingly, and weakly yieldpossession of that precious gift, as it ed to, it is not entirely inexcusable. I really is, or, as they are pleased to term only assert that it is in human nature, it, “ that dangerous endowment,” per- and waving that side of the question, sonal attractiveness. They affect, for which if analyzed would involve a long sooth, to thank Providence that their moral discussion, not necessarily condaughters are “no beauties"—ór to nected with my present subject, I shall sigh and lament over their dangerous simply proceed to observe, that if this comeliness, and then they run out into unconscious, irresistible preference frea long string of trite axioms, and stale quently influences even the fondest common-places, about the snares and parents, how far more unrestrainedly vanities of this wicked world, as if does it manifest itself, in the surroundnone but beauties were exposed to the ing circle of friends, guests, relations, assaults of the tempter. Now, I am and casual visitors. How many infirmly of opinion, (nay, every day ex- dulgences and gratifications are obperience proves it so,) that ugly wo- tained for the irresistible pleader ! men, called plain by courtesy, are just How many petitions granted for the reas likely to slip and stumble in those muneration of a kiss! How tenderly treacherous pitfalls, as others of their are the tears of contrition wiped away sex, more distinguished by personal from eyes that look so beautifully reattractions; and that, on a fair ave- morseful !_And all this, I firmly berage, pretty women are the happiest, lieve, if restrained by good feelings and as well as the most agreeable of the just principle, from reaching a blameaspecies.
ble success, is productive only of good Let us take a fair sample of this ge- results in the young mind, and that nus--not a perfect specimen. The children happily constituted by nature botanist may select such for his herbal, in person and disposition, thrive best but it would not so well answer our (even in a moral sense) in that atmospurpose in exemplifying human varie phere of tender indulgence, and become ties. Let us suppose a child endowed ultimately most amiable and equable, with moderate abilities, an amiable dis- least selfish and exacting, in all the vaposition, and a decent share of beauty, rious relations of life. The reason of and other children in the same family, this I take to be—that they feel the gifted in an equal proportion with the most perfect confidence in their fellowsame mental qualifications, but wholly creatures; and how many of the best diestitute of exterior advantages. Will affections of our nature spring up and not the fair attractive child be the most flourish under the kindly influence of favoured, the best beloved, generally that most Christian feeling! The fair speaking, even of those parents who en- engaging child expands into womandeavour to be, and honestly believe hood in the warm sunshine of affection