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the Been, secure from molestation, seldom failed to produce a plentiful supply of their delicious sweets.

Unfortunately, this good.old mode is sacrificed to modern folly j and in its stead an elegant Bee-house in the Chinese, or some other still more ridiculous style, must be erected; into this refined modern structure the industrious insects are now compelled to enter; and most likely, if the owner can affortl it, into hives of glass at the same lime, instead of warin coverings of straw. Now this Chinese Bee-house must he placed at no great distance from the dwelling-house, because the curious proprietor wishes to attend to their labours, and therefore it must be placed in his own garden, which, forsooth, must also be planted, for the use of the Bees, with flowers of such kind as are known to yield honey in the greatest abundance j and in this situation, the Bees, constantly subject to the unwelcome visits of domestics, friends, and curious neighbours, besides dots, and other animals, embrace the earliest opportunity of quitting their elegant apartments, and fly to a more congenial abode in the hollow of some antieut tree ; or if they do not seek a more agreeable residence, they seldom prove industrious, or produce honey in any material quantity, so that, if left without assistance, they generally die during the season of Winter, and not unfrequently destroy one another in warfare.

Bees are not fond of artificial'habitations, nor will they collect their materials from flowers planted about them, but seek their honey abroad; they are not fond of the society of man, and often testify their disapprobation of it. To be thriving, they should be resigned, as much as possible, to the care of their parent, Nature, i kuew an instance of a very indolent fellow, who possessed a large colony of Bees, about which he never gave himself the smallest concern, yet his Bees were remarkably productive. On a warm day in the month of June he happened to have a young swarm issue forth from one of his hives, which soon settled on a bush close to the edge of a deep ditch, in which the young swarm, as soon as hived, were placed until they should become sufficiently quiet to be removed to a more eligible situObmt. Mao. Suppl. LXXXVII. Part. I.

ation, but which, to be brief, was forgotten ever to be done; in this state they remained upon the ground, and, overgrown by every kind of rubbish, until the owner's attention was called to them the ensuing year by a neighbour, who discovered them' preparing to send out a young swarm. , The original stock proved, upon examination, the strongest and richest in the man's possession.

It is not the laudable curiosity of the ingenious and inquisitive Naturalist, with regard to Bees, that I would condemn; but if we would see Nature in perfection, we must tread Nature's paths. W. Weekes.

Mr. Urban, June -7.

THE inclosed Deed is curious, not only for the contents, as relating to the celebrated voyager, Martin Frobisher, and his expedition in 1578, in search of the North-west passage, but for its attestation by the well-known Dr. Dee (of whom, see a large account in Lysons's Environs of London, Surrey, parish of Mortlake), as one of the Commissioners appointed to superintend the voyage. 1 send you a copy of the Deed. Yours, &c. A. B.

To all and singuler Capteynes, Lieutenaunts, Masters of Shippes, Souldior«, Maryners, SayloTM, and other men and Serviters whatsoeuer for the voyage towards the Northewest unto the country nowe named Mela incognita Manyu Frobyser, Esquyar, her MaliM Admiral! in tbose parts, and Generall Capteyne and Governor in and for the saide voyage, senditb greetinge: Forasmuohe as of cum'on experyence, yt is and alwayes hath byn founde necessarie that in such cases of government and conduction of men and shippes as aloresaide, every Generall, by reason he cannot be present in all pi.ic3 at all tunes, shoulde therefore depute and substitute a Generall Deputie under livm, with full authorise and com'ission to doo and execute all things whatsoever apperteyninge to good rule and government as largelje and amplie as his Gen'all hymself might or coulde doo being personally present: Know ye therefore, that I the saide Martyn Frobyser have named, appoynted, and ordeyned, and by p'nts doo name, appuinte, and ordeyne Edward Fenton, Esquyer for the bodye of or sov'eign ladye the Quene, my Generall Deputie and Lieuten»nte for me


and in ray sted and place in this saide voyage and jorney from tyme to tymc in myne absence in all places to doo and execute, and to com'aunde, and cause to be done and executid all and singuler thmge and things whatsoever which, shalbe necessarie for the rule, government, conduce'on, and appoyntment of all, and singuler men, matters, and things whatsoever, as largelie and amHJie as 1 my self myghte doo by venue of her ma1'" l'res patents to me thereof made and bearing date the xxth Haye of M'che in ye xxth yere of her reign, and according to suche instructions as I have heretofore by wrytinge signed, receyved from her Highnes prytie Counsell, the true copie whereof I have delyvered to th« saide Edwarde Fenton, com'aundinge and enioyninge all and singuler p'sons ■whatsoevf in or attendauntc upon the ■aide voyage from tyme to tyme at all tymes to be obedyent to my saide Deputie and Lieftenante generall in all the p'misses, as they will aunsware for the contrary: and as they tender the good pleasure and contentac'on of or sovereigne lady the Quenes Majestic, and of her most* honorable pryvie counsell, by whose specyall knowledge and com'aundement this p'nte com'ission is made and delyvered in force as aforesaide. In witnes whereof I the saide Martyn Frobyser hereunto have sett my Seale. Geoven the three and twentieth daie of Maye, in the twentith yere of the reigne of our Sovereigne Lady Elizabeth by the grace of God Queue of England, Fraunce, and Ire)ande,defendor of the fail he, &c.

I Martine Frobisher. L. S. Sealed and delyv'd in the pesence of suche her Mats com'issyon's for the voyage wthinseid whose names are subscribed. John Dee, Michael Locke, Andrewe Palmer.

Remarks on Ecclesiastical History. Letter III.

FROM almost all the reliqnes issued a similar sanative extillation [slillicidium] ; but even the common lamp-oil used in the churches has been known to restore sight to the blind, as is related in miruculis S. Dionysii Paris. lib. ii. u. 33. Taken inwardly, numbers of the sick, especially of fevers, were relieved by it; and Mabillon quotes a passage from Sulpitius Severus, wherein it is asserted, that Martinus, after blessing common oil, administered it inwardly. From the tomb of St. Segolena

flowed a curative oil without ceasing; the sacristan repeatedly set a large glass under it, as it continued to trickle. This oil was good for all diseases. I shall here just remark by the way, that the earliest report of it is borrowed from the legend in actis S. Jokannis, el vita ejus, which was still read in Greek in the sixth century. Euphraeinius, a Bishop of Antioch, formerly comet orientis, makes mention of it as jet extant in his time; and affirms that John was not dead any more than Enoch and Elisha; that he was indeed buried, agreeably to the general opinion, but presently m>ide his escape; and from his grave flowed the holy oil, which we still continue to draw. So it is related in these books: Photii Biblioth. coffoVe 229. pag. 443. edit. Ha?schel.

We find however even simpler remedies than this. Gregory relates of Bishop Forlunatus, that in the war of the Goths, two boys were carried captive, whom he would fain have ransomed; but the Goth positivelyrejected his offer. In much grief therefore he said to the Goth, thou wilt repent of this refusal. The latter rode on, having sent the boys before him. As he rode by a-Church dedicated to St. Peter, the horse stumbled with one foot, when the Goth was thrown down and fregit coxam, ila ut in duabus purtibus os ejus divisum. This brought him to recollection; and he directly sent back the boys. The Bishop upon this, gave to his deacon consecrated water, to pour over the body of the patient. Having done so, mox, ut aqua benedicta Gothi coxam conligit, ita omnis fractura solidata est—immediately the fracture was healed, as if the accident had never happened; and he rode on within the hour. This was perhaps some of the curious water, of which it is said, Dialog, i. 5. that it burnt as well as oil. For once when there was a want of oil, the lamps in the Church were filled with it, alque ex more in medio ptpyrum posuit (famulus), quas allato igne succendit, sicque aqua arsit in lampadibus, acsi oleumfuisset. Leastwise it is unquestionably as true, as what is related, cap. 2. concerning the virtue of a buskin or spatterdash, which the libertinus of St. Honoratus used always to carry about with him in bis bosom. It happened as he was riding, that a woman met him, bearing in her arras the lifeless body of her little son. On seeing him, and knowing by his habit that he was a servus dei, a monk, she laid hold on the bridle of his horse, and itrfplored his relief, nor would let him proceed till he granted her request. He therefore dismounted, raised his bands towards Heaven, and laid the buskin upon the child's breast. Whereupon the soul came into him again; and he delivered him to his mother, and then proceeded on Ins journey.

Were I but to attempt an account of the healing virtues of reliques iu general, it would prove too great a trial for common patience. However earnestly I should resolve upon consulting brevity, it would be impossible to adhere to my purpose, from the ever new and surprizing discoveries observable from time to time, especially on perusing what are styled the fontes historiw ecclesiastics. I am surely not the only one who is struck with amazement and concern to see, that Cbrysostom, who flourished in the latter part of the fourth century, and was still living in the beginning of the fifth, speaks with unaffected gravity in a sermon publicly delivered at Autioch [Homilia ad Anlioch. 5. tomo ii. edit. Montfaucon] of the excellency and dignity of the dung on which Job sat or lay when afflicted with a loathsome disease: >i xoTPia, this dung, which surpassed in dignity every royal throne, a^ol^x wavlos S^ovs /soo-iaixb —it would be attended with various beneficial effects to any one if he had personally seen this dung. — These are his words: be notices also, as a practice to which he had no objection to make (whether or not in pursuance of the temper of the times and the taste of the great multitude, it is perhaps not difficult to decide), that numbers performed journeys and pilgrimages thither, even from beyond sea, &c. I have no doubt that this great man was obliged to yield to the mad propensity of vulgar habit. Be that, however, as it may, a long time afterwards, the Greek author of tiie Catena in Jobum transcribes this very passage, at a matter of great moment: although in the inventories of Church treasuries of hallowed fragments, and the rotten remains of antiquity, as far ai my

knowledge reaches, not a dusty particle or a single atom of that amazing old curiosity is to be found. This is the more lamentable, since it might certainly with greater propriety have been pronounced a specific against all kinds of devil's work, witchcraft, and malignant ulcers, boils, and blains, than other more modern nostrum* from the moral qualities of the vegetable, mineral, and animal kingdoms in use among the people called Christians. The Oak of Mam re, that was still in being in the time of Constantine the Great, and of which chips and sp:inters were even in the eighth century distributed far and wide; must have excelled all other wood, because Abraham entertained the Angels beneath its shade.

A still greater degree of this miraculous power was presumed to be in the sacred reliques themselves. Whether it was always exhibited whenever they were only approached; as its constant connexion with bones, or fingers, locks of hair, &c\ might have afforded occasion to the scholastici, for propounding many important questions on such recent sacra m euta, when they came out of their abstractions, and wanted to examine objects in concreto in the actual world; or only occasionally, and without adhering to an annual or diurnal order; or in fair proportion both at once. The exact account, given by Evagrius in his Ecclesiastical History, of the reliques of St. Eupheraia, is peculiarly instructive; and very remarkable for this reason, that he communicates it on occasion of the council of Chalcedon. In the very Church of St. Euphemia that famous council was held; and if, as is but reasonable, we maturely reflect upon this account, it cannot fail of facilitating our insight into other matters, particularly the temper and spirit of several members of that council. The subject itself consequently belongs to the fifth century, and gives us to understand the various means that were employed to uphold tn> worthless devotion and spiritless religion then in vogue. St. Euphemia was wont to appear occasionally to this and that bishop or considerable personage, in their sleep, commanding them, rjuyav, to press wine in her Church. She must of course have previously explained

how how this was to be understood; othervise, unless some additional helps of intuition were granted, it would have been as little intelligible at the time, as it proved afterwards to the historians and the Latin translators; and accordingly some have expounded it quite differently, The meaning of it however is thus explained: "In the Chapel stands the shrine of her holy reliques. On the left side of it is a small aperture, provided with liltle folding-doors. Through this aperture a convenient iron rod having a sponge affixed to one extremity is introduced so as to touch the sacred reliques on all sides, by turning it to and fro. On being drawn out, the sponge is full of blood and clots of gore, in such quantity as not ouly to be sufficient for the imperial personages, the congregated priests and the eager mob of people assembled for the nonce, but may be sent abroad to all the faithful amateurs throughout the Christian world. These coagulated drops will keep for ever, and the blood not change its form. This miracle moreover is regulated in conformity to the moral character of the Bishop of the diocese, whether he is godl\ or not. On the other hand, the extraordinary and "extremely fragrant odour constantly exhaled from all parts round the shrine, is confined to no particular season." This is the description of Evagrius. Here the miracle is obtained by the assistance of a specific instrument. The virtue of this coagulated blood must have been exceeding great and valuable, since it still continued to be distributed abroad in the d y« of Evagrius. However, the indications of the peculiar medicinal effects of it might the, more easily be held superfluous in succeeding times; since this wonderful wine-press [t£&w] had for a great while ceased working; though it ought to have operated much longer as a greater support to the authority of the Chalcedon synod against ihe perpetual contradictions of the heretics: especially as another miracle of St. Euphemia did not answer that end. For, on her being appointed umpire between the Catholics and the Heretics, the creed of each being given to her in the coffin, the heretical was found lying under her feet. The Heretics would scarcely have

been worthy to have trod the winepress of this holy blood.

Many of the clerici must undoubtedly have been conversant with surgical instruments, as appears from the above account; and more particularly it is evident that they knew by name, and very frequently practised phlebotomum, or as Baronius, Ann. 504. n. IT, writes-it in the old Church lM\i\,jleubolomum. He there relates, from the before so often quoted Gregorius, Dial, i- cap. 4. that Saint Equitius was once taken to task for preaching in public, it not being ascertained, that he had been duly ordained by a Bishop. He therefore obliged to give this account of himself: "I had likewise some scruples and doubts about it. But during a particular night, a beautiful youth, in a vision, stood by me, atque in lingua mea mee/icinnleferramentum, i.e. phleubutomum, potuit; he laid the instrument used for breathing veins, upon my tongue, and said: Behold, I have now put my words into tby mouth, &c." Hence however it appears, that such a very extraordinary vocation, without applying for holy orders in the proper quarter, probably was not to be carried into precedent; especially as it was only a vision of Equitius. This is a very irregular use of phlebotomus; neither do we find thai this Equitius was of any farther benefit to the world, than, as the monks generally were, in attracting the particular regard of the country people, by miracles, to such or such monasteries and cells. But, would they become true Christians, aiid therefore regenerated, they must themselves enter the cloister, and put on the monkish dress, (that was the new man); or by the efficacy of reliques and other receipts, procure the remission of the punishment due to their sins, particularly an abridgment of their long and painful sojourn in purgatory.

A superabundance of strange and unheard of miraculous cures are related by Victor, of Vitus, de persecutione Vandulica, which, on the testimony of numerous witnesses of the Catholic faith (now consisting simply in the hmnousy of the Trinity) were actually wrought during the reigns of the Arian kings Genseric and Huneric in Africa. It is astonishing what singular exploits, mostly consisting in miraculous cures, are related of these persons. Honest Victor does not even observe common decency, were lie to be judged by the manners of the present times. He recounts so tediously and perseveriugly innumerable martyrdoms, suffered by so many persons, that a prodigious length of time, a forest of timber and a whole army of hangmen, as well as of martyrs, must have been variously employed in these executions. The most curious part of the story, however, is, that he says (in praise of the Catholics) ipsi tortores ens a facie sua projecerunt, dicentes; istos imitntur universus populus, ut nulhis ad religioneei nostrum peiiilus ranvertatur; et pracipue, quia nulli livores, nulla pcenarum vestigia, in eis videbantur. The very executioners were so overwearied and disgusted, that they drove them away, saying: The whole people imitate them, insomuch, that absolutely none are converted to our [Arian] religion; chiefly because no bruises or marks of the tortures sustained are seen upon them. [Whence did the executioners know, thai they had really so tortured these people?] These last w.nds are perhaps to be set down to the account of the vernacular style and to the embellishments wbich Victor afterwards, when with several others he had quilted Africa, goodnaturedly added because be was not there present. The Apostles had not such good luck as to be so quickly healed; they retained their wales and bruises. Paul had his scars to produce long afterwards. But here was absolutely not a hump, no mark of extravasated blood, not a vestige of torture, though they had been hung upon books, had their arms dislocated, and the flesh torn off their bodies, it must have happened to some of them as it did to the matron Victoria in civitate Culusitana. Even ber executioner* thought her dead, cum in continuatione mpplicii vulsis humeris, eliam qui cruciabant, conspicerenttmortuam,deposueruntprorsus muni parte exanimem. She however afterwards related, how a virgin (not to mince the matter, it was Maria) stood by her, and stroked all her limbs; whereupon she was instantly healed. "This is one of the cures without the intervention of a medium; yet it was not so highly extolled, as

that other, which happened to several persons at once; likewise in Africa, and in the same period of time. la a city [Typasensis civitus"\ an Arian Bishop had been ordained; the inhabitants therefore ran on board of ship, relictis paucissimis who could not get to the vessel. In vain did the Arian Bishop eudeavour by bribes and menaces to induce them to attend his preaching; they preferred the holding of public worship in a house: (since, tor political reasons, it was forbidden to omit it.) The Bishop gave intelligence of this to the king, who commanded, ut in medio foro congregata iliac omni provincia, Sfc. that in the public market, the assembly of the whole province should have ilie r tongues cut out, and their right hands chopped off. This was done accordingly; but the Holy Ghost provided that they should continue to speak as before; in Constantinople was still living a subdiai:onus,Sic. This miraculous cure was ma iitestly performed without any visible means; it is truly extraordinary; several authors (all from Catholic zeal, following the first panegyrist and in pursuance of the Catholic tradition) speak of this miracle. Baronius therefore pronounces their (imperceptible) tongues, with which they spoke, to have been caelestes lingua-, cjusdem cum illls generis, tongues of the same sort with those that were sent down from Heaven, like fire, to alight upon the heads of all on Whitsunday. The history however does not mention whether any thing in this instance was seen, as in the former. It is notorious, that even numbers of Protestants industriously defend the truth of this relation, in the same sincere dispositions as they affirm the reality of demoniacal possessions, &c. 1 should be sorry (o unsettle any one in his belief and sincerity. But neither can I refrain from the observation, which on a closer investigation of Church History, almost irresistibly obtrudes itself upon the mind, that religion in general suffers as much harm from such miracles, as formerly the genuine art of medicine and the health of mankind, did from the artful pretences of impudent mountebanks to advance the honour of physic by dispensing salubrity to the world. Victor is, in the opinion of some, a


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