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other nation. Cape Coast castle, the capital of all her settlements in Guinea, is in lon. 1° 20' W. and contains 8,000 inhabitants. She maintains forts also at all the other important points on the coast. Elmina, the capital of the Dutch settlements in West Africa, and the most respectable fortress on the Gold coast, is sittiated on a peninsula, at the mouth of a small river, in lon. 2° 30' W. It contains 15,000 inhabitants. The most numerous and powerful people on the Gold coast are the Fantees, but their power, since 1811, has been almost entirely broken hy repeated and formidable invasions of the Aslantees from the interior.
4. The Slave coast extends from the Rio Volta to :he bay and river of Lagos, which separate it from Benin. About 70 years ago, cultivation and the arts were carried to greater perfection on this coast than in any other part of Africa. The agricultural industry, the economy of land, aod the density of the population were scarcely surpassed in the most flourishing parts of China. But this prosperity received a fatal blow, about the middle of the Jast century, hy the invasion of the king of Dahomey, who defeated the kings of Widah and Ardra, the former sovereigns of the country, borot the principal cities, and massacred a large portion of the population. T'he coast has ever since formed a part of the territory of Dahomey, and is governed by a viceroy; but under this ferocious and military tyranny it can never prosper. The only object for which Europeans visited this country was slaves, which were procured in great numbers, and the British formerly had extensive slave factories here, but since the abolition of the slave trade they have been withdrawn.
5. Benin extends from the Rio Lagos to the Rio Formosa, which falls into the Atlantic in 5° 20' E. The whole coast presents a succession of estuaries, some of them very broad, and the origin of which has never been explored. These streams, dividing into branches and intersecting the country, form a great number of alluvial islands, and this aspect of the coast has suggested to a recent geographer, that these islands might form the Delta of the Niger or great central river of Africa, the termination of which is involved in so much mystery. The king of Benin is an absolute monarch. The inhabitants are gentle in their manners, and in agricultural industry are superior to most of the African tribes.
6. Biafra lies to the south-east of Benin, and borders upon it, but is almost wholly unknown.
7. The names of Calbongos, Gabon, Gobbi, and Camma appear on the maps, along the coast between Biafra and cape St. Catherine, but ihey are not to be found in the works of some of the best geographers.
8. Ashantee is an extensive territoy situated immediately behind the states which occupy the Gold coast. This kingdom, the name of which till very lately had scarcely reached Europeans, seems to be indisputably the most powerful, civilized and commercial of any in West Africa. They were first brought under the notice of the Europeans in 1806, by their invasion of the Fan
tees and other tribes on the Gold coast. Cummazee, the capital, was never visited by Europeans till the year 1817, when a mis. sion was sent to it by the British from Cape Coast castle. The houses are small, but the palace is a magnificent structure, and the population is estimated at 40,000. As this city maintains a constant communication with Tombuctoo, Houssa, and other places on the Niger, it is supposed that it may become an advantageous channel for exploring the interior of Africa.
9. Dahomey is a considerable kingdom situated behind the countries on the Slave coast. It was scarcely known to Europeans till the middle of the last century, when the king extended his dominion to the sea, by the conquest of Widah and Ardra. The government is an absolute despotism of a singular character, being founded not on force or terror, but on a blind and idolatrous veneration for the person of the sovereign. The most extraordinary exercise of this despotism is in the treatment of the female sex, all of whom are considered as the property of the king, and entirely at his disposal. A distribution of wives takes place once a year at a grand festival, when each individual gives in such a sum as he is able to spare for the purchase, and receives in return such a wife as the king chuses to bestow. There is no room for discussion or complaint; be she old, ugly or deformed, she must be taken. The king himself has about 3,000 wives. They are trained to arms, and compose a regiment of guards for the defence of his person. War is the delight of the Dahomans, and the ferocity which prevails among them almost surpasses belief. Human skulls form the favorite ornament in the construction of the palaces and temples. The king's sleeping chamber has the floor pared with the skulls, and the roof ornamented with the jaw-bones of chiefs whom he has slain in battle. Every year a grand festival is held, which lasts for several weeks, and duriog which the king waters the graves of his ancestors with the blood of human pictims.
IV. COAST OF CONGO.
The following are the countries on thiş coast, arranged in geo: graphical order
1. Loango, in its widest sense, extends from cape St. Catherine in lat. 2° 20' S. to the river Zaire, a distance of more than 400 miles. The southern part, however, extending from 5° 5' 3. lat. to the river Zaire is also called Cacongo. The whole of this coast has been visited by the Portuguese and French almost es. clusively for the purchase of slaves. The principal places are, 1. Mayomba, situated at the bottom of a bay of the same name, in lat. 3° 45' S. The Mayomba negroes are of an inferior quality ; their breast is narrow, their fibre soft, and their teeth bad. 2. Loango or Booali, the capital and residence of the king, is situated about 3 miles from the bay of the saine name in lat. 4° 40' S. It has 15,000 inbabitants and carries on considerable trade. 3. Ha
lemba, 50 miles S. of Loango, has a fine harbor, and is much frequented by Europeans. The slaves brought to this port are of an excellent quality, strong, inured both to fatigue and subordination. They are called Congos, and are more highly malued in the West Indies than any other slaves. 4. Cabenda is delightfully situated in the neighborhood of Malemba. The port is free to all European nations.
2. Congo is bounded N. by the river Zaire or Congo, which separates it from Loango ; E. by a rugged chain of mountains ; S. by Aogola, from which it is separated by the river Dande; and w. by the ocean. The Portuguese have several forts and factories for carrying on the slave trade. St. Salvador, the capital, is in the interior and has not been visited by the Europeans for many years.
3. Angola lies immediately south of Congo, and extends on the coast from the mouth of the Dande to that of the Coanza. The Portuguese have settlements here, the capital of which, and of all the Portuguese settlements in this part of Africa, is Loando St. Paul. This city contains 18,000 inhabitants, and carries on an extensive commerce. The number of slaves exported is estimated at 16,000 annually.
4. Benguela lies immediately south of Angola, and extends on the coast from Coanza river to cape Negro in 16° 5' S. lat. The climate is very unhealthy. The inhabitants are rude and barbarous, and have little connection with Europeans. The Portuguese have a few settlements here, the chief of which is called Benguela or St. Philipe de Benguela, situated on the bay of Vaccas or Cow's bay, in lat. 12° 28' S.
South Africa may be divided into 1. The colony of the Cape of Good Hope. 2. Caffraria.
I. COLONY OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
Situation and Extent.] The colony of the cape of Good Hope, now belonging to the British, is bounded N. and E. by Caffraria; $. by the Indian ocean, and W. by the Atlantic ocean. It is near. ly 600 miles long from east to west, and on an average about 200 broad. The area is estimated at 120,000 square miles.
Face of the Country. The leading feature in the aspect of this territory consists of three successive ranges of mountains,
running completely across the country from east to west, almost parallel to each other, and to the southern coast. The first range is at the distance of from 20 to 60 miles from the coast. The second range, called the Zwarte Berg, or Black mountain, is considerably higher and more rugged than the first. The belt interposed between the Zwarte Berg and the first range is nearly of the same average breadth as that between the first range and the sea, but is of considerably greater elevation. Beyond the Zwarte Berg, at an interval of 80 or 100 miles, rises the Nieuweldt mountains, the highest range of southern Africa, and the summits of which are supposed to be 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. They form the northern boundary of the colony. The belt or plain interposed between these two last chains is considerably more elevated than either of the other two, so that this country forms as it were a succession of terraces, rising above each other.
The plain next to the sea is covered with a deep and fertile soil, watered by numerous rivulets, well clothed with grass, and with a beautiful variety of trees and shrubs. The second terrace contains a considerable proportion of well watered and fertile lands; but these are mixed with large tracts of the arid desert, called Karroo. The third belt, called the Great Karroo, is almost entirely a vast desert.
Capes and Bays.] Cape Aguillas, in lat. 34° 55' S. is the most southerly point of Africa. The Cape of Good Hope forms the point of a peninsula, which juts out at the S. W. extremity of the colony, and is connected with the main land by an isihmus, inoluded between Table bay on the north anu False bay on the south. Saldanha bay, lying north of Table bay, is the most secure and convenient harbor in Southern Africa. St. Helena bay is on the same coast 30 miles further north. Algoa bay is on the southern coast, and nearly at the eastern extremity of the colony.
Rivers.] There are 6 or 7 considerable rivers, which discharge themselves into the ocean after watering extensive tracts of country. Among them are the Great Fish river, which forms the eastern boundary of the colony, dividing it froin Caffraria; and Sunday river, which falls into Algoa bay. Orange river, the largest river in Southern Africa, rises in the N. E. part of the colony, and after a westerly course of 600 miles, runs into the Atlantic under lat. 28° 30' S. The principal part of its course is without the limits of the colony.
Chief Town.] Cape town, the only place in the colony deserving the name of a town, is agreeably situated at the head of
Table bay, on a plain, sinping downwards from the Table mountain, which rises immediately back of the town to the height of 3,582 feet above the level of the sea. It is regularly laid out, and contains about 16,000 indiabitants, of whom 10,000 are negroes. Table bay affords poor accommodations for shipping, and during 4 months of the year, from May to September, when the winds blow from the north and north-west, vessels are obliged to seek shelter in False bay on the opposite side of the peninsula.
Productions. The grounds in the vicinity of Cape town, for 20 or 30 miles in every direction, are employed almost entirely in raising wine and fruits; beyond this limit, for 50 or 60 miles, grain is raised in large quantities and of a very superior quality; the more rernote parts of the colony are devoted to pasturage. Tobacco and many other plants thrive perfectly and might be cultivated to a great extent.
l'opulution.] The population in 1810 was estimated at 81,000, of whom one third were whites and the rest negroes or Hottentots. The free inhabitants may be divided into 4 classes, viz. the inhabitants of the capital, wine growers, corn farmers, and graziers. The wine boors reside in the immediate vicinity of Cape town, and are the most civilized and comfortably situated of the peasanty. Most of them are descended from French families, by whom the vine was first introduced. The corn boors live generally at the distance of two or three days journey from the cape. Their agriculture is miserable, but the soil is fertile, and notwithstanding their slovenly management, they are generally in good circumstances. The grazier is much more uncul. tivated than the other classes. Many are perfect Nomades, wandering from place to place, and living in straw luts like the Hot. tentots.
Hottentots.] The Hottentots are the aborigines of this country. Their territory extends eastward along the sea-coast to the borders of Caffraria, and northward to the Orange river. They may be divided into 3 classes, viz. the inhabitants of the colony ; the Bosjesmans, or wild Hottentots, who inhabit the mountainous districts, extending along the northern froutier of the colony; and the Namaquas, who occupy the north-western coast. All these classes were found by the Europeans in the lowest state of civilization. The inhabitants of the colony have been reduced to a state either of absolute slavery, or to a dependence not materially different. Their numbers, of late years, have rapidly dinitistied; ard there are not now supposed to be, within the limits of the colony, more than 15,000. The Bosjesmar Hottentots cherish a deadly hostility to the colonists, and from their rugged and inaccessible haunts frequently make inroads upon the planiations, carry off the cattle and sheep, and kill the farmers and their domestics. The Bosjesmans are among the ugliest of the human race, exhibiting in excess all the deformities observed in the Hotten. tots of the colony. They are extremely diminutive in size, the tallest of the men measuring only 4 feet 9 inches in height. Their activity, however, is incredibly great; and in running on rough ground, it is said, horsemen have no chance with them. In this respect they differ entirely from the Hottentots of the colony, who are naturally the most indolent people on earth. The Numaquc Hottentots differ very little in their persons from the other tribes, but use a language widely different.
Missionary stations.) The United Brethren established a mission among the Hottentots in 1736, which was renewed in 1792, and since that time the London Society have sent out many