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TO VOLUME LXXXVIII. PART I.
Embellished with a View of Egham Church, Surrey.
Mr. Urban, ■ June 1.
I^HE curious and very ancient Church of Egham, in Surrey, (see the Plate) was wholly demolished last year; It consisted of a body' and chancel, with a square Tower at their junction, standing on the North side, and wag entered by a venerable and handsomely ornamented . timber Porch on the same tide. The body comprised two ailes of Saxon architecture (which was massy and without decoration), opening to each other by three irregularly proportioned arches, resting on cylindrical columns. It is probable that the chancel walls were Saxon, as well as thoaeof the body, or not less antient than the basement half of the Tower, which appeared by its windows to have been built in the style immediately succeeding the circular arch. All theoriginal windows of the Church have however been altered, and, except that at the East end, are of small dimensions, and mostly in two openings, with varied and not inelegant Iracery. Beneath the I'orcli was a Saxon door, which preserved its columns and ornaments unusually perfect till the day of its total destruction. The upper story of the Tower, and the slender shingle spire on its summit, were the most modern parts of the Church. By the demolition of this picturesque and interesting building, the County of Surrey is deprived of one out of tbe few curious structures with which it was orna
Copyright of Books; and to report any or what Alterations are requisite to be made therein, together with their Observations thereupon, to the House; and to whom the Petitions regarding the Copyright Bill, and all Returns from Public Libraries, and from Stationers Hall, 1 presented in the present Session, were referred; and who were empowered to report their Opinion thereupon ■ to the House;—Have examined the matters to them referred, and have agreed upon the following Report and Resolutions.
T"M-1E earliest foundation for a claim from any Public Library, to tbe gratuitous delivery of new publications, is to be found in a deed of the year 1610, by which the Company of Stationers of London, at the request of Sir Thomas liorllei/, engages to deliver a copy of every book printed in the Company (and not having been before printed) to the University of Oxford. This however seems to he confined to the publications of the Company in its Corporate capacity, and could in no case extend to those which might proceed from individuals unconnected with it.
Soon after the Restoration, in the year 1662, was passed the "Act for preventing Abuses in printing seditious, treasonable, aud unlicensed books and pamphlets, and for regulating of printing and printing-presses;" by which, for the first time, it was enacted, that every printer should reserve three copies of the best and largest paper of every book new printed, or reprinted by him with additions, and shall, before any public vending of the said book, bring them to the Master of the Company of Stationers, and deliver them to him , one whereof shall be delivered to the Keeper of His Majesty's Library.
and and the other two to be sent to the Vice Chancellor of the two UniverMlirs respectively, to the use of the public libraries of the said Universities *. This Act was originally introduced for two years, but was continued by two Acts of llie same Parliament till 1679, when it expired.
It was, however, revived in the 1st >car of James II j aud finally expired In 1605.
It has been stated by Mr. Gaisford, one of the curators of the Bodleian Library, " that there arc several books entered in its register, as sent from the Stationers Company subsequent to the expiration of that Art;" but it is probable that Ibis delivery was, by no means general, as there are no traces of it at Stationers Hall, and as Hearne, in the preface to the " Reliquiae Bodleianse," printed in 1703, presses for benefactions to that library as peculiarly desirable, "since the Act of Parliament for sending copies of bonks, printed by the London booksellers, is expired, and there are divers wanting for several years past."
During this period, the claim of authors and publishers to the perpetual Copyright of their publications, rested upon what was afterwards determined to have been the common law, by a majority of nine to three of the Judges, on the cases of Millar and Taylor in 1769, and Donaldson and Bcckct iu 1774. Large estates jhad been vested in Copyrights; these Copyrights had been assigned from hand to hand, had been the subject of family settlement*-, and in some instances larger prices had been given for the purchase of them (relation being
had to the comparative value of money) than at any time subsequent to the Act of the Sth of Queen Annef. By this Act, which iu the last of these two cases, has since been determined to have destroyed the former perpetual Copyright, and to have substituted one for a more limited period, but protected by additional penalties on those who should infringe it, it is directed, that nine copies of each book that shall be printed or published, or reprinted and published with additions, shall, by the printer, be delivered to the-warehouse-keeper of the Company of Stationers, before such publication made, for the use of the Royal Library, the libraries of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the libraries of the Four Universities of Scotland, the library of Sion College iu London, and the library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates at Edinburgh.
From the passing of this Act until the decision of the cases of Beckford and Hood in 1798, and of the University of Cambridge and Bryer, in 1813, it was universally understood, that neither the protection of copyright, nor the obligation to deliver the eleven copies, attached to the publication of any book, unless it was registered at Stationers Hall, an art which was considered as purely optional aud unnecessary, where it was intended to abandon the claim for copyright: and in conformity to this construction, the Act of 41 Geo. III. expiessiy entitled the libraries of Trinity College, and the King's Inn, Dublin, to copies of such hooks only as should be entered at Stationers Hall ±.:
* Upon reference to the continuing Act of 17 Ch. 11, c. 4, the clauses respecting the delivery of the three copies appear to be perpetual, yet it should seem that they were not so considered, not being adverted to in the Act of Anne.
f Birch, in his Life of Archbishop Tillotson, states, that his widow, after his death in 16'95, sold the copyright of his unpublished sermons for 2,500 guineas.
J The whole number of entries during the 70 years from 1710 to 1780, does not -equal that which has taken place in the last four years. Books and Music entered at Stationers Hall from the passing of the Act 8 Anne,
1710 to 1818.
April 1710 to April 1720 (lOyears) 872
; — — — 1730 (do.) 492
— — — 1740 (do.) 34.1
— — — 1750 (do.) 618 — 1760 (do.) 417
- 1770 (do.) 433
Very little if any Music was entered at Stationers Hall till 1776-7, when some legal dispute arose respecting the Copyright of Music; and single Songs do not