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portance of the study of Roman law as the basis of the study of general jurisprudence has at length been recognised by both the Universities. It is, indeed, highly desirable, not only because so large a portion of our English law, and especially cur Chancery system, has directly flowed from that reservoir of equity, the prætorian or edictal law of Rome; but because the Roman code is moulded with a scientific regard to principle and method, contrasting very favourably with our own jumbled mass of incoherent statutes. "We have long been approaching," says Hallam, "the crisis of a necessary reform;" and if the nineteenth century is to find her Justinian, that blessing can only be attained by insuring a scientific legal training both to the lawyers and the legislators of the rising generation. We sincerely wish every success to the excellent efforts of the two Universities at once to maintain the unity of education, and to initiate their students in the elements of professional knowledge during the second period of their academic career.

It is almost superfluous to illustrate the advantages of classic lore as the groundwork of theological attainments. Hear the pregnant testimony of Sir W. Hamilton-no partial witness in aught concerning the Church of England or the University of



"A comparison of the Scotch and English Churches affords a curious illustration in point. In the latter, the clergy have a tolerable classical training, but for ages, we may say, no theological education at all. In the former, the clergy must accomplish the longest course of theological study prescribed in any country, but with the worst and shortest classical preparation. Yet, in theological erudition, what a contrast do the two Churches exhibit! And this simply because a learned scholar can easily slide into a learned divine without a special theological education; whereas no theological education can make a man a competent divine who is not a learned scholar -theology being, in a human sense, only a philology and a history, applied by philosophy."

with the study of theology the culture of a sound ethical system. It is curious to observe the intimate con-. nection between the Aristotelian idea of virtue, and the Anglican as contrasted with the Romanist theory of justification; and full justice will never be done to the purity of our Anglican creed until the defence of its doctrines is grounded upon sound ethical principles, full as much as upon appeals to authority, history, and tradition.

We will only add, that it is of incalculable importance to associate

The question of the usefulness of classical studies to the middle and inferior classes of society, obviously depends upon their compatibility with a sufficiently early start in professional or commercial life. Such a problem can, of course, receive only a practical solution. Oxford, meantime, will do well to enlarge her accommodation through channels susceptible of rapid contraction and easy expansion. Sir John Awdry thinks that surgeons, architects, and engineers, and others dependent, not upon capital, but mental skill, might, in a smaller proportion than lawyers, yet still to an appreciable extent, be attracted by the encouragement of lay fellowships, to the great benefit of themselves and their professions. In a commercial country like our own, where wealth is, in a great degree, the standard of social distinctions, and where that wealth is continually shifting, it is obviously impossible to define social privileges by particular classes. There exist at present no statistics by which we can surely calculate the disposition of the middle classes to use a broad descriptionto avail themselves of the preliminary professional education which is all that the University can, without lowering its functions, impart.

We will now endeavour to offer a few remarks upon classical composition, as practised in our great public schools-a topic naturally suggested by the volumes before us.

It will be readily allowed that the primary object of classical study is not the attainment of a certain amount of knowledge, but the cultivation of a pure taste. That any degree of antiquarian learning, or

* Discussions on Philosophy, &c., p. 380.

mere knowledge of the classical lan- for generations had elicited a series guages, is quite inadequate to secure of bald idealess platitudes. In the this important end, is clearly proved higher forms this is all very well; but by the fact that some of the greatest such effusions demand at once an philologists have been the least im- amount of information, and a faculty bued with the true spirit of the great of arrangement and distribution, which writers. To take an illustration : in boys are comparatively late in acquir. Professor Herman's works we find ing. They fully appreciate the fact several sets of alcaic and other lyrical themselves. A clever boy will take stanzas, in which, indeed, there is an almost passionate interest in a set plenty of Horace and Virgil, but of sweetly-flowing bexameters, but he nothing Horatian and nothing Virgi- will never enlist with equal zeal and lian! Now, the habit of classical pleasure in a task wherein he feels composition supplies the only effective success to be beyond his years. antidote to the predominance of mere It is not historically true that Latin learning over intellect and taste. versification has exerted a cramping Original composition answers two and technical influence upon works of ends : it cherishes and educates the genius. We will readily accept Dean imagination, the firstborn of the Milman's axiom, that it never either faculties of the mind; it teaches the made or marred a poet. Petrarch, youthful scholar to cast his own ideas Boiardo, Ariosto, Tasso, all composed in a classical mould-the best known in Latin, but assuredly without any model of chastened imagery, of just sacrifice of pure idiomatic Italian for reflection, and especially of simple, exotic or Latinised terms of expresenergetic, and concise diction. It has sion. The noble thoughts of the been well observed, that there exists Paradise Lost are perhaps cast occaan attractive and assimilative power sionally in too antique a mould. But in those noble masterpieces, which if we turn from poetry to oratory, can gradually form, after its own was Canning under no obligations to image, the sensibilities of inferior his classical studies for the fastidious minds. The earlier ideas and images delicacy of his taste, the high-wrought of the student are thus moulded in tone of his style, and the splendid the die of classical beauty, and that harmony of his diction? Did the without any sacrifice of their own ori- pages of Tully and Demosthenes ginality and creative power.

cramp the bold unfettered simplicity Of all the modes of composition, of Fox ? Few, if any, will dispute Latin versification conduces in the the palm of eloquence with the noble highest degree to the cultivation of Chancellor of Oxford, whose Latin taste and elegant scholarship. Eton- verses are registered among the Uniian scholarship has ever been charac. versity prize poems—a standard illusterised by peculiar grace and refine- tration of our argument. ment: that it owes these qualities to Without a knowledge of versificathe culture of Latin poetry is clear, tion it is impossible to appreciate the from the fact that versification has great principles of ancient harmony always engrossed the chief attention as applied to composition in prose. of the Eton masters.

The rhythm of classical prose, if not It has this undeniable advantage subject to the same rules with verse, over exercises in prose, that, as in is yet influenced by the same laws. nations, so in individuals, the imagi- The rhythm is metrical in both. How nation is developed earlier than the carefully it was studied is obvious reasoning powers. Prose composi- from the elaborate detail with which tions, indeed, at public schools, have Aristotle and Cicero enter into the been happily diversified of late years structure of sentences, the arrangeunder the auspices of Dr Arnold: ment of words, and the cadences of historical and critical disquisitions, periods. It is well known that, on imaginary speeches and letters, geo- the death of Plato, the first line of graphical descriptions of countries, bis Republic was found in his study &c., have been substituted with the with the words variously disposed in best effect for the vapid moral tru- seven different ways. How carefully isms (Virtus est bona res, &c.), which Tully avoids a hexameter ending to

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a sentence, * preferring to dilute the exclusively employed. It exhausts force of an assertion to any violation too rapidly its own resources : the of the laws of euphony. They were same images and phrases are repeated adepts, too, in the adaptation of the with wearisome monotony: idle epistyle to the subject-matter. Their thets and adverbs are gratuitously periods, now flowing like the onward intruded to fill up the chinks of a swell of the ocean, in one magnificent line : the conceptions are destitute of roll of harmony-now broken into accuracy, the imagery of variety, the clauses, abrupt, nervous, and concise- language of novelty. Public-school rise and fall, and are endlessly diver- experience will readily illustrate sified in sympathy with the author's this. Several years ago, at the theme. The metrical cadence of annual examinations at a certain almost every period in Demosthenes great school, it was by no means an and Tully differs, but it is managed uncommon practice for several of the with such exquisite skill that the competitors for scholarships to prevariety eludes the suspicion of de- pare beforehand sunsets and sunrises, sign. It was only in the decline of which they introduced as preludes, oratory that form triumphed over interweaving them, as best they substance; and the excessive care of could, with the body of their exercises, Isocrates to balance exactly the oppo- though usually with some sacrifice of site clauses of his periods defeated relevancy! To the vices of such a itself. But, with this casual excep- system the habit of translation from tion, the laws of ancient euphony modern poetry supplies an effective are almost an essential study for the antidote: it at once evokes a clear modern orator or historian. The late appreciation of the distinctive characSir Robert Peel endeavoured, with teristics of ancient and modern poetry, much sincerity and eloquence, to im- and enriches the imagination with & press this cardinal truth upon the perpetual influx of new imagery, ideas, students at his inaugural address at and combinations. Glasgow; and be assuredly enforced “ The ingenuity of scholarship,” says it by his own example. Let any man Dean Milman, " the command of purely judge candidly for himself, by con- classical language, the felicity of exprestrasting with the oratory of Canning sion, and the facility of versification, are and Peel the style of writers unin- perhaps displayed in the highest degree itiated in the studies of classical in translations from modern poetry: there scholarship.

is the difficulty of seizing the nearest In the practice of Latin versifica- equivalent phrase, of transposing the full tion, many essential improvements of the image, without offending against

spirit of the conception or the liveliness have been introduced into our public- the genius of the older tongue; the close school system in the last fifteen years. adherence to, the slight departure from, At the commencement of that period, the sense—the substitution, where absooriginal composition in verse was the lutely necessary, of a kindred form of prevailing fashion-translation from thought or word: all this puts to the English poetry was an experiment as severest test the resources of the writer; yet untried. Original effusions are a gives the measure at once of his fertility, salutary and indispensable stimulus taste, and judgment; and-especially in to the imagination: nor can either the shorter pieces-seems to demand that style or versification attain equal bold. perfect polish, that blending of the ease ness and freedom wben fettered by

of original composition with fidelity of

translation, that blameless correctness the process of translation. But as

both in expression and in versification, long as it is agreed that education

which invites, and even defies, the most ought to be adjusted rather to the rigorous criticism : it admits no neglicapacities and requirements of the gence, and but sparingly poetic licence ; mass than the talents of individual it must be tasteful as well as scholar. boys, it is clear that this method of like.”+ composition is very objectionable, if Previous to this ordeal, a boy has

* Sc., by uniformly substituting esse videatur for esse videtur at the termination of a period.

+ Quarterly Review, art. " Arundines Cami,” No. cxxxviii.

but little real appreciation of the re- " Repetition;" that is to say, the sources, the genius, the idiom of the wholesale committing to memory of classical languages. The practice re- books of the Æneid, the odes of Ho acts upon the whole tone of his race, or even speeches of Cicero. It scholarship, giving it accuracy and is stimulated by prizes, and is beyond depth; awakening the perception of question well adapted to invigorate the those subtle shades of expression memory; but unless employed with which escaped bim before, and quick- unusual discrimination, it is apt to ening his sense of classic elegance and consult the memory at the expense of beauty. It demands, however, the higher and nobler faculties. We have greatest care and discrimination on known boys receive a prize for repeatthe tutor's part. Those passages only ing a play of Sophocles, without befrom English poetry should at first being able to construe accurately a single given for translation wbich approach passage therein. In such cases-and as nearly as possible the simplicity of they are by no means of unfrequent the Latin idiom. To subdue to classi- occurrence-it is obvious that a double cal purity overcrowded imagery, com- mischief is engendered by the pracplexity of metaphor, affected, senti- tice; the mind is deadened to the mental, over-florid English, is not a vivid perception of poetical beauty, task to be imposed upon a mere tiro; and a fatal facility of mere verbiage is it is the consummate triumph of the acquired, without any adequate effort most exquisite scholarslip. It should on the part of the composer-without always be remembered that the Latin clearness of conception, definite imalanguage had not the universality, the gery, or skilful choice of phrase. It comprehensiveness, and flexibility of is arduous to contend against the prethe Greek: it was moulded by the judices of schoolmasters — they are two great spheres of national energy, often compelled to revolve in the old the Camp and the Senate ; and in its orbit by the absence of sympathy or purest epochs was scarcely capable unanimity. Prescriptive usage and of giving adequate utterance to the tradition exert their venerable influsubtleties of philosophic thought, or ence against change; and the onerous the elaborate sentimentalism of mo- nature of their duties often admits of dern poetry. “Latin verse," says the little discrimination in adjusting their eminent scholar and critic whom we system to the idiosyncrasies of their have before quoted, “is the noblest scholars. But surely it would be easy vehicle for subjects which admit of to substitute a selection of beautiful study and skill and elaborate finish passages, such as the memorable lines - where the expression should be in honour of Marcellus, and the condensed or expanded, either to en- speeches, so full of sweetness and force moral truth by some pregnant pathos, in the latter books of the and apothegmatic line, or to invest Æneid, for these indiscriminate tasks, a dry and barren subject with foreign whereby both the virtues and the hues of picturesque beauty: here it faults of antiquity are stereotyped, moves in its own element; its mascu- and condemned to promiscuous and line beauty and its suggestive richness servile imitation. We cannot help have full scope.” We should hardly suggesting, too, that a similar change have invited attention to a truth which might be made with great advantage may appear to some at once cardinal in the system of impositions. Learnand obvious, had we not seen it con- ing particular passages by heart would stantly neglected by inferior peda. surely prove a far more salutary disgogues, who, partly from a petty am- cipline than the existing practice, bition, partly from want of discrimi. whereby boys are constantly sennation, seemed determined to mul- tenced to write out thousands of lides, tiply rather than alleviate the diff. to the great prejudice of their handculties of their scholars.

writing, in which a slovenly style, We shall probably be thought para- once contracted, often lasts for life. doxical for our opposition to another It is easy to object that the powers of practice which has long been a part memory vary, and that it would be of the classical discipline of our public difficult to graduate the task to indi. schools. We allude to wbat is termed vidual capacities; but the facility of

writing rapidly varies almost equally, and a clever schoolmaster soon learns to appreciate the faculties of his pupils.

The editor of the Oxford Anthology bears a highly distinguished name as a classical scholar; and we only wish he had contributed more of his own compositions to the volume before us. He disclaims, in his preface, in the strongest terms, any intention of rivalling the Arundines Cami. We cannot but suspect there is a slight affectation in this; but it would not be good taste in us to put the two works in competition; and we shall only say, we are glad to find in the Anthology a very small proportion of those comic rhymes with which the Arundines were absolutely overrun. To enable the reader to form his own judgment, we will point out several of those versions from English poetry which seem to us most elegant and tasteful. A place in the front rank must be assigned to Mr Goldwin Smith, fellow of University College-a most accomplished and gifted scholar, whose name so often figures among the laurelled lists of the Academic Register. Among his translations will be found a version of four stanzas of Gray's Elegy into Latin elegiacs. He has modestly abstained from attempting the whole- an ambitious task essayed by the Rev. J. H. Macaulay, in the Arundines Cami. The peculiar difficulties which beset the scholar in this arduous enterprise have been described with characteristic taste by Dean Milman. They are created by the peculiar cast of beauty which graces the original poem.

"That beauty consists in the perfect balance and harmony between the thought and the language, in the unity of the versification with the general expression: there is at once consummate art and perfect ease; every line of language is in its proper gradation, every word in its proper place; all the thoughts, words, and numbers are, as it were, tones in the general harmony. Thus it is that the slightest substitution forces an invidious comparison; that the slightest transposition mars the effect; the least omission makes a void, and a superfluous word is felt as a clog and a burthen. Even if the copy could be perfectly alike, with no feature lost, no lineament misplaced, we demand the life, the expression of the

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Is exsequias lucis a classical expression? In our humble judgment it diction of Claudian and the silver age savours more of the ambitious, affected than of the majestic simplicity of Virgil, the modest unaffected purity of Horace and Tibullus. Would not the posuit diem, or lucem? And is not Augustan poets have written comvox ferrea fairly open to objection? Considering that there is no context, phrase, it is surely hardly intelligible no preceding verse to explain the apart from the original. Shakespeare talks of the iron tongue; but the midnight bell, in the foregoing line, avoids all ambiguity. Anxiety for close fidelity to the original has probably betrayed the translator into both these succeeding lines are admirable; every exceptionable terms. But the three hue and shade of expression is religiously preserved, and that without any sacrifice of the classical idiom: nothing is otiose; no new image is officiously intruded; there is nothing savouring of elaborate or toilsome artifice; while the last line retains much of the quiet melancholy of the original. We subjoin the three succeeding stanzas, with the Latin version:

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"Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,

And all the air a solemn stillness holds, Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight,

And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds: Save that, from yonder ivy-mantled tower,

The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such as, wandering near her secret bower, Molest her ancient solitary reign.

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