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or reddish. The Green inclines slightly ground for complaint, M. Chevreul to yellow.

took the cloths, and surrounded the Blue and Black.–Orange unites with patterns in such a way as to conceal the Black, and makes it appear brighter. the ground ; upon which the designs The Blue is lighter-greener, perhaps.

appeared as black as could be desired. Finally, to show the effects of juxta- And still further to convince the malposition upon analagous colours, or content drapers, he placed some cutsuch as belong to the same class of tings of black cloth upon stutt's colcoloured rays :

oured red, violet, and blue; where1. Take Red, and place it in contact upon the cuttings appeared of the same with orange-red, and the former will hue as the printed designs-i. e., of appear purple, and the latter become the colour complementary to the more yellow. But if we put the Red in ground; although the same cuttings, contact with a purple-red, the latter will when placed upon a white ground, appear bluer, und the former yellower or were of a beautiful black. In the orange. So that the same Red will models of tapestries for furniture we appear purple in the one case, and often err in the same way as these orange in the other.

drapers did - namely, by neglecting to 2. Take Yellow, and place it beside an orange-yellow,—the former will appear and the dominant colour of the subjects

preserve a contrast between the ground greenish, and the latter redder. But if placed upon it. For instance, if it is we put the Yellow in contact with a greenish-yellow, the latter will appear

a crimson ground, ornamented with a greener, and the former more orange. wreath of flowers, the greater part of So that the same Yellow will incline to the towers ought to be blue, yellow, green in the one case, and to orange in and white. If we place red flowers the other.

upon such a ground, they will tend to 3. Take Blue, and put it in contact become orange rather than purple, and with a greenish-blue, - the first will ought to have a fringe of green leaves incline to violet, and the second will ap- contiguous to the ground. On the pear yellower. But put the Blue beside a contrary, when the ground is of a violet-blue, and the former will incline to greenish hue, red and rose-coloured green, and the latter will appear redder. flowers must predominate over the So that the same Blue will in one case appear violet, and in the other greenish.

others ;-and when the ground is of . Thus we perceive,” says M. Chevreul, the hue of dead leaves, the blue, vio" that the colours which painters term let, white, and rose flowers detach simple or primary-namely, Red, Yel- themselves completely. low, and Blue-pass insensibly, by virtue It is important that painters should of their juxtaposition, to the state of understand this Law of Contrast in secondary or compound colours. For the colouring. Suppose, for instance, a same Red becomes either purple or painter have to imitate two contiorange according to the colour placed guous stripes of red and blue upon & beside it,-the same Yellow becomes white ground. He perceives them either orange or green,-and the same

changed in hue, by the mutual effect Blue either green or violet.”

of each upon the other,—the red beIgnorance of this law of contrast has coming more and more orange as it given rise to many a dispute between approaches the blue, and the latter drapers and manufacturers. M.Chev. more and more green as it approaches reul had several instances of this in the red ;-but if he understands the bis own experience. Certain drapers, law of contrast, he will know at once he tells us, having given to a calico- how to treat the illusion, and will printer some cloths of a single colour produce the true effect by making his --red, violet, and blue-upon which stripes respectively of a simple blue and they wished black figures to be printed, a simple red, reduced in some parts by complained that upon the red cloths light or by shade. Whereas, if he he had put green patterns, upon the does not understand the secret of the violet cloths greenish-yellow ones, illusion, he will proceed to paint the and upon the blue orange-brown or stripes of a greenish-blue and yellowcopper-coloured ones, instead of the ish-red, and so produce a false and black figures which had been ordered. exaggerated effect, from not knowing To convince them that they had no that the greenish and yellowish bues

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of the stripes are merely the result of lour is most gorgeous and abundant. red and blue coming together, and that These are the native climes of the they will reproduce themselves on his sapphire, the diamond, and the emecanvass if he makes the one stripe rald, -of sunsets unspeakably gorsimple red and the other simple blue. geous, and of night-skies through the

Another point which it is most im- azure of whose transparent depths the portant that artists should bear in eye wanders upwards until it loses mind is, that if, after working long at itself as if on the threshold of other one part of a picture, they turn their worlds. The savannahs there are eyes to another part, that other part covered with perennial flowers ; the will not appear of its own colour, but pillared forests are linked in a maze of a hue resulting from a blending of of beauty by the scarlet and other the complementary colour of the first brilliant blossoms of the trailers that part of the picture with the actual hang in festoons from tree to tree; colour of the second. For instance, and the green mantle of earth flashes if they have been painting a lady's red everywhere into colours beneath the mantle, and then turn to look at the flood of sunshine which keeps all face, the complexion will appear of a nature a-pulsing to the rhythm of its greenish hue, - which if the artist subtle and inconceivably rapid vibraignorantly reproduce on his canvass, tions. Colour, like its parent light, he will most grievously sin against the dies away towards the Poles ; and as truth, and deservedly earn the grievous the constitution of nations is ever in displeasure of his fair sitter. In truth, harmony with the region where they so important is it to thoroughly under- dwell, the susceptibility of us hyperstand the action of the accidental boreans to colour is far inferior to that colours,” that it is a fact that even of the race who produce the magic artists who are gifted with a fine eye dyes of India, or the still nobler one for colour will produce poor effects if who built the glowing walls of the they make their sittings too long at a Alhambra. Even our next-door neightime. An ignorance of this law, and bours the French beat us hollow in a habit of long sittings (things which the art and use of colour; and we do generally go together, for no one who not think we overstate the case when understands the former will indulge we say, that there is no civilised in the latter), will produce even with people on the earth who do not equal naturally fine colourists a colouring or excel us in a taste and passion for dull and inferior to that of artists who, colour. though less finely organised, give way We are too fond of paleness, colourmore to first impressions ; or in other lessness, in our interiors. We shrink words, who take in the impression of from bright colours, because we do the model more rapidly, before their not know how to use them, and beeye has had time to become fatigued, lieve we show taste when we have and who do not too frequently return to produced an effect which is simply their work to modify it, to efface, and commonplace. With M. Chevreul for to repaint,-a process which infallibly our guide, let us offer a word or two produces a poor effect, and makes the upon this subject. We shall begin colouring " muddled.” It is good for with the more grand and artistic parts artists, then, as well as for other men, of a mansion, and then come quickly to know to "let well alone;" and by down to remarks which may be as insome members of the profession we teresting to the single gentleman with know, the maxim is much needed. his triplet of rooms in the Temple, as

We do not generally make a sufli- to the more stately occupants of palacient use of colour as a beautifier of tial edifices. Enter a gallery of sculpour dwellings. This is partly owing ture, and see what hints about colour to the fact that the physical organisa- there suggest themselves. Here we tion of northern nations is not so sus- have our old friend the Venus de ceptible to the impressions of colour Medici - showing the perfection of as is that of southern nations, even physical beauty, but with as little though these latter beintellectually our as possible of the divine either in inferiors. It is in tropical countries, her head or attitude. Next to her, in where light is most dazzling, that co- not uncongenial contiguity, is Dan

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necker's Ariadne on the Panther-exhibiting a voluptuousness of position, combined with an exquisite charm in the undulating contour of the picturesquely posed figure. Here also is Kiess's Amazon in bronze-by no means a material for representing the soft figures of the female sex, but appropriate in this case, owing to the greater part of the composition being occupied by the rearing horse and attacking wild-beast, and to the circumstance of the attitude of the female rider representing nothing but masculine energy and daring. Finally, we shall say, we have that divinest of statues, the Apollo Belvidere, in which life and noble power ray from every limb. Now, if those various pieces of sculpture are placed together, of course they must all be viewed against the same background-namely, that of the wall of the room in which they stand. But suppose-in order to bring out the peculiar qualities of various colours as backgrounds-it were proposed to us to take each of these sculptures by itself, and assign to it a wall of such a colour as would show it off to the best advantage. Then we would remark, in the first place, that whatever may be the case when a piece of cloth is hung immediately around a statue, the walls of a gallery must be considered as giving rise to effects, not of reflection, but of contrast. Accordingly, it will be found that statues of white marble or stone, as well as plaster casts, stand out well in a gallery whose walls are of a pearly-grey colour. But suppose we wish to attain effects not generally aimed at, with the several pieces of sculpture above named-then it will be found that if you place the Venus de Medici against a wall of blue-grey, the statue of the Cyprian goddess forthwith acquires a warm colour, which many sculptors prize so highly. Take the Ariadne, and place her in a room painted green, and forthwith the deserted of Bacchus flushes all over with a faint rosy tint, such as she is seen in her chamber at Frankfort, where the light is let in upon her through rose-coloured glass. For the divine Apollo, such tinting would be inadmissible. He must stand forth in the simple majesty of pure white; and in order to produce this effect, the colour of the wall should be cha

mois or orange-grey, which tends to neutralise any redness of hue in the marble or plaster of the statue. As to the tone of colour used upon the walls, cæteris paribus, it ought to be lower the brighter we wish the sculptures to be. Finally, coming to deal with Kiess's Amazon, and bronzes in general, it must be remembered that the metallic alloy of which they are composed yields two very different tints,-one green, which the metal acquires by exposure to the action of the atmosphere; the other the peculiar golden tint which it possesses when not oxidised. If we wish to heighten this green tint, the colour of the walls of the gallery must be red; while, if we wish to bring out the golden tint of the bronze, the walls must be blue.

Let us turn now to a picture-gallery. Here the first thing that strikes us is, how badly paintings look when thus crowded together. Even supposing that they have been arranged by a man of taste, and that they are not too numerous to compel him frequently to do violence to his artistic feelings, still the ubiquitous melange of colour, and the dazzling headachy effect of the multitude of gilt frames produces an impression upon the spectator by no means favourable to his appreciation of the pictures. In truth, it is only the intelligent connoisseur who, in such a case, can experience the effect which the artist has wished to produce; and this he does, not only by knowing the best point of view, but by fixing his attention so wholly upon the work as to be unconscious of the surrounding pictures, or even of the very frame. In fact, frames in general are no better than necessary evils; for, if they are requisite to isolate a picture from surrounding objects, yet it must be confessed that the contiguity of the frame to the picture is exceedingly detrimental to the illusion of perspective. It is this which explains the difference between the effect of a framed picture, and the effect of the same picture when viewed through an opening which allows of our seeing neither frame nor limits. The effect then produced recalls all the illusion of the diorama. In the case of not a few pictures, taste is best shown in knowing how little frame is necessary. The colour of the wall,

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and nature of surrounding objects, must be considered in judging of this. We once saw a painting by a German artist, representing the interior of a Gothic ruin, with a snowy landscape visible through the open archway of the door, and some snow, drifted in, lying upon the steps and stone-floor inside. The perspective was exquisite, magical; and the drifted snow upon the steps and floor seemed as if you could lift it off with a knife. The picture was in the possession of an able connoisseur-and how had he treated it? Most people would have put round it a frame proportionate in value to the value of the picture: that seems to be the usual way,-so many inches of frame to a £20 picture, and so many more to one worth £100. Not so did this connoisseur. When we saw it, this gem of a painting had round it a simple narrow bead of gilding, and was hung upon a wall of an orange-cream colour-the unobtrusive frame allowing the exquisite perspective to appear to advantage, while the peculiar colour of the wall served to bring out, in all its brilliance, that other fine point in the piece, the snow.

With this warning against having too much frame-which we cannot, of course, shape into any definite axiom, but which will answer the purpose if it makes people think at all upon the subject-we proceed to consider the relation of colour which ought to exist between a frame and the picture which it surrounds. Gilt frames are, of all others, the handsomest and most generally applicable, and are especially suited for large paintings in oil. There is but one exception to the use of gilt frames, and that arises when the picture represents gildings, at least if so near the frame as to provoke the eye to compare the painted gold with the metal itself. For instance, there is a Gobelins tapestry, after Laurent, representing a genii, armed with a torch, near which is a gilt altar; but the yellow silk and wool in which this altar are executed, are entirely eclipsed by the gilt bronzes profusely spread over the mahogany frame by which the tapestry is enclosed. Bronze frames, on the contrary, which have but little yellow brilliancy, do not injure the effect of an oil-painting which repre

sents a scene lighted by artificial light, such as that of candles, torches, a conflagration, &c. When black frames, such as ebony, detach themselves sufficiently from an oil-painting, they are favourable to large subjects; but when they are used, it is necessary to see if the contiguous browns of the painting or drawing do not lose too much of their vigour. Many landscape-paintings in oil are well set off by a grey frame, particularly if we take a grey tinted with the complementary (or opposite) of the dominant colour of the picture. For black engravings and lithographs, gilt frames suit perfectly, provided a certain breadth of white paper be left round the subject. Frames of yellow wood, such as bird'seye maple, &c., likewise accord well with lithographs; and it is possible greatly to modify the appearance of the drawing by mounting it on tinted paper, when we do not desire the effect of a white margin.

As to the hanging of pictures in a room, we only repeat the general canon when we say, that engravings and plain lithographs should not be placed beside oil-paintings or coloured drawings. When we wish to place pictures upon a papered wall, the latter ought to be of a single colour, if possible-if not, of two tones of the same colour-and with a simple pattern. Also, the dominant colour of the paper-hangings ought to be complementary to the dominant colour of the picture. Pearl-grey, or normal grey a little deeper, is a good tint to receive engravings and plain lithographs in gilt or yellow-wood frames. Yellow hangings can receive with advantage landscapes in which greensward, and leaves, and a blue sky, predominate; and the most suitable frames in this case are those of violetcoloured ebony (palixandre), or wood painted grey or black. Oil-paintings, in gilt frames, are effective on walls of olive-grey; upon which ground the flesh-colours of the picture, and the gold of the frame, assort well. Papers of a deep green, and even of a deep blue, may likewise be advantageously employed in many cases. We know one artist, whose drawing-room wall, covered with oil-paintings in gilt frames, has a flock-paper of deep green, the velvet pattern being of

nearly equal extent with the smooth violet, even in their light tones, ought ground, but of a darker shade. The to be proscribed, because they are exeffect is very good. Had it been a ceedingly unfavourable to the colour picture-gallery, the paper would have of the skin. Orange can never be been uuquestionably better if of a per- much employed, it fatigues the eye so fectly uniform colour ; but by having much by its intensity; and, indeed, it patterned, and of two shades of the among the simple colours there is same colour, the requirements of a scarcely any which are advantageous, drawing-room are answered with except yellow, and the light tones of the least possible detriment to the green and blue. Yellow is lively, and effect of the pictures.

combines well with mahogany furniSo much for the mechanical acces- ture, but not generally with gilding. sories of the Fine Arts, whether these Light-green is favourable, both to be exhibited in a noble gallery, or in gilding and to mahogany, and also to the houses of our middle-class. In complexions, whether pale or rosy. coming to the furniture of our dwell. Light-blue is less favourable than green ings, it must be confessed that, so in- to rosy complexions, especially in daynumerable are the possible combina- light: it is particularly favourable to tions of colour, it is impossible to gilding--associates better than green, lay down many laws of general appli- with yellow or orange-coloured woods cation. In large rooms, bright con- --and does not injure mahogany. trasting colours may be employed; White hangings—or hangings whereas in small rooms, the harmony light grey, either normal, or tinged should be not of contrast, but of an- with green, blue, or yellow-uniform, alogy;-in other words, the furniture or with velvet patterns, similar in of small rooms should, in general, colour to the ground, are also good for bave but one predominant colour, and use. the contrasts exhibited be only those In regard to the draping of floors, it of tone. On this principle, hangings must be borne in mind, that for a carwith varied and brilliant colours, re- pet to produce the best possible effect, presenting flowers, birds, human fig. it is not enough that it is of the best ures, landscapes, &c., may be employ- manufacture, and of excellent colours ed in the decorating of large rooms; and pattern: it is also requisite that its whereas chintzes are only suitable to pattern be in harmony with the size, small rooms, such as cabinets, bon- and its colours with the decorations of doirs, &c. In bed-rooms, the window- the room. It is important for manucurtains and those of the bed should be facturers to know how to produce similar; and if there be a divan, it may carpets which will suit well with be similar also; for we may remark, many different styles of room furnithat it is conformable with the object ture; and, in our opinion, the best of boudoirs and similar places, to di. mode of attaining this end is, to minish their extent to the eye, by make the light and bright colouring employing only one material for the commence from the centre of the carhangings and chairs, instead of seek- pet; for it is there (that is to say, in ing to fix the eye upon many separate the part most distant from the chairs, objects.

hangings, &c.) that we can employ Of hangings—and our remarks are vivid and strongly-contrasted colours almost equally applicable to the gene- without inconvenience. And if we ral tone of a room-we may say, that surround this bright central portion in consequence of an apartment never with an interval of subdued colouring, being too light, (since we can diminish we shall be able to give to the framing the day-lighit by means of blinds and colours (those around the margin of curtains,) it is best that the bangings the carpet) a great appearance of brilbe of a light and not of a dark colour, liance, without injuring the colour of so that they may reflect light rather the chairs and hangings. With respect than absorb it. Dark hangings, to the carpets of small or moderatelytherefore, are proscribed, whatever be sized rooms, we may lay down the their colour. Red curtains are to be rule, that the more numerous and met with very frequently in this coun- vivid the colours of the furniture, the try; yet it must be said that red and more simple should be the carpet alike

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