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MENT OF HIS ORGANS.
View unsuspecting Innocence a prey, in Linlithgow. He went to Glasgow, as As guileful Fraud points out the erring formerly stated, to endeavour to get in
way ; While subtle Litigation's pliant tongue
to employment in some of the manu
factories there, but was unsuccessful ; The life-blood equal sucks of Right and and on this account he returned to
Wrong: Hark, injur'd Want recounts the unlistena Linlithgow, and was employed in keeptale,
ing an engine in that town, which be And much-wrong'a Misery pours the un
did with extreme delight to himself, pitied wail !
although his friends were unable to Ye dark waste hills, and brown unsight- conceive what pleasure he could find ly plains,
in such an employment. Inspire and soothe my melancholy strains ! In the third place, in saying that Ye tempests rage ! ye turbid torrents roll ! he passed the mail-coach in bis selfYe suit the joyless tenor of my soul : moving car, as formerly noticed, he Life's social haunts and pleasures I re- does not mean that he outstripped the sign ;
coach on the road. The expression Be nameless wilds and lonely wanderings (which was his own) was intended
mine, To mourn the woes my Country must en. merely to convey the idea that he met dure,
the mail-coach, and passed it on the That wound degenerate ages cannot cure.
road going in an opposite direction, the guard, driver, and passengers, being
astonished as he passed. ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS REGARD From his anxiety to have these very
ING JOHN SPENCE, LINLITHGOW, minute and really unimportant partie WITH NOTICE OF A LETTER FROM culars correctly stated, I am certain DR SPURZHEIM ON THE DEVELOPE- you will receive, with the most entire
confidence, the following additional MR EDITOR,
particulars of his history, and I hope In a former communication, I gave they will be found sufficiently interyou some account of John Spence, the esting to merit a place in your instrucingenious mechanic at Linlithgow. tive Miscellany. The particulars of his history therein In answer to the question at what mentioned were communicated to me time he began first to direct his attenby a gentleman who had conversed tion to mechanics, he said, “ From with him. I have now, however, three or four years of age I was exhad an opportunity of conversing with ceedingly fond of mechanical invenhim myself, and am happy to find, tions, and I never could get the ideas that the whole of the former commu- of them banished from my mind." nication was substantially correct, He says, that he never studied the (which I had no doubt it would be, subject in books; because he found, with the exception of one or two mi- on attempting to do so, that he derivnute particulars, which, by his desire, ed no instruction from reading, on I now beg leave to rectify. He de- account of not understanding the sires me to say, then, that, although terms. He has studied mechanics, bred to the business of a shoemaker, however, extensively in another way, he was not under indenture to that viz. by visiting many and various matrade. He was put to it by his father, chines, by observing them in motion, who was a tanner, at 12 years of age, and by thinking on the principles and after eight days instruction he developed in their construction. He was making shoes on his own account. cannot, however, he says, well unBy this he means, not that he was derstand a scientific description, or master of the trade in eight days, but easily coinmunicate his own ideas by that he was then left to the resources description to others. When he has of his own ingenuity, and acquired invented any particular piece of me the art without farther actual super- chanism, he constructs a model of it, intendence. His father's intention and thus at once satisfies his own inind was to connect him in business with on the practicability of the principles, himself; but, as formerly mentioned, and conveys his ideas to other minds. he never liked the employment, and Besides the inventions formerly nohis father's views were never realized. ticed, he enumerated the following,
In the next place, the steam-engine as additional productions of his inwhich he kept belonged to a gentleman genuity. When 11 years of age, he
invented and constructed a model of a wheel lasts, or the magnetic virtue loom, the whole working apparatus of remains. He sets a very high vawhich was set in mction by a winch, lue on this invention, and prizes it or handle at one side. It was contrive much above all the other products of ed on the same principle as the looms his genius. subsequently constructed in Glasgow I hope the interest of these details to be wrought by the steam-engine, but will plead my excuse for trespassing had less machinery. He gave the so far on your limits. Allow me stili model to a gentleman of Stirling, and to add a few observations on what has never heard what became of it. may perhaps be termed the philosophy May not some hints have been taken of this man's mind. As soon as I from this model in constructing the was satisfied of the truth of the presubsequent steam-looms in Glasgow ? ceding statements, I was convinced
In 1814, he had become so utterly that there was something very extradisgusted with the trade of a shoe- ordinary in the genius of this indivimaker, that he could continue in it dual ; and I searched the works of no longer. Often would he throw the greatest writers on the philosophy the shoe from his hand in indignation, of the mind for an explanation. The when his mind was diving deep into high reputation of our countryman, the principles of mechanics, and ac Mr Dugald Stewart, led me to his cuse fortune for dooming him to such writings, and the great fame of Drs despicable drudgery. As often would Gall and Spurzheim racted me to he draw down the sage advices of his theirs. In Mr Stewart's Elements of spouse, who regarded him as the dupe the Philosophy of the Human Mind, of a heated imagination. She, how- part I. sect. 4, entitled, “ Of Invenever, allow me to mention, appears to tion in the Arts and Sciences,” he be a very respectable woman, and now, says, “ To these powers of wit and when she is convinced that her hus- fancy, that of invention in the arts band is a genius, not only tolerates his and sciences has a striking resemflights above the regions of St Crispin, blance. Like them it implies a combut is pleased with the notice which mand over certain classes of ideas, he has attracted, and gives her full which, in ordinary men, are not equalconcurrence to his making the mostly subject to the will ; and, like them, unlimited use of his extraordinary too, it is the result of acquired habits; powers in the way in which nature and not the original gịft of nature.” seems to have intended they should With this passage in view, I examinoperate. Tired, as already said, and ed John Spence particularly as to the sick at heart of making shoes, he, in manner how, and time when, he had 1814, conceived the idea of becoining acquired such extraordinary “ habits
He had then in view to of association ;" but, as already menerect looms to be wrought by a water tioned, he dated the first impulses of wheel; and thus promised himself both invention from the age of three or profit and pleasure from his change of four years, and said, that every cirprofession. Accordingly, his first ob- cumstance in his life had tended to ject was to learn the trade of a wea oppose the formation of such habits
This was soon accomplished. rather than to favour them ; and He constructed with his own hands yet that his powers had exerted the whole apparatus of a loom, except themselves in spite of every opposithe hiddles and reed, got a professional tion. Again, as to having obtained weaver to put in the first web, and a command over certain classes of without any other instruction made ideas, which, in ordinary men, are as good cloth as those regularly bred not equally subject to the will," he to the business. This scheme, how- rather complained that he had not ever, was never prosecuted farther. command over this class of ideas, for,
His last effort has been in making a in his own words, he says, “ I could farther improvement on his invention not banish them from my mind." of a perpetual motion. He has sim My next object was to examine the plified the apparatus, and now shows developement of his head, according a horizontal wheel, set full of needles, to the system of Drs Gall and Spurzattracted constantly round by the heim. Í had attended Dr Spurzheim's magnetic power, and which, he says, lectures in this city, and had a genewill move as long as the axle of the ral knowledge of the position of the
different organs. I, therefore, exa- substratum of greatness, no efforts will mined the parts of the head where ever produce transcendent excellence the organs of " constructiveness” lay, in any department of philosophy or and was rather surprised to find what science. If Spurzheim's system was appeared to me a small developement. founded on Nature, therefore, bere As Dr Spurzheim always declared that was a case in which, if ever, it ought one fact, in his estimation, was bet- to correspond with the facts ter than a hundred arguments, I With the foregoing remarks of Dr thought this fact worth the communi- Spurzheim in my hand, I resolved to cating to him. Accordingly, I wrote put his system to the test, and availed an account of John Spence's powers myself of the first opportunity of seeof mind, and of his inventions, and ing Spence, to examine his head at mentioned that the organs of " the parts pointed out by the Doctor. structiveness” in his head appeared to I read the observations to Spence, and be by no means largely developed. explained my object, and he entered This communication was sent to my most readily into the spirit of the inbrother, who waited upon Dr Spurz- vestigation. On casting my eyes, acheim with it, and the following is the cordingly, to his forehead, I was at Doctor's answer. The letter is dated once struck with the uncommonly Paris, 10th May 1818. He says, large developement of his head, “ bės “ The shoemaker you speak of in the twixt the eyebrows, and at the root of letter to your brother deserves a par- the nose.” . Although Spurzheim had ticular attention. It is certain that seen him personally before be wrote, No. 7. (the organ of constructiveness) he could not have described the great only constructs, and does nothing but peculiarity of Spence's head, which construct. A mechanical genius wants distinguishes it from that of others, organs of size and weight. Is the better than he does in saying, “ Is he shoemaker large between the eyebrows, not large between the eyebrows, or at or at the root of the nose? Are the the root of the nose?" Spence at once cheek bones prominent to conceal No. perceived the uncommon appearance of 7 ? Adly, I find that the zigomatic his own head, when it was pointed out process varies much, and modifies the to him in a mirror. I was anxious to external appearance of No. 7. If the ascertain the precise dimensions of his process be flat or depressed, No. 7. forehead, across the eyebrows, to comlies higher ; if it be large, No. 7. lies pare them with others, but was at a loss deeper,” &c.
how to effect my purpose. He said, I presume that most of your reads quite in his own style, “ Take a pair ers know, that, according to Dr Spurz- of compasses, and a foot-rule.” The heim's system, a great developement, idea struck me as a little odd, to meawith corresponding activity, of the or sure genius by the inch; but this was gans of the various faculties of the a singular case, and one might be pere mind, is accompanied with a propor- mitted to use a singular method of intional power or energy of the manifes- vestigating it. I, therefore, adopted tations of these faculties. Hence, if his suggestion, and the following is a the mind manifest great powers in a note of the dimensions which I took: particular department of science or philosophy, or in any particular way, From the exterior angle of the organs of the faculties on which the socket of oneeye, to the such manifestations depend should be exterior angle of the socket found large and active. It is another of the other
5 inches principle of this system, that, as great From the inner angle of one power in the manifestations of the
eye, to the inner angle of mind depends on the size and activity the other, across the nose it of the organs, and size and activity de- From the centre of one eyepend on natural endowment, so every brow to the centre of the great genius is formed by the fiat of his other
3 Creator, and that neither education,
“ habits of association,” will ever If any of your readers shall wish to confer the powers, for instance, posses- know how far these dimensions exceed sed by Spence. The faculties may be the standard of ordinary individuals, he cultiyated, and much improved by may try his own head, and compare education ; yet, unless Nature lay à it with the above results, He will
then be somewhat surprised at the this beautiful, and long expected endifference.
graving, the publication of which has This investigation satisfied me also been delayed, by unavoidable circumin regard to the appearance of the or- stances, to a much later period than gans of constructiveness, which I had was originally anticipated. formerly imagined to be small. The
Many of our readers will recollect appearance arises from the very un- the original picture, which, with a usual developement of the neighbour- view to promote the subscription for ing organs; and, besides, as Spurz- the print, and which was deservedly heim observes, that organ only con- admired by the most intelligent cristructs,” that is, it only reduces me- tics in this branch of the fine arts, chanical inventions to practice, when was exhibited here by the late Mr fairly devised and laid down by other Cromek, several years ago. faculties; and the inventive power, The subject is taken from the promuch more than the constructive, is the logue to Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, astonishing feature in John Spence's and exhibits a spirited and charactemind.
ristic representation of the motley As he was thus free in allowing me company who travel with Chaucer to examine his head, I proceeded far, on his pilgrimage to Canterbury. ther in the investigation. I found that he had a considerable develope- The droughte of March hath perced to the
" Whanne that April with his shoures sote, ment of ideality, or imagination, a very large developement of cautiousness And bathed every veine in swiche licour, and of philoprogenitiveness. In short, Of whiche vertue engendred is the Hour : he has a very large head altogether, Whanne Zephirus eke with his sute brethe but these organs are large above their Enspired hath in every holt and hethe fellows. On this observation being The tendre croppes, and the young sonne made, he said, “ If you would but ask Hath in the ram his half cours y-ronne, my wife, she would tell you whether And smale foules maken melodie, I love my children,” in a tone which That slepen alle night with open eye. indicated that a string had been touch- Than Tongen folk to go on pilgrimages,
So priketh hem nature in her corages ; ed, which vibrated in his bosom, accompanied with feelings of delight. To serve halwes couth in sundry londes ;
And palmeres for to seken strange strondes,' He added, “ You may judge yourself And specially, from every shires ende whether I am cautious.” So far as I of Englelond, to Canterbury they wende, have been able to observe, he is very The holy blisful martyr for to seke, cautious; and soine individuals who That hem hath holpen whan that they were have been attempting to impetrate his
seke. secret from him, regarding the per
Befelle, that, in that seson on a day, petual motion, will be able to confirm In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay, my testimony from their own expe- Redy to wenden on my pilgrimage rience.
To Canterbury with devoute corage ; I beg leave to mention, in the close, At night was come into that hostelrie Mr Editor, that every circumstance Of sondry folk, by aventure yfalle,
Wel nine and twenty in a compagnie, now mentioned was detailed by Spence, In felawship, and pilgrimes, were they alle, and transacted in presence of a gentle. That toward Canterbury wolden ride." man, with whom you are personally acquainted, and who will vouch for
The twenty-nine personages are, the accuracy of the representation.
the Miller, the Host, Doctor of Phy
FrankThe importance of the subject will, I șic, Merchant, Serjeant-at-law, hope, be accepted as an apology for lein, Knight, Reve, Young Squire, the too great space occupied in your
Yeoman, Ploughman, Good Parson, pages. I am, &c.
Lady Prioress, Nun, Nun's Priest, June 1, 1818.
Oxford Scholar, Manciple, Wife of
Shipman, Friar, the Poet himself,
T. STODART, R. 1. Goldsmith, Weaver, Haberdasher, ETCHED BY LEWIS SCHIAVONETTI. Dyer, and Tapestry Merchant, and FINISHED BY JAMES HEATH, A.R. A. their Cook. So numerous an assem
The public curiosity has at length bly of persons, from so many different been gratified by the appearance of ranks of life, presents a variety of
costume, and diversity of character, THE REVENGE OF TIRINIE: A HIGHwhich few subjects admit of, and few
LAND LEGEND. artists are capable of doing justice to. [The following story is still preserved in In this respect Mr Stodart has dis the popular traditions of the district
where the events it commemorates are played the greatest taste in embodying, in the most happy manner, the supposed to have happened. The fabuconceptions of the poet; while his ce lous exaggerations with which it is gar
nished, and the ferocious deeds it des lebrity as an English antiquary, gives
scribes, naturally correspond to the methe fullest confidence that the cos
dium through which it has been transtumes in which his dramatis persone
mitted, and the state of society to which appear, are faithful transcripts of the
it refers. It was presented to the Editors dresses of that time.
by a gentleman well versed in Celtic liter. are finely disposed, and the figures ature, and is now given to our readers, * contrasted with each other with sin as he received it, without alteration er 'gular taste. Our limits do not admit embellishment.-Edit.] of a minute analysis of the several
BEFORE the fourteenth century, parts of this highly interesting work, great animosities had arisen betwixí but we cannot withhold our small tri- the Cumings and the Macintoshes, : bute of admiration of the versatility branch of the last having considerable of his genius, so conspicuous through- possessions lying contiguous to those out this performance, and particularly of Cuming, Earl of Badenoch and Ain the admirable adaptation of the thole. This nobleman's lady was recountenances and attitudes to the cha- ported to have possessed a most voraracters of the several persons, as ex- cious appetite, to gratify which she emplified in the modesty of the Lady was under the necessity of oppressing Prioress, and the Nun, the mild dig. the poor tenants to an extreme de nity of the Good Parson, the levity of gree. It is said that she usually dethe wife of Bath, the lasciviousness youred a chopin of marrow every day, and sensuality of the Friar and Monk, besides having her table covered with and the sprightly air of the Young a profusion of dainties. By extravaSquire, &c.
gancies of this kind, she so far reThis picture was a work undertak- duced her estate, that, her vassals en by Mr Stodart con amore, and is being no longer able either to pay one of the few painted by this great their rents or till the ground, she was artist which may be considered as a obliged to have recourse to her more fair specimen of his talents, as, un; wealthy neighbours, by soliciting prefortunately for the world, he has de- sents from them, which practice in voted himself more to the employment Scotland goes under the name of of the booksellers, in designing cuts, thigging. After ranging the coun. than in exercising his genius in the try in search of presents, she told more dignified walks of art.
her husband what success she met The print is a fine specimen of the with among her friends, and tbat the best style of English calcography. great Macintosh of Tirinie had given The etching was the work of the late her twelve cows and a bull. This Mr L. Schiavonetti, who was with piece of generosity, instead of making out doubt one of the first engravers, him thankful for such a valuable preand most scientifie draughtsmen of sent, only tended to excite his envy at his time ; and the work of the burin, the opulence of his neighbour. He which, on the death of Mr Schiavon- dreaded his greatness, and from thenceetti, fell to the lot of Mr Ileath, is forth devised his destruction, to faciexecuted with great firmness and de- litate which, he gave out that that licacy, and breadth and harmony of gentleman had been too familiar with effect. · We hope that this work will his lady. This, he thought, was a receive all the favour and success specious pretext, and a sufficient from the public which its merits en ground of quarrel. He now waited a title it to, and that the family of the favourable opportunity of executing late Mr Cromek, the proprietor, will his design, which he soon accomplishderive that recompense which so spied, by surrounding this gentleinan's rited an undertaking deserves, and castle of Tomafuir, (a short mile from which it was not permitted to him- his own residence of Blair Athole,) in self to see completed.
the silent hour of midnight, and mosi