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they follow the enumeration of Wes- lish as I have done. The Rights of leyans.* As the religious portion of Women Society might, with infinite the Census was intrusted to a Dis- thanks, have adopted him into their senter, it is not surprising he should guild. They will not, however, owe make a confusion, in a matter regard- him an obligation for reminding them ing an Established Church. Of the of Penelope and her spinning maids Fourth Class - Poets, Historians, in blank verse, or in vulgar prose of Painters, Sculptors, Musicians, Ar- “washing, cooking, cleansing, nurschitects, Natural Philosophers—it is ing, teaching, and other offices," or, as said, “ To this class belong the Shake- they would deem, impositions of slaspeares, Humes, Handels, Raphaels, very. Michael Angelos, Wrens, and New- I will not attempt to go through tons.” A satirist may say, “I wish the Tables of Occupations. You you may get them.” They may have would be astonished, Eusebius, to see belonged to other Censuses, but how what multitudes of trades there are belong to this! Gulliver, to magnify you never thought of. What a compresent times, pluralises them all and fort to the prosperous, to rejoice in the each.
idea that among so many there will I did not expect to find among the be sure to be berths for their poor Occupations of the Fifth Class-ma- relations. Certain practitioners in ternal duties, because maternal and the medical line will not thank him paternal duties, one or other, seem by for his classifying them among emtheir nature to be the participation of pirics." "Empirics of various kinds all classes. But Gulliver Census loves -worm doctors, homeopathic proto sweeten his bitter of weariness, and fessors, herb doctors, and hydropaindulges now and then in a little elo- thic practitioners, figure in the subquential gossip, as by the wayside of class to a small extent." bis statistical travel. The duties of In what class should he bave placed wife, therefore, turn up as a capital statisticians ? subject for a glib pen, and entire men. You will think a chapter of some tal rest, the fatigue of the work being length on “ The Birthplace of the thrown upon the reader. Census People” more curious than useful. also exhibits bis easy learning on the oc- Census professes the tables to be incasion, talks of the - Guinæontis" and teresting, which is at least a useful of Roman women, quotes the Greek of epithet, offering the largest possible St Paul, and in a matter of so great latitude to classifiers. " These tables importance as the boundary or no are interesting, as they show the boundary of female rule over a house- composition of the town and other hold, recommends a new translation communities ; the intimate blending of the Greek word oικόδεσποτειν, and of people together who were born in thereby a positive female despotism, town and country; the concentration if he had put it down in plain Eng- of people in every county, and almost
* A statistician has no business to take his readers into a labyrinth of error without affording them a clue to get out of it. Essential things at least ought to be patent, and not put into a foot-note. I had long puzzled over the figures in the text, when I find such a note of explanation :Clergy of Church of England,
17,320 Channel Islands,
18,583 At the same time, reference being made to Summary Table xxviii. page ccxl, which, to my surprise, I find to be a Table of the Occupations of Women !
On turning to the tables in which the professions are classified, for confirmation of these numbers, I findClergy of Established Church in Great Britain and Islands,
17,621 being a deficiency of 966. Of this discrepancy, after much search, I find the explanation in another foot-note, which states that the Clergy of the Established Church in
ld are, in the tables, not treated as such, but are classed as “ Protestant
in every district, who were born in with Westmoreland. England, it is true, other counties, as well as in other tends, beyond all known examples, to a countries; and the migration that is general amalgamation of differences, by
means of its unrivalled freedom of interconstantly going on, and was directed in the last ten years, chiefly from the
Yet, even in England, law and country to the towns, from Ireland to necessity have opposed as yet such and so Scotland and to England, and from many obstacles to the free diffusion of
labour, that every generation occupies, by the United Kingdom to Canada, the
at least five-sixths of its numbers, the United States, and Australia.". The ground of its ancestors. advantages or disadvantages of emi- “ The movable part of a population is gration from the mother country, as chiefly the higher part ; and it is the affecting the interests of the nation at lower classes that, in every nation, comlarge, must depend upon the charac- pose the fundus, in which lies latent the ter of the emigrants. Labour and national face, as well as the national chaindustry are capital : in encouraging and integrity, not disturbed in the one by
racter. Each exists here in racy purity or forcing its emigration surely we impoverish the nation. The land, if novelties of opinion, or other casual ef
alien intermarriages, nor in the other by cultivated to its utmost, would re
fects, derived from education and reading. quire all these departing hands. In
Now, look into this fundus, and you will dependently of what they take out, find, in many districts, no such prevain going, they remove wealth from lence of the round orbicular face, as some the community. This is shown by people erroneously suppose : and in Westtransfer from one place to another, moreland, especially, the ancient long face thus in the statistics—“ So that 4521 of the Elizabethan period, powerfully reof the youth of Norfolk, Suffolk, and sembling in all its lineaments the ancient Essex leave their native counties
Roman face, and often (though not so unievery year, to reap elsewhere the
formly) the face of northern Italy in mofruits of the education, skill, and vig
dern times.”— Autobiographic Sketches by our wbich they have derived at great
De Quincey, p. 246. expense from their parents at home." Family portraits of past generTo this the following note is append. ations,-taken at a time when there ed : “ The present value of the fu- was little travelling to and fro, ture earnings of an agricultural la- and a "journey to London” was an bourer in Norfolk is about £482, at epoch in a life, and, if the incident in the age of 20—the present value of Tristram Shandy be borrowed from his subsistence at that age is £248; known facts, was a stipulation inserted leaving £234 as the net value of his in marriage settlements—family porservices. Consequently, the 4521 traits, I say, of those days show very emigrants of this class carry away a remarkable local likenesses. Races large amount of capital which they were preserved, and county differed have acquired in their native coun- from county physiognomically, as in ties." This view applies also to emi- character of soil and climate. Whether gration to other countries.
the more large intermixture, which Is a free circulation of the people, modern habits of travel and removal like a free circulation of its coin, an are producing, will be beneficial to increase of its wealth? It is a ques- the health, strength, and beauty of tion beyond me. The modern facili- the race as a whole, or whether for ties of removal from place to place other reasons it be or be not desirmust in many ways affect the popu- able, are questions for philosophy lation. The Physiognomical char- to determine. If we may form an acter will not remain as now, or an opinion from the physiognomy of formerly rather, fixed in several lo- the people in the parts in England calities.
that receive large supplies to their Mr De Quincey, who keenly ob- population from Wales and Ireland, serves and deeply thinks, makes these personal appearances are likely to be remarks:
much improved. It may be asked, “ The character of face varies essen- also, if a moral improvement is evi. tially in different provinces. Wales has dent. The ties of unchanging fami. no connection in this respect with Devon- lies, the attachment to local homes, shire, nor Kent with Yorkshire, por either if they do not sharpen the intellect, greatly cultivate close affections and of this passage seems to contradict a sympathies, and these home attach- common saying in Somersetshire, ments centralise in the human breast which you have often heard, Eusebius, that love of country, which is weak- that those of the hills who marry ened by being dissipated in a larger into the low vales seldom live long, area. In small circles every indivi- and vice versa, of the natives of the dual is known. The consciousness of vales, thus migrating to the bills. his responsibility to a neighbourhood There is a universal sense, whether it is felt, and this is a moral sense. The be prejudice, instinct, or reason, that farther a man goes, and the more fre- proclaims the value of "native air." quently, the sooner he is apt to con- The sick seek it for the restoration of sider himself a citizen of the world: health, even though it be less pure while trade and merchandise, the oc- than that they are leaving. A change cupations of most people, encourage
of air from home is a temporary, not the ubiquitous idea. Ubiquitous per- a permanent benefit; the best change sons acquire a sharpness, a cleverness; after a time is that which takes back a “vagabond” is seldom a fool, a the patient. Such removals are more “ vagrant” is but another name for often for change of scene, and home a knave in our common vocabulary. vexations, than for another air than Of local physiognomy and person, the patient's own native. I remember there is an amusing illustration in many years ago an old man in his lithographic print. It is in a very hundredth year being induced by a pleasant and useful little book, The daughter, under the notion of change Greatest Plague of Life, on the rela- of air, to come from the hills of Montive behaviour to each other of ser- mouthshire, where he was born, and vants and mistresses. The print ex- from which he had never migrated, hibits a female servant who comes to to visit Bristol. I saw him as soon be hired. No one who knows the as he arrived ; he was hale: certainly, peculiar race could doubt for a mo- he fixed his abode in not the cleanest ment that the woman comes from or most airy locality. As well as I the county Cork. But, doubting if her remember, he did not live a week native country would be quite accept- there. Old people can ill bear changes able, you see at a glance how her of localities or habits. It is a wellmouth is made up, and a twirl of the known story of the very old man who brogue is on it to say, what she is made was, out of an ill-timed compassion, to say, that she comes from Cor-r-n- taken from breaking stones in the wall." The writer of this portion of road, and transferred to better living the Census Report is of opinion, that and no work. He died at once. He a great change will take place with knew his work was done-his work, regard to the birth places of the Brit- such as it was, and such as his mind ish population. Sanitary improve
Sanitary improve- was, was his mind's vital motion, as ments may cause that many cities and it was his bodily babit. The circulatowns will keep up their population; tion stopped, both in body and mind: but I think that, while writing the it killed him. following passage, he must have for- There is something very childish in gotten altogether his statistics regard- Table to show the tendency of the ing the young population of Manches- inhabitants of every county " to go to ter, and the life-duration of six years: London.” A mechanician might make "Hitherto the population has migrated a child's toy of it, as a Roundabout, from the high or the comparatively with its horses bridled, and carriages healthy ground of the country to the ticketed, “To London," "To York," cities and seaport towns, in which few &c. &c. families bave lived for two genera- I am glad, Eusebius, after this, to tions. But it is evident that hence- come to something really useful, beforward the great cities will not be cause it is of a benevolent kind; and like camps-or the fields on which that will, I am sure, cover some out the people of other places exercise of the multitude of sins of impertinent their energies and industry, but the statistics. It is, of "the blind and birthplaces of a large part of the the deaf and dumb." There may be British races.” The former portion little reason to doubt individual char
ities—but such statistics may be the realised by a transfer of partial dumbmeans of directing more earnestly the ness. The son up to thirty years of zeal of the Home Department of the age, the duration of bis father's life, Government, to provide ample means never spoke to him-nor could he for the alleviation of the unbappy con- speak to any male. At his father's dition of the blind and the deaf and death, this curse was loosened from dumb. The blind are to the popula- his tongue. To the astonishment of tion of Great Britain and the British all, he could from that day 'address Islands as 1 in 975. The deaf and males and females, like other people. dumb are to the same population as I believe this anecdote may also be 1 in 1670. This is curious. “Look- found in the Lancet of 1831. Of course ing at the distribution of the deaf and it will be accounted for as coming dumb over the face of Great Britain, under the phenomena of nervous affecwe find them to be more common in tions: some will put another constructhe agricultural and pastoral districts, tion upon it. "Public Institutionsespecially where the country is hilly, Inmates of workhouses, prisons, lunathan in those containing a large tic asylums, and hospitals,” make up amount of town population." You another valuable chapter in the Cenwill observe here that deafness is sus. Of prisons, it is said for the united with dumbness. The reason honour of the fair sex, that they are is evident; deafness is generally of but a small proportion of the inmates. degree, and so is subject to remedial “The total number of persons in the or alleviating appliances; nor in ex- different prisons, bridewells, convict treme cases does it cut off communis depôts, and hulks in Great Britain, cation of the individual with his fel- on the 31st March 1851, was 26,855— lows, and it is not anfrequently only 22,451 males, and 4,404 females.” Bea pretence. Sturdy beggars some- fore, however, the country can have times make pretence of both calami- just cause for congratulation upon this ties. My father told me that near subject, it ought to know how many his own door he once saw a beggar villains, scoundrels, and thieves are with a paper on bis bat, “Deaf and roaming or lurking about the land Dumb.” A friend coming by, my Fa- who ought to be in prison. This is a ther called upon him for compassion. matter worthy the attention of statisThe friend was suspicious, and said, ticiaus. But there seems to be a “Deaf and dumb! I don't believe a wonderful sparing of roguery. It was word of it. Show me your tongue." but the other day I read of a case at By the sudden and peremptory de- one of our police offices, which exemmand, the impostor was confounded, plifies this unseemly sparing. A genand instantly put out his tongue. This tleman had complained of the total account of an imposture will have no stripping of the leaves off certain of tendency to stay charities, because his trees by juvenile offenders. It they are best bestowed upon institu- turned out that they were employed tions. To be born deaf is to be born by adulterators of tea. The magisdumb. There is a most curious case trate threatened that, upon a repetiof partial dumbness, so vouched for tion of the offence, he would publish by many most respectable witnesses, the names of the employers-why did and beyond suspicion, whom I have he not then do it? myself known, and who have narrated I wrote to you in my last but it to me, that, account for it how you slightly of the Malthusian doctrine of will, it must be difficult to doubt the the law of population. Its selfishness fact. It is told in Phelps' History of was shocking --so shocking, indeed, Somersetshire.
as to lead many minds to doubt the The wife of a farmer near Glaston. benevolence of the Creator as the bury having brought him three daugh- Giver of food, and Maker of his creaters, in his disappointment at having tures. I rejoice to find that the truth no son, he vowed that if another which is in Malthus's doctrine has been daughter should be born, he would sifted from the false. The refutation never speak to her. A son was born, shows how one error in a principle, but in him the curse of the vow, as which comprehends, as in this case it may be well called, was literally of food and population, two elements, destroys its essential character. Mal- And now, Eusebius, I bring my long thus left out one element, that which letter to a close. If I have thrown some arises out of the nature of man-man's ridicule upon the Census, and laughed industry—by which omission he ren- at some of its childish work, and dered his theory a theory of cruelty shown myselfrathersuspicious of a puband selfishness, and unacceptable, lic Busy body, and, like most people, nay, odious, to the thinking and feel- have a general dislike to being too closeing portion of mankind. I quote ly questioned, and being made up, as it with pleasure the better exposition were, into a parcel or a kind of railof that law by Sir James Steuart, way package on its way to London, as given in the Census Report, wherein with a ticket plastered on my back, is also a full statement regarding Mal- while the inside shall contain an inthus and his doctrine :
ventory of all my goods and chattels, “ All that is peculiar in this doctrine, and a narrative of all my minutest all that is erroneous, and all that has concerns, the destination of all which shocked the public opinion of the coun- parcel of myself is some pigeon-hole try, ever since its enunciation, flows in a metropolitan office—and for what from a flagrant oversight, which might purport, it is past the wit of man to be pardoned in a young, hasty controverdivine, but every man's wit may sussialist, but should assuredly have been at once taken into account when it was dis- him-although I say I have, and think
pect to be particularly mischievous to covered in the light of Sir James Steuart's original analytical work that had been most people have an antipathy to these first published in 1767. Malthusianism doings of a public Busybody, I am had, however, become a sect; had been not insensible to the utility of a census persecuted, and was modified and soft properly directed. Surely the whole ened, but still upheld by its disciples. people have cause to dread the en
“Sir James Steuart, who wrote before croachments of Questioners; and it Adam Smith, lays down the fundamental has been sbown how, since 1801, our principle of Malthus, but limits it by a statisticians have encroached upon preceding, overruling proposition. (1.) the Englishman's home, his “castle" We find, he says, the productions of all perhaps, for aught we know, undercountries, generally speaking, in propor- mining it while he is fast asleep. tion to the number of their inhabitants ; and (2), on the other hand (as Malthus That Table of Proximity and Density asserts), the inhabitants are most commonly is enough to make a nervous man try in proportion to the food. Steuart then hourly the extent of his elbow-room, shows that the food of the world may be
to dream of a stream of population divided into two portions : (A.) the na- rushing in upon him, or dropping down tural produce of the earth ; and (B.) the upon him to crush him, or like wolves portion which is created by human in- to devour him, in a land where popudustry. (A.) corresponds to the food of lation may be increasing, and food animals, and is the limit to the number of decreasing. We are all, Eusebius, savages. (B.) is the product of industry, and increases (all other things being and should prefer being let alone;
nervous about something or other, equal) in proportion to the numbers of but do not suspect me on account of cirilised men.
"The whole of the chapter on Popula- the last sentence to be a Malthusian. tion in Steuart's work should be consult- It must be a wholesome maxim for a ed. Malthus, it will be observed, loses nation to follow, to obey the command sight of this analysis, and throughout his “ Increase and multiply," and trust in work confounds the yield of the untilled Him who made us, that he will bountiearth with the produce of human indus- fully supply food for all. try; which increases at least as rapidly as the numbers of civilised men, and will
Dear EUSEBIUS, increase until the resources of science are exhausted, and the world is peopled.”