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Memoirs of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. 517 Cibe to the support of the Prussian ge- either in flank or rear, which would neeral Kleist, but his destination was cessarily have been attended with the changed and he returned to Lusatia. most disastrous consequences.

On the 19th of May the Prince marched On the 27th of August the corps took to the support of General Barclay, but a position on the other side of Pirna. was recalled to assist on the 2011 and As the importance of the action of the 21st, in the battle of Bautzen. In this 261h, and the possibility of a less fortuengagement be was employed in sup pate result were sensibly felt at the porting the line on various points; and head quarters, the first division of the on the evening of the second day, he Russian guards under the brave general covered the retreat, ainidst the hottest Yerviolof, and the regiment of bussars fire, with that serenity which is the pro- of the guard were sent to reinforce the perty of genuine courage. After the corps posted at Pirna. The whole was battle he retired to Silesia with the corps plared under the orders of Count Osterof cavalry to which he was attached. mann, who gave to Prince Leopold the

During the armistice and the negocia- command of the cavalry of the comtions at Prayus, Prince Lerpold repaired bined corps. e with the consent of the Einperor of Rus The enemy stormed Pirna, and sought

sia to that city, and was the only stranger with his cavalry to extend himself upon

who wits there adınitted to several in- the level ground near the Elbe, when 7* terviews with the Emperor Francis. Prince Leopold met and drove him back

On the expiration of the armistice, inco the town, from which be did not the Prince proceeded with th army to again attempe to debouch: as the dread* Bohemia, and thence to the frontiers of ful weather, which was one cause of the 1 Saxony. The main force of the allies retreat of the grand army, prevented

was already before Dresden, while the any thing more decisive than an inces-
cavalry rese, ve was engaged in the more sant skirmishing
difficult inarch across the mountains. The same night Count Ostermann's
On the 26th of August, Vandamine corps receivel information that the grand
briskly attacked the corps posted near allied army was in full retreat to Bo-
the fortress of Königstein to cover the bemia, and that the road froin Dresden
rear of the grand army and the principal along the Elbe was now open to the
communications with Bohemia, and enemy. This corps was placed, by this
commanded by Prince Eugene of Wir- event, in a very perilous situation; for,
temberg. This general urgently solicited with its left wing on the Elbe, Dresden,
a reinforcement of cavalry, that he might whence the enemy was approaching, in
be enabled to maintain bis highly im- its rear, and its left wing on the main
portant position against a very superior road to Bohemia, which was already oc-
enemy; and about noon Prince Leopold cupied by the French, it bad but one
was in consequence detached with bis road left" for its retreat, aiid this was
cuirassiers to his assistance. Scarcely commanded by the fire of its adversary.
had the prince joined the corps, when Count Ostermann now ordered Prince
the enemy commenced the attack. The Leopold to proceed, if possible, with liis
infantry, on account of its weakness, cavalry through the defile upon which
was posted on the wings and supported the the right wing was suppoited, and to
upon two villages; while Prince Leo- occupy and maintain a plain near Great
pold and liis cavalry formed the centre. Coita, u bich is traversed by the main
This precarious position did Leopold road to the woody range of mountains.
maintain, during a contest of five hours Leopold executed this movement with
against a fve three or four times as nu such rapidity, that the enemy had not
merous, and after the two wings of the time to occupy this plain in sufficient
corps wert almost completely surrounded, force; he drove him from it, and main-
with such unshaken intrepidity, that tained his position there, till the main
pright came on without the enemy having body of the corps, with the infantry
heen able to gain any decisive advantage, and all the artillery had effected its re-
or to force the position. Fugene paid treat. The enemy bad, meanwhile,
that eribute to the prince which he all reached by a shorter route, and occu-
ply deserved; for by his firmness he pied some of the heights and passes in
had not only saved the whole corps, but the mountains, and thereby almost in-
rendered it impossible for Vandamme to tercepted the prince and his cavalry;
make ai attack on the main army of but with great difficulty be forced his
the ailies, which, on the 27th of August, way through them; and on this occa-
was engaged in the assault of Dresden, sion rescued many wounded of the in-

VOL. V. 3 X

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Memoirs of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

(July 1,


fantry of the Russian guard, who had had fallen back into the intervals of his heroically stormed the passes.

order of batile. The enemy, who reThe position of Peterswalde was the newed his attacks with increased ispor last that Ostermann's corps could take tuosity, made an extraordinary effort to in the mountains no afford time for the force the last position of the corps, dea: retreat of the main army; and it was the village of Prisen, with a tremendogs! therefore successfully maintained, though superior artillery. The loss of this posi not without considerable effort. Here tion would have rendered the retreat e the assembled generals received intelli- the main allied army from the mounta's gence that the main army was still in the in a great measure impracticable; it was mountains, and that the grand head- therefore imperatively necessary that it quarters of the Allies were yet at Alten- should be maintained to the very last burg, in Saxony. It was therefore deter- man. As the French General Corbineau mined to cover the road to Töplitz, in was advancing to attack Prince Leopold, order to gain the grand army as much with a corps of cavalry at least thrice as time as possible for debouching.

numerous, the Prince went to meet and On the 29th of August the troops were repulsed him. The French general, accordingly to have continued their staggered by the intrepidity of his oppomarch at a very carly hour ; but before nents, though so inferior in number, they could break up, the French cavalry, lost the decisive moment of victory; supported by a very considerable division and as the Prince received a consider. of infantry, attacked the village of Peters- able reinforcement of cavalry, and fresh walde, which was occupied as the ad- troops continued to arrive from the vanced guard of the line of encampment mountains, he was enabled to maintain with infantry, pushed forward through his position till night. it, and was on the point of falling upon On the morning of the 30th of August, the columos that were about to inarchi, before the conflict was renewed, Prince when Prince Leopold came up with his Leopold received on the field of battle, cavalry, and drove back the enemy into froin the Emperor of Russia, the cross of the defile, He maintained the little commander of the military order of St. plain near Peterswalde till the infantry George, for his conduct during the preand artillery bad retired to the position ceding days. of Nollendorf, and then caused his ca- Soon afterwards commenced the attack valry to fall back en echelons. He was upon Vandatume, who was surrounded himself nearly taken with the last divi- by the allied army, now nearly concension, but he cut his way through and re- trated. Prince Leopold, who was this joined the main body of the corps, which, day engaged upon the extreme widg: purbut for this successful attack of the sued the enemy to Peterswalde, and did Prince, would probably have been totally not rejoin the main army till night. The intercepted. This action doubtless gave victory over Vandamme was necessarily rise to the false report in one of Napo- dependent on the operations of Oslerleon's bulletins, subsequent to the affairs mann's corps : for had this corps been near Dresden, that Prince Leopold had broken on the 29th of August, tbe French been made prisoner by the French. would have been masters of all the

Ostermann's corps, though consider. debouchés, by which alone the grand ably dininished, now proceeded in the allied army could retreat to Bohemia; best order down the declivity of the and the greatest part of the army, and mountains into the plains of Bohemia. the whole of the artillery, which it would The left wing, wbich was supported upon have been absolutely impossible to carry the mountains, was formed by the in- off, on account of the badness of the fantry; in the centre, through which ran roads, must infallibly have been lost. the high road, was stationed the greatest What incalculable disasters, military and part of the artillery, and the right wing, political, must have resulted from such coinposed of Prince Leopold's cavalry, an event, is sufficiently obvious to every occupied an open plain. As the chief reader. On the other hand, the results object was to gain time, every advan- of this victory were most important: tageous spot of ground, which was capa- Vandamme was taken, together with alble of detaining the enemy ever so litile, most all his generals, nearly the whole was defended with the utmost obstinacy. of bis infantry, consisting of 52 tatiaPrince Leopold, therefore, manœuvred lions, and all his artillery, amounting to with his cavalry en echiquier, and never nearly 100 pieces of cannon; wbilst but withdrew to a new position, which it a small remnant of his corps, including was necessary to take every 60 or 100 the cavalry, effected its escape. paces, till the tirailleurs of the infantry The other Allied Sovereigns, as well as


16.) Memoirs of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. 519 • Emperor Alexander, acknowledged Bar sur Seine and Troyes, and afterth the greatest satisfaction the impor- wards to Nogent sur Seine, Traine), and nt part which Prince Leopold had con- Brayc, whence the army again retreated. buted to the 'success of the operations In the plains in advance of Troyes, the tween the 26th and 30th of August; whole of the cavalry made some demonad for his conduct, during this interval, strations against the enemy, but po affair,

2 was afterwards presented with the of any consequence ensued. On the 2.ustrian military order of Maria The- 23d of February the Prince formed the

rear guard at Troyes; the army had a In the beginning of October the allied position behind the Seine, and then fell : rmy returned to Saxony.

back to Chaumont. On the 16th of October, the first day On the 12th of March the Prince, as of the battle of Leipzig, when the enemiy well as the greater part of the Russian ad made a general, and not unsuccess- troops belonging to the main army, ada ul, attack with cavalry upon the centre vanced upon the road to Vitry. After of the main army posted near the villages the French had recovered Rheims and f Magdeborn and Cossa, the honourable occupied Chalons, the Prince formed the service of covering not only this impor- advanced guard toward the roads leading tant point, but also the Russian batteries to those places. In this service, the planted opposite to those of the French, troops, already extremely fatigued by the was allotted to Prince Leopold, who, on repeated night marches and incessant this occasion, lost a great number of his maneuvres in an exhausted and deso

men. On the 17th he continued in the lated country, and continually harassed E

same position, and had already received moreover by the armed peasants, who orders for the attack of the enemy's bat were particularly troublesome in Chamteries, when it was deferred till the fol- payne, had to endure extraordinary hardlowing day, on account of the non-arrival ships and inconveniences. of several corps which were expected.

Till the 20th of March the enemy was On the 18th, the last and decisive day of daily expected to make a general attack this gigantic conflict, the Prince pushed upon the right wing of the army,

which on with his cavalry in the centre, to the therefore occupied all its positions preenvirons of Leipzig. In the afternoon, pared for battle. Wben, however, the when the left wing under Gen. Coloredo enemy, on the 20th, suddenly retired was very furiously attacked by the from the Marne to the Aube, the allied French, it was asked what cavalry would troops of the right wing inarched to the go to the support of this wing. Though left upon Arcis, by which movement the a greater force was wanted than Leopold main army effected its junction. The had with him, he nevertheless offered French now made a very impetuous atbimself, as there was no Austrian cavalry tack, which the allied army repulsed with at band, and went to the assistance of the greatest firmness, on which occasion Coloredo. On the 19th, he marched to the Prince had to support the right wing. the support of Gen. Giulay, and followed On the morning of the 21st Leopold was the advanced guard and this corps to the sent forward with his cavalry, part of the vicinity of Erfurt

Prussian guard, and a reinforcement of The Prince proceeded to Frankfurt, horse artillery, to form a communication where he remained during the resi- with the corps of the Prince Royal of dence of the Allied Sovereigns in that Wirtemberg, which had not come com city, and then went through Swabia pletely into line.

The enemy, appa and Switzerland to France. Here he rently deterred from an attack upon the was detached, on the 30th of January, allies by their excellent position, occu1814, to the support of Field-Marshal pied Arcis as a rear-guard position, and Blücher and General Rajefsky to Rizau- retired upon the road to Vitry. At court, whence he returned on the 1st of night-fall the allied army also marched February to the grand army. From a again to the left bank of the Aube, and bivouac near Bar sur Aube he marched then likewise directed its course towards to the battle of Brienne, and assisted on the Marne, when the Prince formed the the 2d to pursue the beaten enemy to support of the advanced guard upon Lesmont. The Prince then marched to Vitry. Besides the orders mentioned in these

On the 24th of March the allied army pages, the Prince possesses six or eight other took the road to Paris, and on the 25th honourable distinctions of the same kind, its advanced guard attacked Marshal conferred by the Sovereigns of Russia, Prus. Marmont at la Fère Champenoise. The sia, Bavaria, and other Princesa

priuce being sent with leis cavalry to the


Memoirs of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

(July 1,

support of this advanced guard, attacked to the grand allied army on the Rhine, the enemy at Condentrai, in the right which soon afterwards reached Park flank, drove him from his position, and on the termination of the war, the air took five pieces of cannon. Being joined of his family detained bim for some tine by the rest of the allied cavalry, he pure in the French capital, atter which be sued the Marshal from position to posi- proceeded by way of Coburg to Berlin, tion, and did not desist from the pursuit and here it was that the invitation of the even when the greatest part of the allied Prince Regent intimated to him the bigh cavalry was recalled agninst the corps of destiny to which he was called. General Pactod. Marshals Marmont and Though the preceding biographical Mortier, who bad by this time formed a notices would, without any fa ther objunction, profiting by the consequent servations, furnish the attentive observer weakness of the pursuers, sent their ca- with a correct outline of Prince Leevalry to attack the artillery of the Rus- pold's character, yet the delineation of sian guard. Frince Leopold took this bis moral qualities is wanting to comattack in fank, drove back the French plete a most attractire and interesting cavalry to an elevated position which picture. the marshals had takeo, saved the Rus- In bis early youth, this prince mani. sian artillery, and in spite of a very fested an excellent understanding and a brisk fire maintained his post till night. tender and benevolent heart. As he

The troops of the grand army were not advanced in years he displayed a strong again engag d till the battle of Paris. attachment to literary and scientific par On the 31st of March, Prince Leopold suits, and even at that time all his acentered Paris with the reserve cavalry, tiuns were marked with dignified grarity and there remained in garrison. He ac- and unusual moderation. His propensity companied the sovereigns to Englanil, to study was seconded by the efforts of and sailed with thein in the Impregnable an excellent instructor, and as be re from Boulogne to Dover. He continued mained a stranger to all those dissipahere about a month after the sovereigns, tions with which persons of bis age and and did not leave England till the end of rank are commonly indulged, his atlainJuly.

ments, so early as his fifteenth year, were In the beginning of September he re- rery extensive. His extraordinary cepaired to Vienna, to the Congress, to pacity particularly unfolded itself in the promote to the utmost of bis power, the study of the languages, history, matheindependence of his native land, and the matics, botany, music, and drawing, in interests of his family.'

which last he has made a proficiency Leopold's politics, sound as his under that would be creditable to a professora standing and his heart, could not chime The vicissitudes wbich he was so early in with all the maxims which were destined to experience seen only to have broached there. He could not, above contributed to preserve the purity of bis all, convince bimself that it was just to morals, and they have certainly had a sacrifice the right of one to the conve- most powerful influence in the develope. nience and the power of another, and ment of that rare moderation, that arthough he duly weighed the many clash- dent love of justice, and that manly firming political interests, be found it impos- ness, which are the predominant traits in sible to admit the paramount cogency of the character of this prince. those reasons upon which the partition Necessitated in like manner at so early of Saxony was decreed.

an age to attend to a variety of diplomaThe Congress acknowledged the ser- tic business, he acquired partly in this vices which the princes of the house of school and partly in his extensive travels Coburg had never ceased during the last a thorough knowledge of men in all their ten years to render to the good cause, as bearings, and though his experience has well as the sacrifices that had been made not always been o! the most agreeable by them, and thereford granted an in- species, still it has not been able to demnity, which though afterwards dimiwarp the kindness and benevolence of his nished by iinperious political considera- nature. tions, was nevertheless not inconsider. In his campaigos, and in the field of able. This business was exclusively ma- battle, where all false greatness disapnaged by Prince Leopold during the last pears, Leopold has given the most unde decisive months, and to bim alone is to niable proofs that courage, and a probe ascribed its happy issue.

found sense of religion and liberty, are On the return of Buonaparte to France, inpate in his soul; and that clear intelPrince Leopold hastened from Vienna ligence and unshaken fortitude are his

316.] E. Edwards--Edmondson-J. Ellys-Duke of Bedford, &c. 521 2curest possessions. With such quali- heiress of the British throne, results les of the head and heart, with a charac- equally conducive to the welfare of the er and principles that so completely nation at large, and to the happiness of iarmonize with the feelings, the notions, that distinguished family, of whichi, by lay, even the prejudices, of the British his auspicious union with the Princess bation, this illustrious prince authorizes Charlotte of Wales on the 2d of May is to anticipate, from his union with the last, he is become a member,


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In fact, anecdotes are small characteristic narratives, which, though long neglected or

secreted, are always valuable; as being frequently more illustrative of the real disposi-
tions of men than their actions of great publicity, and therefore particularly requisite
in biography. -Supplement to NORTHCOTE's Life of REYNOLDS.

for his answer before the House of ComWHEN a certain royal academician mons, in reply to the question: How his. was first informed of the death of Ed- party came to lose such an election when wards, who was ever busied in searching they bribed so highly? “Because the for errors in perspective, he observed: opposite party bribed so much higher Alas! poor Edwards is out of per- than we could afford,” said he. He was spective at last ; for his vanishing point appointed a commissary to the army, is below the horizon."

but afterwards obtained the patent place Edwards held in great contempt all of keeper of the Lion Office. While he kinds of athletic and field sports, and held this office an egg was laid by an amused himstif with playing on the vio- ostrich confined in that menagerie. It lin. “Why should Edwards," said Hopp- was presented by the son of Ellys to Mr. ner,

censure those sports be dislikes, Parkinson, who placed it in the cage as no one interferes with him, who paints with his female ostrich, where it remainlike a fiddler, and fiddles like a painter.” ed till the dispersion of his museum.-

EDMONDSON (herald painter) Ellys painted several theatrical portraits,
it is said, was originally a barber, who among which is Miss Fenton, afterwards
took to coach painting in the flower de Duchess of Bolton, the original Polly in
partment. He published a very excel- the Beggar's Opera.
lent book of heraldry; but put an end

to his existence in the neighbourhood of
St. Mary-le-bone, about the year 1790.

In the year 1800 this regretted noble-

man presented the Royal Academy with This painter, who was attached to Sir the copies, by Sir James Thornhill, of Robert Walpole, was a disciple of Sir the cartoons of Raphael, now in the James Thornhill. While Sir James was

lecture-room of Somerset House. painting the saloon at Greenwich liospital, young Ellys was in attendance upon We insert the melancholy death of a bis master. It growing dark one even son of this artist from a sincere wish ing, when the artist wished to finish the that it may prevent others from falling subject he was treatiny, he sent his pupil martyrs to the inconsiderate foolishness to purchase candles. The youth not of persons who ought to know better. much liking the commission, wrapped This artist's son (Samuel) died in 1813 Sir James's cloak about him, and imi- at the age of 14. His death was occatating the gait of the owner, went with sioned by a silly trick, which was at one great parade to the chandler's for the time prevalent, of pulling children up candles, to the no small niortification of from the ground by the head, in order the artist; who was accosted the next " to shew them London." About two day by a number of gentlemen, offering months before his death he complained him such, or any other accommodation, to a young friend of a stiff neck, for rather than that he should be at the which the other suspended him in the trouble of seeking it himself.

manner mentioned above. It appeared John Ellys succeeded Vanderbank in at an investigarion after his death, that his house in Great Queen-street. He the second vertebra was wrenched from was member of parliament for Oxford, the others nearly an inch, by which the where he had property. He was famous head was pressed forward ; the ligaments


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