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First, the writer touches, generally, never-to-be-forgotten suggestion of Mrs upon the advantage of "thin, spare Rundell-ber immortal direction to prediet ;"_exposing how all beyond is vent the creaking of a door,—“Ruba “ mere pitiable luxury;"'--enumerating bit of soap on the hinges !”—This it is. the diseases consequent upon high live “ To make your teeth white." ing; and pointing out the criminal acts “Take a little brick dust on a towel, and passions to which it leads ;-evi- and rub them."- The mechanical acdently demonstrating, indeed, to the tion, (the reader sees) not the chemimeanest capacity, that no man can pos- cal : but potent notwithstanding. sibly eat goose, and go to Heaven.
Shortly after, he takes the question But Mrs. Rundell deserves better up upon a broader ground; and exam- than to be quoted, in aid,on an occasion ines it as one of mere worldly policy, like this ; nay, merits herself to take and of mere convenience. “ The man rank, and high rank, among our public who eats flesh, has need of other things benefactors. Marry, I say, that the (vegetables) to eat with it; but that thing is so, and shall be so ; for, even necessity is not felt by him who eats amidst all the press and crowd of her vegetables only." If Leadenhall mar- moral and culinary precepts,—even ket could stand against that, I am mis- while she stands already, as a man may taken.
say, “in double trust,” teaching us good The recipes for cheap dishes will no life in one page, and good living in andoubt (when known,) come into gene. other ; here holding up her ladle against ral practice ; so they shall be given in "excessive luxury, such as “ Essence the Saver of Wealth's own words.- of Ham”—(praised be her thick duoHere is one-(probably) for a Christ- decimo, but for which the world had mas dinner.
never known that there was such a per“ Take two spoonfuls of oatmeal; fume ;) and, presently,pointing out the put it into two quarts of cold water, importance, and weeping over the rarthen stir it over the fire until it boils, ity of such creature comforts” as strong and put in it a little salt and an onion. coffee, and smooth melted butter ;And this,” continues our Economist, ever and anon, even amid all these -“ this does not cost above a farthing; complicated interests, the kind lady and is a noble, exhilarating meal !”– finds room to edge in a thought or two For drink, he afterwards recommends about the poor. the same dish, (unboiled;)—and no form
Pour Echantillon. of regimen, it must be admitted, can be “The cook should be charged,” says more simple, or convenient.
Mrs. R.“ to save the boiling of every Now this man was, certainly, (as the piece of meat or ham, however salt"; phrase is,) “ something like" a projec- the pieces of meat which come from tor in his way. And it seems probable the table on the plates ; and the bones that he met with encouragement ; for, made by the family. What a relief," passing the necessities, he goes on to adds she, “ to the labouring husband treat upon the elegancies of life. to have a warm, comfortable meal!"
Take his recipe for instance,next,- The rind of a ham, for instance, after “ for dressing cleaning) a hat.” Mrs. R. has extracted the “ Essence.”
“ Smear a little soap on the places And again she goes on.-“ Did the of your hat wbich are felthy, and rub it cook really enter into this, (the love of with some hot water and a hard brush. her fellow creatures,) she would never Then scrape it with the back of a wash away as useless the peas,or groats, knife, what felth sticks; and it will of which soup, or gruel, have been bring both grease and soap out.”—The made ;-broken potatoes ;-the outer book of this author is scarce ;-I sus- leaves of lettuce ;-the necks and feet pect the hatters bought it up to prevent of fowls, &c.; which make a delicious ibis secret from being known. meat soup, especially for the sick.”
Only one more recipe-and really it The sick soup essay concluding with is one worthy to be written in letters of a farther direction to the cook, not to gold ;-worthy to stand beside that take the fat off the broth, “as the poor
like it, and are nourished by it !” and for a farthing, a man must be an examwith a calculation which, if we know ple for debauchery-a mere rascal-to anything of mathematics, might make think of getting thro’ such a sum as twoDemoivre himself look to his laurels ; pence a day ; out of which, indeed, he -Ten gallons of this soup,"concludes might well put by a provision for himMrs. R., " from ten houses, would be a self and his wife,in old age; and fortunes hundred gallons; and that divided for two or three of his younger children. among forty families, would be two The Count's running commentary gallons and a half to each family.” upon these evolutions, too, is a chefTam Marti
Mercurio! And d'ouvre in the art of reasoning. At one done with chalk upon a milk tally, ten time, it seems, he dieted his flock, partto one else !—Tam Cocker quam Kitch- ly upon bread begged publicly in charener! And this lady is dead! It al. ity, and partly upon nieat which was most makes us waver in our faith! the remnant of the markets. Even out
of evil the wise man shall bring good. Turn sour ye casks of table beer,
The charity bread was found extreme-
ly dry and hard ; " but, therefore,” And Mrs. Rundell die ?
says the Count, we found it answer
better than any other ; because it made But whims, (if they happen to take mastication necessary,and so prolong. hold at all) take the strongest hold com- ed the enjoyment of eating." As for monly upon strong understandings. the meat, he soon finds that an article
Count Rumford, tho' an ingenious quite unnecessary, and actually omits man, had a touch of this bon chere a it altogether in the people's soup, withpeu d'argent disease; and his Essays out the fact being discovered afford some pleasant illustrations of the But the crowning feature of all, (and slashing style in which men construct there I leave Count Rumford,) is the theories, when the practice is to fall experiment which he makes in eating upon their neighbours.
(to be quite certain) upon himself; arAfter exhausting himself upon the guing upon the nutritious and stomachsmoky.chimnies of the world, the Count satisfying qualities of a particular cheap strips to the next of its nuisances, dish, he puts the thing to issue-thus : the beggars.
“ I took my coffee and cream, with He was to feed the poor ; (encore my dry toast, one morning” (hour not the Poor!) and the point was,of course, given)“ at breakfast, and ate nothing how to feed them at the cheapest rate: between that and four o'clock. I then
“Water," then, he begins-(the cup- ate," (the particular dish] I believe, ning rogue !) “ Water, I am inclined however, it was a three farthing one, to suspect, acts a much more important“ and found myself perfectly refreshpart in nutrition, than has been gener- ed.” And so the Count finishes his ally supposed." This was a good ac- dissertation upon food, by declaring tive bobby to start upon; and, truly, the Chinese ! to be the best cooks in his Countship, in the sequel, does out- the world. ride all the field.
Now, I confess that (at first sight) First, he sets out an admirable table, there would seem to be something acat which he dines TWELVE HUNDRED complished here. No doubt if our persons, all expenses included, for the labourers would eat farthing dinners, very reasonable cost of one pound fif- and get rid of that villainous propensity teen shillings English.
which they have to beef-steaks, their But this which was 3 dinners for a "savings" and consequent acquisition penny) was nothing; and, in a trice, the of property, would be immense. Bot Count, going on with his reductions, does not the Count perceive, and did it brings down the meal for twelve hun- never strike his coadjutors, that, if this dred, to one pound seven shillings. system were acted upon, all the poor And, here, he beats our Saver of Wealth would become rich ? 'when they would (the contractor at twopence a day) hol- be an incomparably greater nuisance low; because, with his dinner found than they are in their present condition.
I grant the existing evil, but do not let fect is the principle, the mouths would us exchange it for a greater. The ques- diminish in exact proportion with the tion is a difficult one, but there be minds meat. Upon my system, (and, I repeat, that can cope with it. Such a turmoil I can see no objection to it,) the poor as to what the poor shall eat ! I say, might go on pleasantly, reducing their there are plenty of them- let them eat numbers at their leisure, until one indione another.
vidual only, in a state of necessity, People must not be startled by the should be left; and if it were worth apparent novelty of this plan ;-those while to go on to niceties, I could prowho can swallow Count Rumford's vide even for him under my arrangedinners, may, I am sure, swallow any- ment, by having him taught to jump thing.-It is well known, that rats and down his own throat, like the clown, in mice take the same mode which I hint “Harlequin Conjurer.” Certain it is, at, to thin their superabundant popula- we bear, on every side, that, if the poor tion--Let the public listen only to this go on increasing, they will soon eat up suggestion, and they will find that it the rich; and, surely, if anybody is to ends all difficulty at once. I grant that be eaten by them, it ought, in fairness, there might be some who would be rav- to be themselves. And, moreover, as enous, at first, upon their new diet ;* it is shrewdly suspected that too many especially those who had been living of them are already eaten up with laziupon Mrs. Rundell's soup; but that is ness, why, hang it, if they are to be eate an evil which would correct itself; be- en at all, let them be eaten to some cause, so admirably operative and per- purpose.
(Sel. Mag.) SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY.
OF VINOUS OR SPIRITUOUS FERMENTATION. IN mylæ t paper I endeavoured to cess, they become sensibly sweet. The
explain the process of vinous ser- method adopted in our own country of mentation gezierally ; and then consid- converting barley into malt is as folered its application to both British and lows,foreign wines. I now proceed to its The barley is steeped in cold water remaining branches of beer, alcohol, for a period which (as regulated by and ardent spiriti.
law) must not be less than forty hours ; The method of making Beer, as we but beyond that time the steeping may have seen, was known in the most re- be continued as long as is thought promote ages. Almost every species of per. The water is then drained off, coro has been employed for this pur- and the barley thrown out of the cispose. In Europe, it is generally made tern upon the malt-floor, where it is from barley; in India, from rice; and formed into a rectangular heap, called in the interior of Africa, from the hol- the couch, about sixteen inches deep. cos spicatus. But whatever grain is In this situation it is allowed to remain employed, the process is very nearly about twenty-six hours. It is then the same, and in each case is derived turned by means of wooden shovels, from the saccharine properties which and diminished a little in depth. This they possess. They do vot indeed turning is repeated twice a day, or ofpossess them in the state in which they tener, and the grain is spread thinner, come from the ear; for there is then till at last its depth does not exceed a little or no sweetness discoverable: few inches. When placed on the but when subjected to the malting pro- couch, it gradually absorbs oxygen
from the atmosphere, which it converts Compere Matthieu, I think, makes this into carbonic acid ; at first very slowremark somewhere, in a general defence of cannibalism. But my project does not goly, but afterwards more rapidly. The to far.
temperature, during this process, gra
dually increases, and in about four same fermentation which takes place days the grain is ten degrees hotter with that mentioned in the former paper, than the surrounding atmosphere. At namely, the vinous or spirituous; for this period, the grain which had been beer and ale might with strict propriedry on the surface becomes again so ty be called malt or barley wine. And, moist, that it will wet the hand, and at in the same manner, cider is, in fact, the same time exhales an agreeable apple wine; and perry and mead, pear odour, not unlike that of apples. This and honey wine. appearance of the moisture is called Spirits OF WINE were formerly obsweating. The great object of the tained by the distillation of wine ; and maltster is to keep the temperature from this circumstance they derived from becoming excessive. This is their name. But this spirit is now proeffected by means of frequent turning. cured in a less expensive manner by
While the sweating is taking place, distilling farinaceous and saccharine the roots of the grains begin to appear, roots, as well as the pulpy fruit of veand would increase with great rapidity, getables : and private families might unless checked by turning. About a obtain perhaps more than enough for day after the sprouting of the roots, the their ordinary use, by distilling the rudiments of the future stem, called dregs ef their ale and beer. acrospire, may be seen to lengthen.
When this spirit first arises through As it shoots along the grain, the mealy distillation, it is inixed with a considerpart undergoes a considerable change. able portion of aqueous vapour, which
The glutinous and mucilaginous matter combines with it, and which, after conis taken up and removed; the colour densation, becomes water, and thus becomes white; and the texture so weakens the spirit. It is thérefore loose, that it may be crumbled between subjected to a second or a third distillathe fingers. When the acrospire bastion, by which means it is divested of nearly reached the end of the seed, the most of its aqueous particles, and in process is stopped by drying the malt this state is termed rectified spirits ; upon the kiln. The temperature at and is commonly sold under the defirst does not exceed 90°; but it is nomination of alcohol or spirits of raised very slowly up to 140° or high. wine. er, according to circumstances. The This, however, is not as strong as it rootlets are then separated, which are may be; for with the greatest care in considered as injurious.
distillation, there will still remain a Malt, thus prepared, is ground, or considerable portion of water. Pure rather broken, in a mill, and then in- alcohol, however, may be obtained by fused in water, varying in temperature mixing with it very dry and warm salt from 160° to 180°, but always short of tartar, which, having a great affinity of the boiling point. This infusion is for water, easily combines with it, and termed wort : and when this is drawn leaves the spirit supernatant in a state off
, hot water is again and again added, of great purity.* till the malt is sufficiently exhausted. ARDENT Spirits, as they are term
Wort, if left to itself, would ferment: ed, are obtained, as in the case of simbut this process is so slow and imper- ple distillation, from fermented liquors, fect, that the liquor runs into acidity and receive their various names accordbefore the formation into beer or ale ing to the nature of the substance emhas made sufficient progress. To has- ployed. Thus, brandy is procured ten this fermentation yeast is added. from wine; rum, from the fermented
Ale differs from beer chiefly in its juice of the sugar-cane; and whiskey strength, and its having a less propor. and gin, from the fermented infusion of tion of hops. Pale is accounted more
* The alcohol, thus obtained, contains wholesome than brown ale, because it indeed a little potash in solution : but this is brewed from malt slightly roasted, may be separated by distilling it in a wa. while the latter is made from malt of a ter-bath with a very small heat. The spirit drier nature.
passes over, and leaves the potash behind. In each of the above cases, it is the to dryness.
The distillation, however, must not proceed
malt or grain. But ardent spirits, of sinks down to proof. But since water whatever name, consist almost entirely is heavier than spirits, if there be more of three ingredients; namely, water, water than spirit, the mixture will be pure spirit or alcohol, and a little resin of greater specific gravity than proof or oil, to which they owe their colour spirit, and, of course, the hydroand flavour.
meter will not sink so far down as Proof SPIRITS consist of half spirit proof, or the surface of the liquor will and half water. An instrument called stand below proof. And in the same an hydrometer is used by the officers manner, if there be less than spirits, of excise, and others, in order to ascer- the specific gravity will in this case tain the strength of spirituous liquors. be less than that of proof spirits, and This instrument, when there is an the surface of the liquor stand above equal proportion of spirit and water, proof.
the nerves occurred on Sunday, Oc. out on the parapet of the house, in his sleep. tober 5, lo a lad named George Davis, six- this boy joined the conversation, and obteen years and a half old, in the service of served, he lived at the corner of BrowolowMr. Hewson, Butcher, Bridge-road, Lam- street. After the arm was tied up he unbeth. At about 20 minutes after 9 o'clock, loosed one boot, and said he would go to the lad bent forward in his chair, and rested bed; in ten minutes from this time he awoke, his forebead on his hands, and in ten minutes got up, and asked what was the matter started op, went for his whip, put on bis one (having then been one hour in the trance). spor, and from thence to the stable. Not A strong opening medicine was then admiófinding his saddle in the proper place, he iste red, he went to bed, slept well, and the returned to the house and asked for it; be- next day appeared perfectly well, excepting ing questioned wbat be wanted with it, he debility from the loss of blood, and operareplied to go bis rounds. He returned to the tion of the medicine, &c. None of his famstable, mounted his horse without the saddle, ily or himself were affected io this way beand was proceeding to leave the stable. It fore. was witb much difficulty and force, that Mr. Additional Facts which occurred during the Hewson, jun. assisted with the other lad, Trance.--- When stripped, he asked for his coald remove him from the horse, bis strength jacket, his coat was given to him, he observ. was great, and it was with difficulty he was ed this is not my jacket, it is my best coat, brongbt in doors. Mr. Hewson, sen, coming but never mind, I am behind my time. When home at the time, sent for me. I stood by he had put it on, he began the motions of the lad a quarter of an hour, during which whipping and spurring; he was held in the time be considered himself stopped at the chair by force, and his observations were, toropike-gate, and took sixpence from bis " to get out of his way, and let go bis horse; pocket to be changed, holding out his hand ah! damn you, won't you, I will soon make for it, the sixpence was returned to him; he you let him
go. Go along,Jack,"and whipped immediately observed, none of your con- and spurred in motion, to make his horse ressepse, that is the sixpence again, give me my live and to kick, in order to get away ; obchange; when threepence halfpenny was serving again, " let go my horse's tail, or I given to him, be immediately counted itover, will soon make you.' He was then brought and observed, none of your gammon, that is out of the parlour into the front shop, and dot righi, I want a penny more (making the was asked what orders be had; he then went fourpence-halfpenny, which was bis proper through the regular list of all the customers change): then observing, give me my cas- living at Brixton, &c. wbich he had been in ter, meaning his hat, which slang terms he the babit of calling on, and named three had been in the babit of using, and then be- pounds of beef-steaks for one, chump end of gan the motion of whipping and sporring, as loin of veal for another, leg of lamb for if to get his horse on. His pulse at this time another, quarter of lamb for another, &c. as were 136, full and hard, no change of coun- regularly as if he had been sent out in a tenance could be observed, or any spasmodic murning; he was then told to clean the shop, affection of the muscles (the eyes remaining be stripped off his coat, and turned up bis co-ed the whole of the time). His coat was sleeves to begin washing the benches, and taken off the arm, shirt sleeve stripped up, was obliged to be held to prevent his doing and I bled him to 32 ounces. No alteration it. After two or three minutes, he observed, had taken place in bim during the first part "there is no pig's victuals mixed up, let me of the time the blood was flowing; at about go, when master comes bome be will be an44 ounces the pulse began to decrease, and gry at that." I then observed to Mr. Hewwhen the full quantity named above had soo, if I had the boy on board ship, I would bees taken, they were at 80, a slight perspi, tie 'him ap, and ropes end him. It was ration ca the forehead. During the time of agreed that experiment should be tried; he Meeding, Mr. Hewson, jun, related a cir- was held by the arms in front, and Mr. Hewcumstance of a Mr. Harris, Optician, in son, jun. (a stout young man) took a hand