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610ssary

OF UNUSUAL WORDS, CHIEFLY SCOTCH.

(See also Glossaries pp. 186, 336, 368.)

A', all.
Busk, dress, prepare.

Farther seen, have more foresight.
Aboon, above.
Bustine, fustian, cloth.

Fash your thumb, care at all.
Ae, one.
Butt, odd angle.

Fasheous, troublesome.
Aibling, perhaps.

By, for it, besides, when, without. Fashes, trouble.
Ain, own.
By-and-attour, moreover.

Faulds, folds.
Air, early.
Byre, cow-house.

Fayned, to make shift ; tempted.
Airt, quarter.

Fechting, fighting.
Aiths, oaths.
Cadgy, wanton, cheerful.

Feckless, feeble.
Agee, awry.
Cankered, cross.

Feg, fig.
Ane, one.
Cantraips, spells, charms.

Fell, keen, hot ; rock ; to befall.
Asteer, astir.
Canty, lively.

Ferly, wonder.
Auld, old.
Car, sledge, left.

Flaw, lie.
A-will, wilful.
Carle, man, churl.

Fleech, fleich, flatter.
Awn, own.
Caul, cool,

Fleeching, flirtation, flattery.
Ay, always.
Cauler, cawler, cooler.

Fleid, flayed.
Cauldrife, causing cold, indifferent.

Flet, scolded ; a home, residence.
Badrans, cat.
Cawfs, calves.

Flyte, go off, go away.
Bairn, child.
Chiel, fellow, person.

Flitting, about to depart, going.
Baith, both.
Chirm, chirp, note,

Fou, full.
Ban, curse.
Chuck, hen.

Fouth, abundance.
Baldsters, musicians.
Cleck, clack, gossip, gabble.

Fowk, folk, folks.
Bane-fire, St. John's fires, beltane fires, Cleek, catch up.

Frae, from. bel-fire, the bonfire of midsummer eve, Clute, hoof, half-hoof. in which to baptize cattle, &c., to Baal, Cockernony, the knot or mass of hair Fraise, frase, cajoling discourse ; to deor the sun.

gathered under and kept in place by Freath, froth, foam up. Bannock, oat-cake, hoe-cake.

the snood or fillet ; head-dress.

Freith, to free.
Barlickhood, fit of ill-humor.
Coft, bought.

Furlet, firlot, a quarter of a boll, corn
Bassand, white-faced.
Coof, wittol, fool.

measure of Scotland. Bauch, unpleasant to taste.

Corbies, crows, ravens.
Bauld, bold.
Crack, chat, gossip, boast.

Gabs, mocks, prates.
Bawk, roof, cross-beam, unplowed ridge. Crummock, Cow with a crumpled or Gangs, goes.
Craigy, craggy.

Gaits, goats.
Bawsint, white-faced.

crooked horn. Be, by, towards, by that time.

Gars, causes, makes.
Bedeen, quickly.

Cry, call.
Beeking, basking.
Cunzie, coin ().

Gate, manner, how.

Gaw, a gall-nut ; furrow for drainage ; Begunk, trick. Curn, kernel.

a hollow with water.
Bein, rich, well off.
Cut and dry, tobacco for smoking.

Gaws, galls, becomes pettish.
Ben, into the room, forward.
Dabs, puddles.

Gear, wealth, goods, possessions.
Bend, field.
Bend the bicker, pass the bowl.
Daftin, trifling, playing,

Geck, mock, deride ; jilt ; toss the head

with disdain.
Daft, crazy:
Bent, field.

Getts, children, offspring.
Gae-to-the-bent, provide for one's safety.
Darned, hidden.

Gies, gives.
Betoocht-us-to, let us commend us to God: Daut, fondle.
Dawted, jilted.

Gif, if.
Beuk, baked.
Bield, shelter.
Dead, death.

Giglet, giddy girl.
Bigonets, linen cap, coif.
Dei'l, devil.

Girning, grinning.

Gloaming, twilight.
Billy, comrade, chap.

Diced, sewed.
Birks, birches.
Divot, turf, sod.

Glowring, staring menacingly.
Dit, stop.

Gowans, daisies.
Birky, lively fellow.
Birns, burdens.
Doilt, confused.

Gowd, gold.
Doof, stupid.

Gowk, fool.
Bites, sharpers.

Graith, furniture, gear.
Black-gole, go-between.

Dool, dule, grief, sorrow.
Blashy, deluging.
Dorty, pettish, saucy.

Granes, groans.
Dosens, stupefies.

Gree, agree ; dye; live in amity. Blate, sheepish, bashful.

Greet, weep.
Bleezing, blazing.

Dowie, melancholy, sad.
Blob, globule, drop.
Downa, cannot.

Grien, long for.
Bobbit, scoffed, danced.
Drowth, drought.

Gyte, flood,
Bogles, spirits, bug-a-boos

Duddy, ragged. Bombazed, stupefied. Dyvour, debtor.

Haffet, side of head, the temples.

Hagabag, huckabuck, coarse towelling, Bonny, pretty. Ee, eye, een, eyes.

or bagging. Bouk, trunk of the body. Eild, eld, old age.

Haggies, haggis, a dish commonly made Bourd, jest. Eithly, easily.

in a sheep's maw, of the lungs, heart, Bow, herd, fold for cows.

Elfshot, cramp, shot by fairies, flint ar- and liver, of the same animal, minced Braes, hill-sides.

rowhead, disease sent by evil spirits, with suet, onions, pepper, and salt. Brankan, gay,

sudden cramp

Sometimes it is only of oat-meal, with Brattling, clattering. Else, already.

the last articles, without meat. In Braw, fine, gayly-dressed.

Elwand, staff, yardstick, 45 inches, or 37 England it is a sausage. Breckens, breaches.

inches, which is the Scotch yard. Hag-raid, harried, hag-ridden.
Bris'd, pressed.
Ergh, irk, dislike.

Hainder, last.
Briz, bruise.
Ettle, attempt, aim at.

Hairst, harvest-time.
Brock, fragments.

Even, equal, bring down to a level with. Hald, homestead.
Brue, broth.
Eyne, eyes.

Halow, a saint.
Bught, pen, fold.

Haly, wholly ; holy ; perfect.
Burn, stream.
Fae, foe.

Harigald, heart, liver, and lights; pluck;
Burnie, rivulet, rill.
Falds, folds.

metaphorically, rough handling.

Hawkie, hawkey, cow ; cow with a white Miscawed, abused.

Slid, smooth, glib. face, or white spot on her face. Mony, many:

Smoored, smothered. Hechts, calls ; names ; promises ; offers; Mools, mould, earth.

Snood, fillet, headband. commands. Motty, full of motes.

Sonsy, lucky (!), easy (?). Hleft, to dwell ; confine, restrain. Mows, heaps ; mouths.

Sornan, obtruding on bed and board ; a Hether, heather, erix, erica sylvestris,

sponger ; sojourn.
the common heath of Europe.
Nae, no.

Spae, tell fortunes.
Hidlings, hiding places.
Neist, next.

Speer, inquire.
Hinny, maid-servant.
Newcal, cow that has newly calved.

Speered, questioned.
Hod, to hide.
Nieves, hands, fists.

Staw, stole.
Hodden, natural color of the wool, hod- Nocht, naught.

Stead, stede, farm-house and offices; den-gray ; jogging. Nor, than.

homestead. Hound, call, as a dog. Nowt, black cattle.

Steek the gab, stay the speech, stop How, hollow, deep dell ; mound, hillock. Ony, any.

talking
How, a hoe ; hood; garland.
Or, ere, before.

Steer, direct one's course.
Howdy, midwife.
Orp, fret.

Steght, pierced, sticked, stitched, fixed.
Howm, holm, wooded islet.
Owk, week(?).

Stend, leap, spring, a stride.
Owercome, o'ercome, surplus, overplus. Stent, limit, stint.
Ilk, appellation.
(wrelay, neckcloth.

Swankies, country beaux.
Ilka, every
Oxter, armpit.

Swith, swift.
In, in town, in the city of Edinburgh.

Syne, since, ago.
Ingans, onions.

Paughty, proud.
Ingle, chimney corner.
Pawky, sly.

Taids, toads.
Ither, other.
Pensylie, self-importantly.

Tak, take.
Poinds, levies on.

Tane, the one.
Jaw, wave, billow ; quantity of water Poke, bag, wallet.

Tarrows, teases, frets. thrown at a jerk; to dash as a wave ; Poortith, poverty.

Tass, cup.
spirt.
Poplin, bubbling.

Tent, take notice of.
Jeering, joking.
Pow, wig, head of hair.

Tenting, tending.
Jo, sweetheart.
Plet, plaited.

Thack, thatch,
Piotcock, the devil.

Thieveless, objectless.
Keel, ruddle ; mark with ruddle, or red- Propine, present, set forth.

Thirle, thrill. ding. Putted, planted, as in pitching quoits.

Thole, bear, suffer ; wait; expect. Kens, knows.

Thrawart, perverse, froward.
Kent, cane, staff.
Queans, young women.

Thought, trifle.
Kilt, tuck up, truss, lift quickly.
Quey, young cow.

Thows, thaws.
Kiltit, lifted up.

Till, to.
Kirk, church.

Rachet, a briyk, smart blow.
Kirned, churned.
Racket-rent, rack-rent, exorbitant rent. Titty, little sister.

Tines, loses.
Kitted, caught, snared as with bird-lime. Rant, talk idly, idle talk.

Tocher, dowry.
Kittle, enliveniny ; tittlish.
Rares, roars.

Tod, fox.
Knowe, knoll, hillock.
Raveled, troubled.

Tod-lowrie, fox.
Kye, kine.

Redd, clear up, disentangle.
Reiver, rover, robber, pirate.

Toofal, close, fall to, shutting down over.

Toolying, toying.
Laird, proprietor.
Reese, to extol.

Toom, empty.
Land-wart, rustic.
Reesed, raiser, aroused.

Trow, guess, think.
Lane, alone, in private.

Reesting, drying by heat.
Lap, leaped.
Reestit, dried by sun or smoke.

Trysted, made a tryst, or rendezvous.

Tulzie, tussle, struggle.
Lave, the rest, others.
Rigx, rick, stack.

Tyke, dog, cur-dog.
Lar'rock, lark.

Rock, distatr.
Lee, lonely.
Roove, rest (?).

Unco, very.
Leel, leal, loyal.
Rousted, cried, bellowed.

Uncos, strange things, wonders.
Leen, let go.
Roudes, hag.

Unfothered, unfoddered, unfed.
Leglens, milk-pails.

Rowan, mountain-ash ; flake of wool. Unsousy, unlucky.
Leugh, laughed.
Row'd, rolled.

Usquebae, whiskey.
Lift, sky.

Rowth, plenty.
Lightlies, makes light of.
Rucks, ricks.

Virles, rings, whirls, twirls.
Lilt, sing cheerfully.
Rue, be sorry.

Visy, visit.
Lin, fall, waterfall.
Runkled, wrinkled.

Vogue, run of, command of.
Linking, tripping.

Wae, woe ; wae's, woe is. Loan, loaning, open yard, or wide pas- Sae, so.

Wad, would. sage, near the farm-house.

Sae-being, so be it, if.
Looes, loves.
Sair, sore, sorely.

Waff, strayed ; haste, motion, waive.
Loofs, praises (?).
Sakeless, sackless, guiltless, innocent ; Wale, to select.

Wame, belly.

free. Loss, praise (Latin, laus).

Ware, spend, expend. Loundering, Illuding.

Samen, the same, together; as goon. Warlock, conjurer. Lout, bow, obeisance.

Sark, shirt, chemise. Low, blaze. Saws, proverbs, sayings, discourse, lan- Watpawhat, nobody knows what.

Wat, wot, know. Lowan, burning, blazing.

guage.

Wauking, walking (?), waking (?). Lowp, leap. Scads, scalds.

Waur, worse.
Luckie, lucky, granny.

Seyd, essayed, tried.
Lug, car.
Shaw, wood ; note, p. 486.

Wean, child.

Wear, gather cautiously.
Luggies, vessels, luggers.

Shoon, shoes.
Lyart, gray.
Shored, courted ; reckoned ; offered ; Wee, wie, little.

Wede, weeded, rooted up.
propped.

Whingin, whining,
Mae, more.
Sic, siccan, such, such as.

Whilk, which
Maiks, mates.
Siller, silver.

Wimpling, winding.
Mailens, rents.
Sindle, syndill, seldom.

Woo, wool.
Main, throw of a die.
Singand, singing.

Wood, wud, mad, crazy.
Mair, more.

Sinsyne, since then.
Mansworn, forsworn, perjured.

Worly, worthy.
Sit your time, outstand your market.
Maun, must.
Skair, skaur, a shave; a bare place on

Wyte, blame.
Mavis, thrush.

the side of a hill.

Yestreen, yesterday.
Meikle, mickle, much.
Skaith, hurt, harm.

Yont, beyond.
Merle, blackbird.
Skelfs, shelfs.

Youdith, youth.
Midding, midden, dunghill.
Shelpit, scalped.

Yowe-milking, milking of the ewes after
Mint, mind; care.
Skitting, skipping.

the lambs are taken away ; a pastoral Mirk, dark. Sice, sly.

festival in Scotland.

A

Complete Inder,

BIOGRAPHICAL, TOPICAL, AND

EXPLANATORY.

ABDOLONYMS, his story told, 170, 171 ; garden, altar,

prayer, 171 ; crowned by Alexander and the people, 172
Abergasney, a town upon the Towy river, in the south part

of Wales, 77.
Abletts, family, 319.
Abner and Widow Jones : a ballad, by Bloomfield, 71–73.
Abodes of quiet and pleasure, 76 ; of vicious poverty, 76,

77. See Village, and Parish Register.
Absence : an eclogue, by William Shenstone, 406.
Absenteeism of Creoles in the W. I., discouraged, 434, 436.
Abstinence, when useful, 20.
Abused uncle, Roger Cuff, and his nephews, 413, 414.
Abyssinia, 142 ; its lofty plains and charming climate, 142.
Acerra, a city of Campania, Naples, subject to river inunda-

tions.
Achelous, allegory of, 275, 276.
ACHILLES, son of Peleus, King of Phthiotis, Thessaly, Greece,

and Thetis, the sea-deity. He was one of the chief heroes
of the Trojan War ; and Homer relates that he slew Hec-
tor, the Trojan hero, and dragged the body at the tail of
his chariot. He was noted for his temper, on which is

based the action of Homer's poem on the taking of Troy.
Activity, perpetual in nature, 249.
Adam and Eve, their Morning Hymn, 40.
Addison's imitation of Psalm xix., 131 ; – xxiii., 78.
ADDISON, JOSEPH, son of an English dean, was born at Mils-

ton, Wiltshire, Eng., in 1672, and died June 17th, 1719.
He distinguished himself at Oxford, and on going to Italy,
in 1701, wrote thence an Epistle to Lord Halifax. This is
deemed the most elegant and animated of his poetical pro-
ductions, specimens of which are seen at pp. 78, 134. His
greatest distinction, however, is as an essayist, though he
married discord in a noble wife,' the Countess Dowager
of Warwick, 1710, and in 1717 was appointed Secretary
of State. He wrote essays in the Tatler, Spectator, and
Guardian ; and, in 1713, the tragedy of Cato, which was

brought on the stage with ' unexampled success.'
Adieu to the country, 31.
Adultery, so.
Advent, Christ's Second, signs of, 484.
Advice of a good West India planter to his son, 423.
Egeria and Dolon, an episode, 276, 277.
Ælia, a division of Asia Minor, on the west.
ESCULAPics, the classic god of medicine, son of Apollo ;

generally represented as leaning on a club, round which
is wound a serpent. He was one of the Argonauts, and

is also called Pæan, or Pæon ; that is, 'the physician.'
Africa, its natural features, 285 ; sands, serpents, whirl-

winds, wild beasts, 285, 286 ; genius of Africa apostro-
phized, 435.
African, the, at home, 437.
After a Tempest : an ode, by Bryant, 205.
Afternoon, of summer, 148.
AGAMEMNOx, King of the Greeks, 96; called Atrides, as being

the son of Atreus ; - his good cheer, 96. He was brother
of Menelaus, and led the Greeks to the taking of Troy.

See Helen,
Aged oak, simile of, falling, 93.
Age, Golden, or of Gold, described, 6, 19; its music, 6 ; Sil-

ver age, 19; Brazen, 19; Heroic, 19, 20; Iron, 20.
Age, the present contrasted with the Golden, 6.
Age, progress from youth to, 203, 204 ; fibres stiffen, 204;

- meditations of God's works a proper theme for, 360.
Ages, the four (or five) of humanity, Hesiod's account of,

19, 20. See Age.
Agricultural plenty described, 309 ; - science, its triumphs,

271 ; - science commended to the wealthy, 58.
Agriculture, a poem in three cantos, by R. Dodsley, 55—70.
Agriculturist, retired, his quiet, hopeful life, 273.
Ague personified, 48.
AIKIN, John, M.D., chief author of Evenings at Home, and

other excellent books for children. He was brother to

Mrs. Barbauld. See Barbauld.
AIKIN'S Wish : an ode, 88.
Aim, the best, is use, 83.

Airiness, of a house, recommended, 50.
Alcander and Nerina, a story exemplifying reform in land-

scape gardening, 178–183 ; his paternal estate, Gothic
mansion, farm-house, castellated farm-yard, ice-house,
dairy in abbey-form, 178 ; ocean frith, grottos, 178 ;
shipwreck, the rescued maiden, 178, 179; his unsuccess-
ful love, 179 ; bower of Flora, description of it, conserva-
tory and hot-house, 179; statue of Flora, 179, 180; story
of Nerina, 180 ; poultry-yard, dove-cote, and aviary, 180 ;
visit of Cleon, the stranger, and his survey, 181 ; Nerina
swoons, and dies, 182 ; explanation between Cleon and
Alcander, 182 ; soliloquy, time the soother, tomb, funeral

cell, angels, 183.
Aldrich, 382
Alcoves, for West India gardens ; granadillas, water-lemon ;

fountains, 440, 441.
Alehouse, the village, by Goldsmith, 37.
Alexander the Great and Abdolonymus, of Sidon, 171.
Alienated Homestead : an ode, by T. B. Read, 416.
All flesh is grass, 82.
Allegory, explaining the theory of vegetation, 58 ;-of

Hercules and Achelous, 275, 276.
Alms-house, thoughts in the, of Isaac Ashford, the noble

peasant, 411.
Alpheus, a river of the Morea, which ran westward through

ancient Arcadia and Elis. It was thought to pass under
the sea, and to come to light again in the copious fresh
water fountain of Arethusa, in the harbor of Syracuse,
which rises in the salt water, and, as the writer can testify,

is clear and sweet.
Altar, Abdolonymus at the, 171 ; his patriotic prayer.
AMALTILA, the name of the goat that suckled Jupiter,

while the bees brought honey to his lips ; this milk and
honey, corresponding to spiritual good and truth, became
the nectar and ambrosia (extracts of milk and honey) of
a later age, the food of the gods. In his play Jove broke
off one of the horns of his foster-mother goat, which, at
first a drinking-cup, became the horn of plenty, the cor-
nucopia, which Jove fills with blessings, especially through
agriculture. This goat and kids, Capella and Hoedi, are
constellations. See Anthon's Classical Dictionary, which
is here referred to, once for all, for fuller explanations of

the classical allusions of Rural Poetry.
Amanda complimented, 8 ; - evening walk with, 149.
Amazon river, or Orellana, 143.
Ambition, dissuaded from, by Epicurus, 64.
Ambition and flattery, 77 ; - village, its hopes and fears,

97 ; - return from the rural pleasures to the patriotic

treadmill, 363, 364.
Amelia, struck dead by lightning, 147.
Amellus medicine, 233.
Americas, the, 294; savages of the, 294 ; intercourse of

Britain with, 294.
America, tropical, 143 ; Orinoco, Amazon, La Plata, 143.
American Revolution, the, 442.
Amethyst, 137.
Ammon's son, Alexander the Great.
Amomum, of the greenhouse, 85.
AMPHITRITE, wife of Neptune, the classic god of the sea.

She was the daughter of Nereus, and mother of Triton.
Amphrysian shepherd, Apollo, who fed the flocks of King

Admetus, on the banks of the Amphrysus, in Thessaly.
Amply-flowing lines, proper in landscape gardening, 163.
Amusements, simple rural contrasted with the fashionable,

37 ; — country, 264, 265 ; - rustic, 270.
ANACREON, the Greek poet, born at Teos, Ionia, Asia Minor,

in the early part of the sixth century, B. C. He went to
Samos, and then to Athens, and was in favor with Poly-
crates of Samos, and Hipparchus of Athens. He was

choked to death by a grape-stone at the age of eighty-five.
ANACREON's Grasshopper, or screech-locust, 262.
ANACREON's Spring : translated from the Greek, by Thomas

Moore, 102.
Anana, the pine-apple, 421.
Ancient Britain, state of.

Andrew Collet, tale of, 408.
Anemone, the wind-flower, marsh gentian, 8.
Anger, dissuaded from by Epicurus, 6t; - its effects com-

pared with those of love, envy, fear, grief, rage, joy, 455 ;

to some a fit of anger useful, 455 ; remedies for, 455.
Angels, guardian, origin and employment of, according to

Hesiod, 19 ; - ministering, 183.
Angler, the, 313.
Angler's Song: by H. W. Longfellow, 205, 206.
Angling, described, 28 ; - by Delille, 266 ; angling, shoot-

ing, stag-hunting, 266, 267 ; angling, by Pope, 292 ; -

recommended for gentle exercise, 337 ; Trent, Eden.
Animal world, the, its voices of love, 9.
Animals, slaughter of, reprobated, 7 ; - guided by instinct,

as to food, 200;- stuffed, 283: see Cabinet ; necessary,
to give life to descriptions, 286 ; sheep, cat; Buffon's an-
ecdotes, 287 ; war-horse ; dog of Ulysses, the deer, horse,
286 ; – how to make them interesting, 286, 287, 288 ; - in-
terest given to animals by Lucretius and Virgil, 287; be-
reaved cow, 287 ; – happiness of, sympathy with, 479 ;
- proper treatment of, 480 ; — what killing of is wrong,

what right, 481, 482 ;- praised by the poet ; why, 483.
Annals of the parish, 315 ; — of the village poor. See Par-

ish Register.
Anne, Queen, complimented by Pope, 292 ; - and peace,

294; — glories of her reign (Pope), 294 ; - her reign, 389;

union of Scotland and England, 390.
Anointing, precepts as to, 339.
ANTECS, a giant king of Lybia, son of Neptune (the sea) and

Terra (earth), and famed for wrestling. Whenever he was
thrown he received new strength on touching his mother,
earth ; hence Ilercules conquered him only hy holding
him up in his arms and squeezing him to death. The fable
symbolizes the triumphs of labor and art over the sands
of the desert. Antạopolis was a city of Egypt, in a long,
deep valley, subject to fearful hurricanes and sand-storms,
whose effects were conquered only by the art of irrigation,

and the labor of canalling from the Nile.
Antillean, belonging to the Antilles, that is, the W. I. islands.
Antiquity, reverence for, a snare, 470.
Ants, destructive to cane-plants, 426.
Antwerp, weavers from, migrate to England, 507.
Anxiety, effect of, on health, 451.
Aonian, that is, Baotian, for Boeotia, in Greece, was origi.

nally inhabited by the Aones, and called Aonia. Mount
Helicon, the seat of the Muses, was in Boeotia, and hence

the Muses are called the Aonian Sisters.
Apostrophe to light and the sun, 136 ; – to heat, at noon,

139 ; – to a young lady in the spirit-land, 141 ; – to phi-
losophy, 152 ; – to reason, fancy, poetry, 151 ; – to Italy,
216 ; – to the God of Nature, 310 ; – to God the Re-

deemer, 181.
Apothecary, for the paupers, 257.
Appetites, sensual, to be restrained, 65.
Apple, British, 66 ; - its soil, culture, and use, 377–384;
choice varieties of, 381 ; pippin, moile, permain, ottley,
eliot, john-apple, harvey, thrift, coiling, pomroy, russet,

cats-head, 381 ; musk-apple ; red-streak, best, 381, 382.
Apple-cheese, 385.
Apple-gathering, 385.
Apple-trees, culture of, 378 ; – mucking, circular trenching,

watering, 378 ; pruning, 383 ; — swine, wasps, snails, rot,

worms, about them, 381.
April, the month of, 41–78 ; - Longfellow's ode on, 52, 53 ;

Thomas Warton's o le on, 54.
April Day: an ode, by Longfellow, 51.
Aquarius, a constellation. See Zodiac.
Archas, a Corinthian leader of a colony that founded Syr-

acuse, in 732 B. C., which grew to twenty-two miles in cir-
cuit. Ile was one of the Heraclidæ, or descendants of

Hercules.
Arboriculture, 62.
Arcadia, Arcady, the mountainous, central portion of what

is now the Morea, the peninsula of Greece. It was espe-
cially adapted to pastoral pursuits, and its people are a
very ancient race, who still maintain a rude, simple char-
acter, very Swiss-like, with the pastoral love for music.
Some of its seasons are cold and foggy. The most fertile
part is the south. Iu the western part innumerable brooks,
each more delightful than the other, sometimes rushing
impetuously, and sometimes gently murmuring, pour
themselves down the mountains. Vegetation is rich and
magnificent ; everywhere freshness and coolness are found.
One flock of sheep succeeds another, till the wild Taygetus
is approached, when numerous herds of goats are also

seen.' - BARTHOLDY.
Arcadian innocence and happiness gone, 462.

Archery, 270.
Arctic regions, natural features of, 286 ; snow, ice, 286.
Arctic Spring and Summer, 403, 404.
Arctic Winter, 403 ; Siberia ; China caravan, 403.
Arctic zone, food of, 202.
Arcturus, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, 23.
ARETHCSE, a nymph of Diana, of Elis, Greece, who, enticed

by the clear river Alpheus, bathed in it. The river-god
rose and pursued her, and she was changed by Diana into
a fountain ; but, resuming his shape as a stream, Alpheus

followed her under the sea to Sicily. See Alpheus.
Argonauts, story of the, 498, 499 ; effects, 499.
Argyle, Duke of, eulogized, 306.
Aries, 3. See Zodiac.
Arion, a famous poet and musician of Lesbos, about 628

B. C. The story is, that being at sea with great wealth,
the sailors threw him overboard to get it ; but a dolphin,
charmed by his harping, took him on his back, and landed

him safely.
ARIST.EUS, son of Apollo and the nymph Cyrene, was born

in Cyrene, Lybia, Africa, and brought up by the seasons,
or nymphs, who fed him on nectar and ambrosia, and
thus rendered him immortal. See Anthon's Classical Dic-
tionary. The invention of olive-culture and bee-raising
is attributed to him ; and the legend is, that, falling in
love with Orpheus's wife, Eurydice, he pursued her, and
in her flight she trod upon a serpent, whose bite caused

her death. See the 4th Georgic of Virgil, and below.
Ariconium (near Kenchester), description of, and legend of

its destruction by drought, 378 ; causes, 378, 379.
ARISTÆCS and his mother Cyrene, story of, 233-236 ; homes

of the rivers and lakes, 234 ; Proteus, the shepherd of the
seas, and his changes, 234, 235; contest of Aristieus and
Proteus, 255 ; Aristeus performs the rite, and produces

swarins of bees, 236.
ARMSTRONG, JOHN, Dr., was the son of a minister of Castle-

ton, a pastoral parish of Roxburyshire, Scotland. He is
said to have been indolent, splenetie, kind-hearted,
shrewd, caustic, and warınly attached to his friends. He
was also saving ; for, though not very successful as a phy-
sician, he left at his death some fifteen thousand dollars,
which he had laid up out of a small income. He died Sept.
7, 1779, in his 70th year. Besides the Art of Preserving
Health (see below), published 1744, he wrote the Economy

of Love, Benevolence, Taste, and a volume of prose essays.
ARMSTRONG's Art of Preserving Health, a poem in four

books ; namely, Air, 47-50 ; Diet, 199–204 ; Exercise,

337–312 ; the Passions, 451-455.
Artificial soils, 273, 274.
Art can add charms to the most unpromising locality, 162;

– leads labor in beautifying a wet dale, 162; - of land-

scape gardening, 166 ; nature to be mended, 166.
Art and nature, perfection of landscape from their union,

163 ; - art and nature, 503 ; - conversation on, as ap-
plied to gardening, 181 ; - must overcome disadvantages,

273, 274.
Arts, origin of the, 152 ; - daughters of necessity, 209 ; -

the, in the country, 267.
Arum, 132.
Asceticism and riot, equally wrong, 201.
Ascræan, belonging to Hesiod, the earliest writer of poet-

ical precepts on farming. He was a native of Ascra, a
town of Breotia, Greece, situated on a rocky summit of
Mount Helicon. Ascrean poetry hence means rural or

farm poetry.
Ascription of praise to God, 59. See Praise.
Ash, uses of the, 62 ; - spring revival of, 131.
Ashford, Isaac, the noble peasant, story of, 410, 411. See

Noble Peasant.
Aspen, revival of, in spring, 131.
ASTRXA, the goddess of justice. During the golden age she

mingled freely with mortals, but in the silver age she
only descended on the mountains at night, unseen of men.
She fled back to heaven when the brazen age began, and
Jove turned her into the constellation Virgo, who holds
Libra, the balance, in her hands; whence our symbolic
representations of Justice. See Ages of Humanity, and

Zodiac.
Astronomy, proves Almighty power, 136.
Atrophy, from damnpness, 48.
* At setting day and rising morn,' a song (xix.), 123.
ATTICUS, T. P., author of a universal history, the friend of

Hortensius and Cicero ; a sister of Atticus married his
brother. He was a patriot of many noble qualities, and

noted for his knowlege of Greek, — whence his name.
Auburn, the village of, in its prosperity, 35, 36, 37. Gold

smith's native village of Lissoy, Ireland (now in ruins,

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