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who had every appearance of being glasses, combs, babes on horseback extremely lame, was carried down and and on foot,” with other toys, to aleft on the shore. Frobisher taking muse and conciliate the minds of the compassion on his malady, determin- natives. ed, if possible, to attempt its cure ; After a short interval, in and conceiving that the application of John Davis was sent out with two a loaded musket might be attended vessels on the same mission with Frowith salutary effects, he caused one bisher. On reaching Greenland, he to be discharged. The cure was in- seems to have been peculiarly struck stant; the lame man sprung up and with its gloomy and terrific aspect. ran with incredible swiftness, while Hecalls it “ the most deformed, rocky, his countrymen rushed out from their and mountainous land that ever we ambuscade to his rescue. T'hese ma

The first sight whereof did næuvres appear to have been practised shewe as if it had been in forme of a with a view to the deliverance of the sugar loafe, standing to our sight two females who were still in the hands above the clouds, for that it did shewe of the English ; but without success; over the fogge like a white liste in the and Frobisher carried them with him skye, the tops altogether couered with to England, for which he soon setsriowe, and the shoare beset with ice sail.

a league off into the sea, making such On the 25th May, 1578, Frobisher yrksome noyse, as that it seemed to again sailed with eight vessels, car- be the true patterne of desolation.” rying out a hundred men, and ample He then steered north-west, till he arbuilding materials, for the purpose of rived in Cumberland's Strait. He at forming a settlement upon Meta In- first saw no people, but soon heard cognita, the name then given by them making à lamentable poyse, Queen Elizabeth to this remote re- with great outcryes and skreechings; gion. On the 20th June, he came we thought it had been the howling of in view of Friesland, and cannot wolves. Davis, however, seems to avoid again remarking its aspect have studied, with much more cour“ full of craggie rocks, and the tops tesy and address than his predecessor, of high and huge hills," covered to place himself on an amicable footwith mist and snow. “ There might ing with them. As soon as they were we also perceive the great isles of ice descried, a band of musicians, providlying on the seas.” He immediately ed on purpose, was sent for, who imsailed across to his own Straits, and mediately struck up a tune, to which made preparations for forming his set- the crew danced, making at the same tlement; but these were interrupted time friendly gestures towards the by a storm of the most terrific charac- natives. These merry proceedings ter. “ The ice had so invironed us induced the latter to advance nearer, that we saw neither land nor sea, as though they did not grant their full far as we could kenne.” They cut confidence till, besides the continuatheir cables, and hung them, along tion of music and dancing, the Engwith oars, bars, and planks, over the lish had made several mystic signs, as sides of the ships, to defend them a pledge of protection. The natives from “ the great and dririe strokes of then became quite intimate and fathe ice." Its force, however, was miliar,--sold every thing they had, such, that it broke these barriers, and their canoes, and the clothes off their “ rased the sides of the ship, that backs. These clothes were made of it was pitifull to behold.” Happily fine wool, seals' skins, and birds' skins, in the morning the wind ceased, though with the feathers on. In August Dathey were soon involved in so terrible vis was stopt by adverse winds and a fog, that but for the continual beat- tides. He was then among islands, ing of drums they could not have kept " with great sounds passing between near each other. On the 26th of July them,” and was convinced, from vathe snow fell a foot thick, freezing as rious circumstances, that this sea had it fell. These and other disasters a communication with the great obliged them to give up the idea of Southern Ocean. forming a settlement this year on these In 1686, Davis set out on a second dreary shores. They merely formed voyage. He came to nearly the same a small house, “garnished with many point which he had visited the year kinds of trifles, as pins, points, laces, before, and renewed his intimate

their eye,

commerce with the natives. But mischief," on board, and carried him some less satisfactory features in their off. He was at first very disconsocharacter began to be unfolded. He late, but on being well treated, soon observes, “they are very simple in recovered his spirits. all their conversation, but marvellous On the 17th July, in lat. 63° 8', he theevish.” “ They began, through our says, we fell upon a most mightie lenity, to shew their vile nature; and strange quantity of ice, in one inthey began to cut our cables ;-they tyre masse, so bigge, that we knew cut away the Moonlight's boat from not the limits thereof, and being with. her stern ;-they cut our cloth where all so very high, in forme of a land, it lay to ayre,-they stole our oares, with bayes and capes, and like high a caliver, a boare speare, a sword, with cliffe land, which bred great admiradivers other things. The crew loud- tion to us all, considering the huge ly called upon Davis to “dissolve this quantity thereof, incredible to be renew friendship,” and the good natur- ported in truth as it was, and thereed commander at last allowed a cali- fore I omit to speak any farther ver to be fired, which “ did sore a- thereof. This only I think, that the maze them,” and caused an immedi- like before was never seene." This ate dispersion. In ten hours after enormous mass formed a serious bar they came back, promising good be- to his progress, and the crew behaviour, and, we again fell into a coming sickly, it was, after full congreat league.” Unfortunately, how- sideration, judged necessary to return. ever, some pieces of iron coming under In 1587, Davis made his third voy:

" they could in nowise for- age, which, though less diversified bear stealing;” but this to Davis “ did by incident, was more important as but minister occasion of laughter,” to discovery He sailed along the and he merely warned the sailors that west coast of Greenland as high as they must look well to their own pro- 72° 12' N. considerably farther north perty, " supposing it to be very hard, than any navigator had yet been. He in so short a time, to make them found the sea to the north and west know their evils.” Being anxious, entirely open; then leaving land, he then, to obtain some knowledge of steered to the westward. Circumthe interior of the country, he got to stances obliged him to take a southern the top of a high mountain, but the direction, and he arrived in Cummountains round were " so many, and berland Straits, where he discovered so mighty," that his view could not a number of islands, to which he extend far. He then sailed up a large also gave the name of Cumberland. river, but found " no firme lande, but His farther progress was all to the huge, waste, and desert isles, with southward; but he returned in the mighty sounds and inlets passing be- most sanguineexpectation of the grand tween sea and sea.” On his return to discovery. He writes to his employ. the ship, a torrent of complaints was er, Mr Sanderson, I have been in poured out against the unfortunate 73 degrees, finding the sea all open, natives. They had stolen an anchor, and 40_leagues between land and --had cut the cable, had severed the land. The passage is most certaine, boat from the stern,-" and with the execution most easie." Notwithslings they spare us not with stones standing these sanguine anticipations, of halfe a pound weight.”. The good- the interest of the public fell asleep natured commander bid them be con- upon this subject, and was not a tent, and all would be well. He went wakened anew till a considerable to the natives, used them with much time after. courtesy, and considered their friend The next great explorer of the ship as gained. But as soon as it was northern seas was Henry Hudson, dark, “they began to practise their de- who, by his voyages into these revilish nature, and the boatswain was gions, acquired a name equal to that even knocked down by a stone thrown of the most illustrious British navigafrom one of their slings. Davis was tors. His first voyage was one of dise at length worked into a rage, and or- covery towards the North Pole, “ set dered them to be fired upon; but forth at the charge of certaine worthey rowed off so quickly, that no da- shipfull merchants of London.” See mage ensued. He afterwards enticed veral voyages had already been made one of the ringleaders, “ a maister of to Cherry Island ; but Hudson was

chiefly "

the first Englishman who reached In the third voyage, Hudson set Spitzbergen, which he called New- out, in the first instance, eastward, land, or Greenland. He even con- and doubled the North Cape, but he ceived himself to have been its first then immediately turned westward, discoverer, though it appears that it and proceeded to Newfoundland, had been already visited by Barentz whence he sailed along a great part of in his third voyage. He coasted it as the coast of the United States. This high as between 81 and 82 degrees, navigation does not belong to our preand was anxious to have sailed round sent subject. it by the north ; but the vast quantity On the 17th April 1609, Hudson of ice joining to the land, rendered set sail on his last, most memorable, it impossible to attempt this. He and fatal voyage. The object was was of opinion, however, “that this now the discovery of the north-west land may be profitable to those who passage, which had been tried repeatmay adventure it;" for, though it was edly by Frobisher and Davis, with

a very rugged land, rising out fuil success, indeed, but without like hay-cocks," and largely covered any discouraging result. The details with snow, yet the seals were more are given by one of the seamen named numerous than in any country he had Habaccuc Pricket. After passing the yet seen.

southern point of Greenland, they In 1608, Hudson set sail, with the sailed directly across the mouth of view of discovering a north-east pas- Baffin's Bay, and pushed through the sage. In the latitude of 75°, they entrance into that great bay which saw what was judged to be a mer- has received the name of Hudson. maid,

who came close to the ship's He soon found himself a hundred side, looking earnestly on the men.' leagues farther than any navigator The description given is, that," from had yet reached, but the ship being the navill upward, her backe and here entirely inclosed with ice, and breasts were like a woman's, (as they matters having assumed an alarming say that saw her ;) her body as big as aspect, he called the crew together, one of us ; her skin very white, and and left it to their choice, “ whether long hair hanging down behind, of co- they would proceed any farther, yea lour blacke.” A wave, however, sud- or nay.” Such a reference, perhaps, denly rose, and washed her away. is always imprudent, and here it Hudson reached Nova Zembla, and doubtless sowed the seeds of mutiny. sailed for some time along its coast. Some were for one thing, and some He was rather agreeably disappointed for another, and “there were some in its aspect, as most of what he saw who spake words which were rememwas, to man's eye, a pleasant land,” bered a great while after.” Before and, though some of the hills were co any decision was formed, the discusvered with snow, many were free sion was broke up, by the necessity of from it, and “in some places green, action. “ To worke we must on all with deer feeding thereon.” He was hands, to get ourselves out.” When unable, however, to penetrate across they were once clear of the ice, no farthis barrier, and observes, “ It is no ther objection was made to proceeds marvel there is so much ice on the ing, and they worked on as far as sea towards the Pole, so many sounds Cape Worsenholm, which formed the and rivers being in the lands of Nova termination of the Strait, and the ena Zembla and Newland to engender it, trance into the Bay, of Hudson, Probesides the coasts of Pechora, Russia, ceeding southwards, they were en and Greenland, with Lappia, by means tangled in the ice, and, on the 10th of which ice I suppose there will be of November, were entirely frozen in. no navigable passage this way." From Though they suffered severely from which and other passages, Hudson's cold, it did not produce any alarming idea appears to be, that ice is derived effects, and the abundance of fowl in chiefly from land. He sought in vain the beginning of winter prevented for Willoughbie's Land, which had any danger of famine. Discontents, hitherto been laid down on all the however, were secretly fermenting. maps, and seems to have determined Among the crew was Henry Greene, a that it must either have been Spitze young man of ability, and of respectbergen or Nova Zembla,

able parents, but whose dissolute con

duct had alienated all his friends, and room for doubt as to their fate.left him entirely destitute, till Hud “ Never, perhaps," says Forster, son took him into his house, and got was the heart of man possessed with him a place in his ship. This Henry ingratitude of a blacker dye than that Greene “stood upright and inward of the infamous villain Greene. Hudwith the master, and was a very ser

son had saved this wretch from perdiviceable man every way;" but the fa tion, had received him with the utvour shown to him, and which was most kindness into his own house, and thought scarcely merited, alienated had, but with too much weakness, tathe minds of several of the officers. ken his part, when he had been guilty In spring the fowls disappeared, and of the grossest misdemeanours, -notserious distress began to be felt from withstanding which, this outcast of the want of provisions. Hudson's society had the wickedness to stir up exertions to obtain a supply, and to the rest of the crew against their comdivide equally what they had, seem to mander, and to expose his benefactor have been unwearied ; but a diversity and second father, without clothes, of opinion began to prevail as to the arms, or provisions, to the open sea, measures which ought to be pursued. in an inhospitable climate, inhabited At length a conspiracy was formed, at only by savage beasts, and men still the head of which Greene placed him- more savage.”—The mutineers now self, for the detestable purpose of put proceeded to ransack every corner of ting out Hudson, with all the sick the vessel, as if it had been given up and disabled men, on board the shal- to plunder; and they then endealop, while the rest should sail home voured to work their way out of the in the ship. Pricket, the narrator, bay through the ice, which bore a against whom strong suspicions have worse appearance than any they had been entertained, avers most positive- yet dealt with, But if ever the hand ly, that he remonstrated in the strong- of Providence visibly interposed, it est manner against this design, though was against this guilty crew, who he agreed to remain neutral, on con were soon destined to perish by a fate dition of not being included in the still more horrible than that which proscription. Greene first informed their guilty hands had inflicted. Harhim of the design, swearing there was ing come to a coast which appeared to no other remedy; that he would ra- abound with fowl, they were invited ther be hanged than starved; and by the savages, in a manner apparentthat he would “cut his throat that ly very friendly, to come on shore. went about to disturbe them. Pre- A boat with six men, accordingly, sently came Ivet, who, because he was landed, without arms or precautions an ancient man, I hoped to have of any kind. Several began to collect found some reason in him, but he was herbs, while others were showing to worse than Henry Greene. After the people " looking-glasses, Jews' him came John Thomas and Michael harps, and bels." In an instant they Perse, as birds of one feather ; but, were attacked in the most furious because they are not living, I will let manner. Henry Greene and another them go.” At night, Greene held the were killed on the spot, and two more eaptain in conversation till the plot died afterwards. Pricket, after a dese was ripe, when Hudson, coming out perate struggle, and many wounds, of the cabin, was seized by two sailors, succeeded in wresting the weapon while another bound his arms behind from the savage who had attacked him, him. Inquiring what this meant, he and turned it against himself. The was told that he should know when loss of these four, however, "the onlie he was in the shallop. “ Then was lustiemen in all the ship," increased the the shallop haled up to the ship, and difficulty of navigating; and the length the poore, sicke, and lame men were of the voyage, joined to their “evil called upon to get out of their cabins steerage," reduced them, before they into the shallop.” Some dispute arose reached England, to the last extremias to the selection, but it was at length ties of famine. Ivet, the chief ring. settled, and Hudson, with his coinpa- leader next to Greene, died of want, nions, were abandoned on this terrible and only the opportune appearance of shore. They were never more seen the coast of Galloway saved the rest or heard of; but the situation in from the same fate. which they were left could leave no (To be concluded in our next.)

FEMALE AUTHORS OF SCOTLAND. risen into fame by the fidelity of her No. I.

delineations of human character, and

the manly energy of her poetry, reREMARKS ON THE PLAYS ON THE

lieved, as it is, by a sweetness and a PASSIONS, BY JOANNA BAILLIE.

tenderness truly feminine. These Plays have now been before The Greek tragedians have reared the public twenty years.

The au

a goodly structure from the simple thor has informed us, in an introduc- elements of man, that will probably tory discourse, in which she has give outlive, not only the beautiful marble en a luminous explication of the laws which the genius of their sculptors of the drama, that they were intended has inspired with life and passion, for the stage. As few of them, how- but all the other glories of their counever, have been brought upon the try, Homer alone excepted. The stage at all, and these have not kept Romans, whatevor may be their claim their place there long, it will be the to literary distinction, in other reobject of this paper to examine where- spects, have no tragedy; and the in lies the fault,-whether with the French, with all their boasting on the public, or the directors of our thea- subject, have copied the Greek traa' trical entertainments, or in the dramas gedy in its faults, rather than its themselves. Joanna Baillie was one spirit; and to such a slavish length of the earliest of the luminaries who have they carried their imitation, that have adorned this age of poets; and, there is little original in their tragic splendid as the march of some of them drama, but its insipidity, and its abhas been, she is not yet, perhaps, sur solute destitution of poetry and nature. passed in many of the most unequi. In passing, we can only bow in revocal attributes of poetical excellence. verence before the throne of ShakeWe know not if there be a sex in soul, speare, and mark the glance of that but in the perusal of these plays we eye that scans the heavens and the remark much of the energy and sub- earth, and the universe of man, which linity that have been thought to be- he pictures on a canvas of celestial long to one sex, with the delicacy texture, and in the hues of Eden." and purity peculiar to the other. Some of his contemporaries, and one The living poets have, with a few ex or two of his successors, would have ceptions, written from the fancy ra- exalted any other nation to the pinther than the imagination and the nacle of dramatic glory, but in the heart. They seem to have forgotten splendour of his reputation, every that the proper study of mankind is other fame is obscured ; and while man;" and have fetched their sub- his name is pronounced as that of a jects from the land of fairies, or wit- tutelary deity, in the cottage, and in ches, or apparitions, or demons, rather the palace, and in the dwellings of all than from the habitations of man, or, the intermediate classes, we seldom when they have deigned to introduce think even of Otway, but when we him into their pictures, it has been go to the representation of Venice with a view of illustrating some fac- Preserved. Joanna Baillie, though titious state of society, in which he certainly far beneath Shakespeare, may had deviated as far from nature as bear no unfavourable comparison with possible. They are always in ex- any other dramatist of this country. tremes. With them passion is the The question again recurs, why are her hurricane of the soul, or a sentimen- plays not added to the stock of the Enga tal babyism that is perpetually puling lish stage? This we are now to consito the moonlight. Joai na Baillie has der, and we shall do so as candidly and risen above all these faults, and does as dispassionately as we can. With all not owe one iota of her glory to sa our deferenee to her name, and all our crificing to a false taste, to which fa- admiration of her genius, we cannot shion has given currency; and her help thinking that the plan of devotcharacters are always, in general, na- ing a play exelusively to one passion tive, and do not seek to attract no is unfortunate, as it not only narrows tice by the singularity of their cos the limits of dramatic representation, tume, -by rusty helms, or antique but otherwise subjects her to great armour, nor by eccentricity in their inconvenience. It is true, that, in actions, nor by an overstrained strength some of our best tragedies, one pasa of passion, or the wbine of simplicity. sion is predominant, and its excess She is above such affectations, and bas leads to the catastrophe, as the jea.

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VOL. II.

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