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Barbary. height and ruggedness. The fiege of this place was lity peaceably till the year of the Hegira 297 or 298, Barbary.
committed to Pharas, an officer of great experience, during which time they made several descents on the
happy Gilimet was reduced to the greatest ftraits for time, however, one Obeidallah rebelled against the Gilimer's want of provisions. Pharas being soon apprised of the house of Aglab, and assumed the title of khalif of extreme di- distress he was in, wrote him a most friendly and pa. Kairwan (the ancient Cyrene, and residence of the 6.
thetic letter, earnestly exhorting him to put an end to Aglabite princes). To give the greater weight to his
di the first was fallen on one of his eyes ; and the lute, on which name of Magrebians, he extended his dominions in
Fatemite he had learned to play, was to assist him in setting fome Africa and Sicily, making Kairwan the place of his khalif. elegiac verfes he had composed on the subject of his residence.
26 misfortunes to a suitable tune. At this mournful re- In the 300th year of the Hegira, Habbasah, one His general port Pharas could not refrain from tears, and imme- of Al Mohdi's generals, overthrew the khalif Al Mok- Habbatah
invaries Ediately dispatched the messenger with the things he tader's forces in the neighbourhood of Barca, and wanted.
made himself master of that city. After which he re. 8'pc. Gilimer had spent near three winter months on the duced Alexandria itself; and was making great profummit of this inhospitable mountain, his mifery har. gress in the conqueft of the whole country, when Al dening him ftill more against the thoughts of furren- Mokhtader dispatched against him his two generals dering, when a melancholy scene in his own family at Takin and Al Kasem, with an army of 100,000 men, once reconciled him to it. This was a bloody struggle Habbasah being informed that the khalif's troops were between two boys, one of them his lifter's son, about in motion, advanced at the head of his army to give a flat bit of dough, laid on the coals; which the one them battle, and at last came up with them in an island seized upon, burning hot as it was, and clapped it in- called by the Arabs Ard Al Khamsin. Here he at. to his mouth ; but the other by dint of blows forced it tacked them with incredible bravery, notwithstanding out, and eat it from him. This quarrel, which might their force was much superior to his ; but the approach have ended fatally had not Gilimer interposed, made fo of night obliged both generals to found a retreat.deep an impression upon him, that he immediately dis. The action therefore was by no means decisive, tho’ex. patched a messenger to Pharas, acquainting him that tremely bloody, the khalif's generals having loft 20,000, he was willing to surrender himself and all his effects and Habbalah 10,000. The latter, however, durft not upon the conditions he had offered, as soon as he was renew the fight next morning; but stole off in the night, aflured that they were embraced by Belisarius. Pha- and returned home, so thatAlMokhtaderin effect gained ras loft no time to get them ratified and sent back to a victory. In the 302d year of the Hegira, however, him ; after which he was conducted to Belisarius, who Habbasah returned, possessed himself of Alexandria a gave him a very kind reception. Gilimer was after second time, defeated a body of the khalif's forces, wards brought before Juftinian in golden chains, whom and killed 7000 of them upon the spot. What furhe besought in the most subinislive manner to spare his ther progress he made at that time we are not cer
27 Kindly life. This was readily granted by the emperor ; who tainly told; but in the 307th year of the Hegira, Abul As does ale treated by also allowed him a handsome yearly penfion to live up. Kasem, son to the Fatemite khalif Al Mohdi, again fo his fian Justinian
on as a private gentleman. But his mind and heart entered Egypt with an army of 100,000 men. At firit Abul Ka.'
isle of Al Alhmaryin, penetrating even to Al Jizah, Barbary being thus again reduced under the power where the khalif's army under the command of Munes 23
of the Romans, its history falls to be taken notice of was pofted in order to oppose him. In this country Barbary under that of Rome. In the khalifat of Omar, this he found means to maintain himself till the 308th year
28 fubdued by country was reduced by the Saracens, as we have al- of the Hegira. This year, however, he was entirely who is ute the Sara.
ready related under the article ARABIA. It continued defeated by Munes, who made himself master of all his terly de-
his empire, that prefeet took the opportunity, first out making any further attempt on Egypt.
; city of the granted by the khalif, and then erecting a princi- his son Abul Kalem abovementioned, who then took Aglabites
pality altogether independent of the khalifs. The the surname of Al Kayem Mohdi. During his reign founded. face of Aglab continued to enjoy their new principa- we read of nothing remarkable, except the revolt of
Barbary. one Yezid Ebn Condat, a man of mean extraction, far; but in the mean time, this enterprize did not di- Barbary
HI but who, having been raised to the dignity of chancel. vert Al Moez from the care of his other conquests, Rebellion
lor, found means to raise such a strong party, that the particularly those of Sicily and Sardinia : to the last of Yezid. khalif was obliged to shut himself up in the castle of of which he failed in the year of the Hegira 361, con
Mohedia. Yezid, being then at the head of a power- tinuing a whole year in it, and leaving the care of his
12th year of his reign, and 334th of the Hegira. of his new Egyptian dynasty, which was to put a final of governAl Mansor Al Kayem was succeeded by his son Ilhmael, who end to the old one of Kairwan after it had continued that counkhalif. immediately took upon himself the title of Al Mansur. about 65 years.
try. This khalif thought proper to conceal the death of his Al Moez preserved all his old dominions of Kairfather till he had made the preparations necessary for wan or Africa Proper. But the ambition or avarice of reducing the rebels. In this he was so successful, that the governors whom he appointed suffered them to run he obliged Yezid to raise the fiege of Mohedia the fame quickly to a shameful decay ; particularly the new and year; and in the following gave him two great over. opulent metropolis of Mohedia, on which immense sums throws, obliging him to shut himself up in the fortress had been lavished, as well as labour and care, so as to of Kothama, or Cutama, where he besieged him in his render it not only one of the richest and stateliest, but turn. Yezid defended the place a long time with de- one of the strongeit, cities in the world: so that we may sperate bravery ; but finding the garrison at laft obliged truly say, the wealth and splendor of this once famed, to capitulate, he made hift to efcape privately. Although short-lived itate, took their final leave of it with Mantur immediately dispatched a body of forces in pur- the departure of the khalif Al Moez, seeing the whole fuit of hiin ; who overtook, and brought him back in maritime tract from the Egyptian confines to the Straits
fetters; but not till after a vigorous defence, in which of Gibraltar hath since become the nest of the most
body to be flayed, and his skin stuffed and exposed to count of the erection of a new kingdom in Barbary by
Nothing farther re- than is necessary for the proper understanding the hi-
that would necessarily occasion repetitions under the Al Moez Al Mansur was succeeded by his son Abu Zammin articles Morocco, Tripoli, Tunis, &c. we must Ledinillah Moad, who assumed the surname of Al Moez Ledinil. refer to those articles for the historical part, as well khalif.
lah. He proved a very warlike prince, and maintained as for an account of the climate, inhabitants, &c.
were much esteemed and admired. He died in 1612.
But the greatest atchievement performed by this BARBE, or BARB. See Barb.
khalifat to that country. This conqueft, though long to fire the cannon over the parapet, instead of firing
N. Lat 45
Barbe who were accoutred at all points. It is said to have BARBETS, the name of the inhabitants of several Barbets." !! been an armour of iron and leather, wherewith the neck, valleys in Piedmont, particularly those of Lucern, An
Barbieri. breatt, and shoulders of the horse were covered. grona, Perusa, and Si Martin.
Barbe (St), a town of Biscay in Mexico, near which BARBEYRAC (John), was born in Besiers in are rich filver mines. W. Long. 109. 55. N. Lat. Lower Languedoc in 1674. He was made professor 26. O.
of law and history at Lusanne in 1710; which he enBARBED, in a general sense, bearded like a filh- joyed for seven years, and during that time was three hook set with barbs; also shaved or trimmed.
times rector: in 1717, he was professor of public and BARBED and Crefied, in heraldry, an appellation private law at Groningen. He translated into French given to the combs and gills of a cock, when particu- the two celebrated works of Puffendorf, his law of larized for being of a different tincture from the body. Nature and Nations, and his Duties of a Man and a
A barbed cross, is a cross the extremities whereof Citizen ; to both which he wrote excellent notes, and are like the barbed irons used for ftriking of fish. to the former an introductory preface. He translated
BARBEL, in ichthyology. See CYPRINUS. also Grotius's' treatise De Jure Belli ac Pacis, with
BARBELICOTÆ, an ancient sect of Gnoftics, large and excellent notes ; and several of Tillotson's
BARBEZIEUX, a town of Saintonge in France,
in their effect: however, that manner is censured as
grandeur or beauty of the design, or perhaps have a caBARBERINO, a town of Tuscany in Italy, fi pacity to examine even the correctness of any part of a tuated at the foot of the Apennine mountains, in E. painting; and yet every eye, and even every imperfect Long. 12. 15. N. Lat. 43. 40.
judge of a picture, may be sensibly affected hy the
BARBESUL (anc. geogr.), a town and river of was natural, easy, and often grand, but without any
BARBET, in natural history, a name given by his local colours want truth. However, there is great
powerful and expreffive imitation of life, which will
B A R
[ 7 ]
Barbigri for ever render them eftimable. Towards the decline hurricanes. It labours almost every where under a
of his life, he observed that the clearer and brighter great scarcity of water; and except in the neighbour. Barca.
style of Guido and Albano had attracted the admira- hood of towns and villages, where the ground produces
and other proper food ; for want of whick, those that
vellers; not only as they fink under their feet, but be-
them for want of breath; or if vehement, often overBARBLES, or Barbs, in farriery, the knots or whelms whole caravans, Agzint this temple Cambyses superfluous Aesh that grow up in the channels of a king of Persia dispatched an army of 50,000 men. horse's mouth ; that is, in the intervals that separate the They set out from Thebes in upper Egypt, and under bars, and lie under the tongue. These, which are also the conduct of proper guides reached the city of Oasis called barbes, obtain in black cattle as well as horses, seven days journey from that place: but what was their and obstruct their eating. For the cure, they cast the fate afterwards is uncertain ; for they never returned beast, take out his tongue, and clip oif the barbles with either to Egypt or to their own country. The Ama pair of sciffars, or cut them with a sharp knife; others monians informed Herodotus, that, after the army choose to burn them off with a hot iron.
had entered the fandy desart which lies beyond Oasis, BARBOUR (John), archdeacon of Aberdeen, was a violent wind began to blow from the south at t'e eiteemed an elegant poet in the reign of David I. He time of their diviner, and raised the sand to such a dewrote the history of Robert the Bruce, in an heroic gree, that the whole army was overwhelmed and bupoem, which is still extant, and which contains many ried alive. facts and anecdotes omitted by other historians. The Concerning the government or commerce of this. lateit edition of this book is that of Glasgow, 8vo, country we know nothing certain. Most probably the
. printed in the year 1672. It is intitled, " The acts maritime towns are under the protection of the Porte : and life of the most victorious conqueror Robert Bruce but whether under the basha of Egypt or Tripoli, or king of Scotland; wherein also are contained the mar- wliether they have formed themselves into independent tial deeds of the valiant princes Edward Bruce, Sir states like those of Algiers and Tunis, we cannot say ; James Dowglass, Earl Thomas Randal, Walter Stew- only we are told that the inhabitants of the maritime ard, and fundry others.” In one passage, he calls it a towns are more civilized than those that dwell in the romance ; but that word was then of good reputation: inland parts. The first profess Mahometanism, and every body knows that the • Romaunt of romaunts’. have imbibed some notions of humanity and justice ; has been innocently applied 10 true history; as well as whilft the latter, who have neither religion nor any the · Ballad of ballads' to a sacred song.
fign of worship among them, are altogether savage and BARBUDA, one of the British Caribbee islands, brutish. They are a sort of Arabs, and like them live about 20 miles long and 12 broad. It is low land, but entirely upon theft and plunder. By them this tract, fruitful and pretty populous. The inhabitants addict which before was a continued desart, was first inhabited. themselves to hufbandry, and find always a ready mar- At their first coming in, they settled themselves in one ket for their corn and cattle in the sugar islands. Bar- of the best places of the country; but as they multibuda is the property of the Codrington family, who plied, and had frequent wars with one another, the have great numbers of negroes here as well as in Bar- ftrongest drove the weakest out of the best spots, and badoes. It lies in W. Long. 61.3. N. Lat. 18.5. fentihem to wander in the desart parts, where they live
BARCA, a large country of Africa, lying on the in the most miferable manner, their country hardly afcoasts of the Mediterranean sea, between the kingdomsfording one single necessary of life. Hence it is that of Egypt and Tripoli, extending itself in length from they are said to be the ugliest of all the Arabs: their east to west from ihe 39th to the 46th degree of eait bodies having scarcely any thing but skin and bone, longitude, and in breadth from north to fouth about their faces meagre, with fierce ravenous looks; their 30 leagues, as is generally supposed. It is for the most garb, which is commonly what they take from the palpart, especially in the middle, a dry fandy desart; on sengers who go through these parts, tattered with long which account the Arabs call it Suhart, or Ceyart wearing; while the pooreil of them have scarce a rag Barka, that is, the desart or road of whirlwinds or to cover their nakedness. They are most expert and
Barcalon, refolute robbers, that being their chief employment ragon, out of hatred to his queen Donna Juanna ; the Barcelona.
few, that the Barcans are often necellitated to make by that monarch in 1471. Various efforts were made
on themselves, and concluding with a protestation that
month. In this the king acknowledged they had
. This city was originally founded by Ha- On the 22d of O&tober the king made his entry into
The city add to these ihe palace of the viceroy ; the aisenal, continued subject to him and his succeffors, who still which contains arms for 1000 men ; the exchange, enjoyed the title of counts of Barcelona, from the year where the merchants meet ; the tersana, where they 802 to 1131 ; during which time we find nothing re- build the galleys; and the palace where the nobility markable, except that the city was once taken by the of the country meet, called La Casa de la Deputation. Moors, but soon after retaken by the afiitance of This last is built with fine large free stone, and adorned Lewis IV. king of France. In 1131 it was united to with columns of marble: there is in it a large hall, the crown of Arragon by the marriage of Don Ray- with a gilt cieling and a handsome portico, wherein mond V. count of Barcelona with the daughter of Don persons may either walk or fit , the hall is adorned Ramiro the Monk, king of Arragon. In 1465 the with the portraits of all the counts of Barcelona. Catalonians revolted against Don Juan II. king of Ar. There are several fine squares, particularly that of St