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of Japan in the middle, and the sea of Okhotsk in the north. All these communicate with the Pacific ocean. The gulf of Siam and the gulf of Tonquin are arms of the China sea. The sea of Kora and the sea of Oby, in the north-west. cominuoicate with the Arctic ocean. The sea of Azoph, the Black sea, the sea of Marmora, and the Grecian Archipelago lie on the boundary between Asia and Europe. The Mediterranean washes the western coast of Asiatic Turkey.

Straits and Isthmus.] The strait of Babelmandel connects the Red sea with the Indian ocean. The strait of Ormus connects the Persian gulf with the Indian ocean. The straits of Malacca separate the island of Sumatra from the peninsula of Malaya, at the southern extremity of Farther India. The strait of Jenikale connects the sea of Azoph with the Black sea. The Bosphorus connects the Black sea with the sea of Marmora. The strait of the Dardanelles connects the sea of Marmora with the Archipelago. The isthmus of Suez is the narrow neck of land which connects Asia and Africa, and separates the Red sea from the Mediter


Lakes.] The Caspian sea is a large salt water lake, bounded N. by Russia ; E. by Independent Tartary ; S. and W. by Persia; and N. W. by Russia. It is 646 miles long from north to south and 265 in its greatest breadth, and though it receives several large rivers, particularly the Volga, the longest river in Europe, it has no outlet. In several places it is of great depth, but in others shallows are so frequent as to render the navigation dangerous. The sea of Aral, lying east of the Caspian, in Independent Tartary, is also a salt water lake about 150 miles tong. Like the Caspian it receives several large streams, particularly the Oxus, but has no outlet.

Mountains.] The Ural or Oural chain of mountains is supposed to commence on the shores of the İrctic ocean, opposite the southern point of the island of Nova Zembla, and in the first part of its course forms the boundary between Asia and Europe, but afterwards continuing in a southerly direction it lies wholly in Asia, till it terminates between the Caspian sea and the sea of Aral.

The Altay chain may be regarded as a continuation of the Ural mountains. It commences a litile north of the sea of Aral, and under various names passes in an easterly direction through the whole breadth of Asia, forming during the greater part of its course the boundary between the Russian and Chinese empires. It afterwards turns to the north and runs parallel to the eastern shore of the continent till it terminates at Behring's straits. It is the longest chain of mountains on the globe except the great American range, and throughout its whole extent it is eminently distinguished for the production of metals.

The Himmaleh mountains, the highest on the globe, form the boundary between Rindoostan and Tibet. The central and loftiest part of this asto nisbing chain is that which gives rise on one side to the Ganges apd its mighty tributaries, and on the other

to the Indus, the Burrampooter, and the Setledge, many of the peaks reaching here an elevation of 20,000 feet, and one of them, the Dholager or Dhawalagiri, rising to the beight of 27,550 feet above the level of the ocean. As the chain proceeds eastward from this central point, although the peaks occasionally rise into the region of perpetual spow, the openings become wider, and the general character of the barrier less formidable. Farther east, although high and rugged, it is no longer characterized as snowy. After leaving Hindoostan, it is said to continue its progress under varions names in an easterly direction through the southern provinces of China, and to approach the shore of the Pacific ocean in about lat. 25° N. opposite the island of Formosa, atter which it turns towards the north and runs for some distance parallel with the coasta From the central point, near the source of the Ganges, the chain proceeds in a northwesterly direction still preserving the oame of the Himmaleh till it reaches the northern extremily of Hindoostan, where it is pierced by the Indus. Beyond that river it turns to the west, and is called at first Hindoo Coosh or Indian Caucasus and afterwards the Parapomisan mountains, and under these names it separates Caubul from Independent Tartary, after which it passes through the northern provinces of Persia 10wards the Caspian sea.

From the Hindoo Coosh a branch called the Belur Tag, proceeds in a northerly direction, forming a part of the boundary between Independent Tartary and the Chinese empire, and connecting the Himmaleh with the Altay chain. From the central point of the Himmaleh another branch called the Moos Tag, proceeds in a N.W direction along the eastern and northern boundaries of Little Tibet, and connects itself with the Belur Tag, thus encircling Little Tibet on all sides with a mountain barrier.

The Caucasian mountains are a vast chain between the Black sea and the Caspian, more than 100 miles long and from 60 to 200 broad, and covered in some of its most elevated parts with perpetual snow It commences on the shore of the Black sea near the strait of Jenikale and the mouth of the Kuban, and stretehes in a S. E. direction to Derbeod on the Caspian. A branch of these mountains winds along the western and southern shores of the Caspian and it is supposed connects itself with the Parapomisan mountains, and through them with the Himmaleh chain, but the country through which it passes has hitherto been but imperfectly explored.

The Mount Taurus chain commences in the northeastern part of Turkey in Asia near the sources of the Euphrates and the Tigris, where the Ararat rises into the reign of perpetual snow. It runs in a westerly direction along the southern shore of Asia Minor towards the Archipelago and terminates at cape Kelidoni near lat. 30° E. after sending off a branch to the south, which runs along the coast of the Mediterranean through Syria, and divides into the parallel chains of Libanus and Antilibanus. The Zagros, called by the Turks Tag-Aiagha, is a branch of the Mount Taurus chain, which leaves it soon after its departure from

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Mount Ararat, a little west of lake Van, and running in a S. E. di rection, parallel with the Tigris, passes throngh the southwestern provinces of Persia, and parallel with the coast of the Persian gulf till it terminates near the straits of Ormus.

The Bogdo is a chain of mountains whose loftiest summits rise near the centre of Asia to the height of more than 20,000 feet above the level of the ocean. It is said to send forth branches in all directions, towards the Altay mountains, the Moos Tag, the Belur Tag and the mountains of China, but all this part of Asia is as yet very imperfectly known.

Rivers.] The following are the principal rivers which discharge themselves into the Arctic ocean. 1. The Oby, which rises in the Chinese dominions in the centre of Asia and after piercing the Altay mountains, pursues a direction on the whole west of north, through the whole breadth of the Russian empire and discharges itself into the sea of Oby, after a course of more than 2,000 miles. Its principal tributary is the Irtish, which rises also in the centre of Asia near Mount Bogdo, and after flowing through the lake Nor Zaizan enters the Russian territory and joins the Oby in lat. 61° N. 2. The Enicei or Jenisey, which rises also on the south side of the Altay mountains near Jat 49° N. lop. 100° E. runs in a direction a little west of north and discharges itself into the Arctic ocean in lon. 80° E. after a course of more than 2,000 miles. 3 The Lena, which rises in the mountains west of lake Baikal in lon. 107° E. lat. 52° 30' N, and running at first in a northeasterly and afterwards in a northerly direction discharges itself into the Arctic ocean after a course of nearly 2,000 miles.

The principal rivers which fall into the Pacific ocean are, 1. The Amur or Saghalien Oula, which rises in 49° N. lat. and 109° E. lop. and flowing on the whole in a direction N of E. falls into a bay of the sea of Okhotsk opposite the northern part of the island of Saghalien in lat. 53.0 N. 2. The Hoang-ho or Yellow river, which rises in the unknown regions of central Asia, and pursuing at first an easterly course enters China proper near its N W. corner, where it turns and runs in a northerly direction for 500 miles, and then making a complete bend proceeds towards the south for about the same distance, after which it resumes its original direction and falls into the sea near lat. 34° N. after a course of nearly 2,000 miles. 3. The Yang-tse-Kiang rises also in the unknown regions of central Asia, and after entering China pursues a direction N. of E. through the middle of the kingdom and falls into the sea about a hundred miles from the Hoang-bo. 4. The Cambodia (called also by many other names,) is a large river which discharges itself into the China sea near lat. 100 N. lon. 106° E. It is supposed that it rises in the mountains of Tibet, but the countries which it traverses are almost wholly unknown.

The principal rivers which fall into the Indian ocean are, 1. The Ganges, which rises on the south side of the central and loftiest part of the Himmaleb mountains between 31° and 32° N lat, apd 78o and 79° E. lon. and running on the whole in a S. E.

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direction discharges itself into the bay of Bengal through many mouths after a course of 1,500 miles, during which it receives numerous tributaries. The Burrampooter or Brahmaputra, its principal tributary, rises on the north side of the Himmaleh mountains not far from the sources of the Ganges, and after flowing for more than half its course in an easterly direction, breaks through the mountains, and turning to the west and afterwards to the south joins the Ganges near its mouth. . 2. The Indus is formed by two streams, both of which rise in Little Tibet between the Himmaleh and Moos Tag mountains. After their union the river takes a southwesterly direction and breaking through the mountains, runs along the western boundary of Hindoostan, and discharges itself through many mouths into the sea after a course of 1,300 miles. 3. The Euphrates is formed by two streams, which rise in the mountains of Armenia, and unite near lat. 39o N. and lon. 39o E.* After their union the river runs on the whole in a southeasterly direction and falls into the head of the Persian gult: Its whole length is more than 1,500 miles, and its principal tributary is the Tigris, which joins it 130 miles from its mouth.

The principal rivers which fall into the Caspian sea and the sea of Aral are, 1. The Volga, which discharges itself into the northern part of the Caspian through 70 mouths. 2. The Orus or Amu, which rises in the southeastern part of Independent Tartary on the western declivity of the Belur Tag mountains, and receiving the waters from the northern face of the Hindoo Coosh chain, flows in a N. W. direction and discharges itself into the sea of Aral on its southern side, after a course of more than 1,200 miles. 3. The Sir or Sihon, which rises also on the western declivity of the Belur Tag mountains, and after a N. W. course of nearly 600 miles falls into the sea of Aral on its eastern side.

Face of the Country.] Next to the great mountain chains which traverse this continent, the most remarkable feature in the face of the country is the high table land which occupies nearly the whole of central Asia, and is supposed to be the most elevated and extensive tract of table land on the globe. It commences on the northern side of the Himmaleh chain, and is said to extend to the Altay mountains on the north and beyond China proper on the N. E. The western part is traversed by ranges of lofty mountains ; but the eastern is occupied by the desert. of Cobi or Shamo, which is an immense plain, extending from 88° to 112° E. Ion. nearly 2,000 miles long and 500 broad, and covering an area of about 1,000,000 square miles. It contains nimerous salt lakes, and is destitute of vegetation, except on the scattered oases or fertile spots, where a few wandering sayages obt tain a scanty subsistence.


Situation and Extent.] Turkey in Asia is bounded N. by the sea of Marmora, the Black sea and Russia ; E. by Persia ; S. by Arabia and W. by the Mediterranean and the Archipelago. It extends from 30° 10 42° N. lat, and from 26° to 49° E. lon. The area is estimated at about 500,000 square miles, without including the Syrian desert.

Divisions.] Asiatic Turkey is divided into 17 pachalics, most of hich derive their names from their principal towns; but the different parts of the country are still best known by other names, and both are therefore given in the following table.

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r 1. Anatolia,

2 Siwas,
Asia Minor also 3. Trenisond,
Anatolia, 4. Konieb,

5. Merasche,
6. Adana,

7. Aleppo, Syria, (includ

8. Tripoli, ing Palestine,) 9. Acre,

10. Damascus,

11. Diarhekir, Mesopotamia

12. Orfa, also Algeziras,

13. Mosul,

14. Kars, Turkish Ar

15. Van, menia,

16. Erzerum, trak Arabi, { 17. · Bagdad,

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B-sides the pachalics mentioned above, there is a province composed of the island of Cyprus and of a small district on the continent adjacent to it on the north. All the islands in the Archipelago belong to the government of the Captain pacha jo European Turkey

Mountains ] Armenia is throughout its whole extent a mountainous country. Mount Ararat is the highest summit and is believed by the Armenians to be the place on which Noah's ark rested alter the flood bad subsided. Its summit is 9,500 feet above the level of the sea and is covered with perpetual snow. The mount Tuurus chain, called by the Turks Kurun, proceeds in a westerly direction from the mountains of Armenia tiwards Asia Minor, and divides into two branches, the principal of which, still bearing the name of Taurus, runs parallel with the southern coast of Asia Minor, at no great distance, and terminates at cape Keli

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