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it was surrounded, inspired his brave by the name of Phanariotes. This and magnanimous heart with the work had a very extensive circulation. frank and generous resolution of ex- He also published an excellent transercising all the powers he possess- lation of “ Marmontel's Shepherdess ed towards preparing for its emanci- of the Alps.” He had busily empation.
ployed himself in drawing up national It was Rhigas that first conceived, cantatas in the popular style; in these in a vast area, the bold, active, and pieces, he had collected all the tender enterprising, project, of creating a sentiments that attach the hearts of grand Secret Society, and he was not youth to their country, all that could Iong in forming it. His mind, con- elicit the sparks of zeal, and kindle stantly moving in the direction of the sacred Aame of hostility to that this principle, he gained over bishops, domineering which composed the archons, rich merchants, the learned, character of the Turks. In the symcaptains by sea and land, in short, pathetic power of these, he imitated the flower of the Greek nation, with the Marseilles hymn,-“ Alons, Enmany foreigners of distinction. But fans de la Patrie;" and they have irhow he could spread his witcheries, so resistibly drawn, as by a charm, a muas to captivate and enchant many tual enthusiasm of passions, forming Turks of the highest order, nothing an indissoluble cement of the patriotbut the unjust restraints imposed ic affections. Their first appearupon them by their sovereign, or ance had strong and decided effects rather the delirium of mind excited on minds of sensibility, and his song by outrages frequently bursting forth, of Heroes, have not you lived long with all the fury of a convulsive vol- enough on the mountains ?' is not, cano, will account for it.
nor will easily be, forgotten. In perAmong other Turks driven to des- fect accordance with the public feelperation by such conduct, was Pask. ings, they are chanted by the youth wan Oglou, whose valour and martial in advancing to battle ; and experiskill were long the subjects of num ence declares, that they have been of berless calamities to the Porte, at the greatest use in steeling the heart times filling it with terror and con- against the attacks which their injursternation. He entered into this as- ed, honest, cause, has generated. sociation of Rhigas.
Rhigas afterwards drew up a Rhigas, afterwards, proceeded to “Grand Chart of all Greece, " in Vienna, where he met with a num- twelve divisions, wherein he noted, ber of rich Greek merchants, and not only the present, but the ancient, some learned emigrants of the same names of all places celebrated in the nation. From that capital, he ex- Greek annals. Among other ornatended his correspondence with his ments, it exhibited a great number of co-associates throughout Greece and antique medals; and, as his songs Europe.
formed a potent stimulus to martial Nor would he withdraw, himself exertions, so his Chart held out infrom his alliance with literature, com- structions to the European literati ; mencing with a Greek journal for the so that, though it is defective and ininstruction of his countrymen. He cortect, his real and progress were translated the “ Travels of Young applauded. The expense was defrayAnacharsis ;" he composed and pub- ed by his associates. lished a “ Treatise of Military Tac By the all-conquering force of his tics,” an 6 Elementary Treatise of genius, this brave man first roused the Physics for General Readers;" he spirit of his countrymen, infusing the also translated into modern Greek a firmness of hearts of oak, preparing French work, entitled, “ L'Ecole des them for battle and new triumphis Amans Delicats, the School of Deli- concerting, also, the means of de cate Lovers. In this translation he struction for the base myriads their has correctly imitated the style of the impious murdering usurpers should archons of Constantinople, designated bring against them. The several pas.
sages here quoted prove that his claim says :—“ Though our banners do not to the credit which such discernment, wave high in air, yet with religion such revolutionary feelings, deserve, for our bulwark, and freedom our was undoubtedly and indisputably just. shield, we are resolved to share in the
The manner of terminating his ca- glory of Rhigas ; his call has awaked reer was tragical. A false brother, and raised us from our sleepy trance, seeking to mend his fortune by the and we will never yield to blasphemsale of his honour, denounced Rhi- ers and the slaves of a merciless desgas, and eight of his friends, to the pot. The dawn of liberty is only regovernment of Austria, as conspira- tarded by our jealousy of certain Eu
The emperor arrested them ropean powers." to be given up to the Ottoman Porte, The author, afterwards, in the aniexcept three that were naturalized mated spirit of genuine enthusiasm, Austrians.
an overwhelming burst of the imagiThis deplorable event was report- nation, effusions vigorous, natural, and ed in all the European journals. The luxuriant, calls attention aside to obMoniteur thus notices it, borrowing serve angels descending from Heavan article from the Semlin Rubric.- en, bearing along with them immortal (Date 1798.) “We have seen, on palms to crown these martyrs of retheir passage through this town, the ligion and liberty. He then feelingly eight Greeks arrested for seditious and pathetically contrasts his circular, writings, and to be delivered to the which he calls “ Fraternal,” with Porte. They were bound two and that falsely called “ Paternal." He two, and guarded by twenty-four sol- gives a full and distinct delineation of diers, with two corporals, a superior every interesting circumstance atofficer, and a commissary. The soul tending their present desolations, of the party was Rhigas, a rich mer- sympathizes with his dear country in chant, and a native of Thessaly. His every expression capable, by any ruling passion has been the emanci- means, of raising a high degree of inpation of his country. Some time terest and feeling, and not to let fire before his arrest, Rhigas, from pre- or sword cool their amor patriæ. He sentiment, removed from Vienna, but then produces a passage from their he was taken at Trieste. Five of the most eminent Eschylus, that, for its eight Greeks are to be forwarded to irresistible impetuosity, and energetic the Porte, the others are condemned sublimity, has ever been justly admirto perpetual exile. Rhigas was pow- ed as transcendant. Any translation erfully supported by Mawroyeni, must suffer by comparison ; but the nephew to the famous hospodar of following, which indeed is only a litthat name. The former of these is eral rendering, may bear some resemnow living quiet at Paris."
blance to it. 6 Children of Greece, It appears that these Greeks were go forth, emancipate your country ; afterwards thrown into the Danube, let all ranks and descriptions, acting their conductors fearing to be inters on the principles of men and citizens, cepted by Passwan Oglou. This ca- principles which they have so often tastrophe, which was every where de- adopted, recommended, and sanctionplored, took place about the middle ed, combat in the cause of their chil. of May, 1798. Rhigas was then dren, wives, the gods of their fathers, about five and forty years of age. and the tombs of their ancestors.” Soon after, Althimos, Patriarch of After his address to the Greeks in Jerusalem, and Dean of the Greek general, the author conveys further Prelates, was ordered by Selim, the exhortations to the learned and rich, Turkish emperor, to publish a circu- &c. to read, study, comprehend, and lar paternal address to all the Greeks, compare, the different statements of strongly recommending fidelity, &c. the two circulars, alledging that truth This circular was completely refuted and justice may easily be found in the by another, as being dictated by the collision of false principles and deluPorte, In the preface, the author sive reasoning, with the sentiments
they have habitually acquired that an amazing degree, to do infinite ser perpetually meet their eyes and em- yiee, urging all to endeavour to comploy their vacant hours. " I call up- prehend the intelligence they convey, on you," says he,“ who are at the as dislodging prejudices, and giving a head of the nation, archons, members right bias to the mind. As likely alof the clergy, dignified with the title so to beget those exertions, and that of Most Holy, as enlightened and competition, which with salutary cau. vigilant pastors, as the true ministers tion may keep pace with the wide of God, discharge your duties, more spread effects of that intemperate especially in rendering your people criminal authority, which has so long capable of thinking for themselves, been acted on as irrefragable. communicating that knowledge of so The death of Rhigas gave rise to a cial duties, which is conducted on number of opuscules, or smaller proper principles, moral, religious, works, in modern Greek. The most and political."
remarkable bore the title of “ NomoHe advises the multiplication of cratio, or Sacred to the Manes of the Rhigas's original publications, &c. as, Immortal Rhigas.” from their character, calculated, in
BY W. S. SHELLEY.
THE san is warm, the sky is clear,
The waves are dancing fast and bright, Hlue isles and snowy mountains wear
The purple noon's transparent light
Like many a voice of one delight;
With green and purple seaweeds strown;
Like light dissolved in star-showers, thrown: I sit upon the sands alone,
The lightning of the noon-tide ocean
Arises from its measured motion,
Nor peace within, nor calm around,
The sage in meditation found,
Nor fame, por power, nor love, nor leisure.
Smiling they live and call life pleasure ;-
Even as the winds and waters are ;
And weep away the life of care
Till death like sleep might steal on me,
My cheek grow cold, and hear the sea
As I, when this sweet day is gone,
Insults with this untimely moan ;
Whom men love not,--and yet regret,
Sball on its stainless glory set,
SCRIPTURAL ALLUSION EXPLAINED. In the “ Annotations” upon Glan. Upper Egypt, &c. assures me that the vill's Lux Orientalis, the author having moon does produce an effect on the occasion to quote from the Psalms skin which may as accurately be ex. “ The sun shall not burn thee by day, pressed by the word " burn' as any neither the moon by night,” in order solar effect. By sleeping a few hours to illustrate that class of cases where under the light of a full moon, which is an ellipsis is to be suggested by the as much shunned in some parts of the sense rather than directly indicated, East, as sleeping on the wet ground says the word burn cannot be re- with us, or standing bareheaded under peated, but some other more suitable the noon-day sun in Bengal,-my inverb is to be supplied.”-A gentleman formant brought a severe complaint uphowever, who has lately returned from on his eyes.
(Lond. Lit. Gaz.)
THE IMPROVISATRICE, AND OTHER POEMS.
BY L. E. L.
IT will be expected from us that we new degree of energy and beauty to
speak of this volume in terms of the simple and plain. the warmest admiration ; because, if Having offered these general remarks, we had not thought very highly of we shall proceed to illustrate them by the genius of its author, the pages of a view of the principal poem-The the Literary Gazette would not have Improvisatrice, which would, alone, been enriched with so many of her entitle the fair author to the name of compositions. But indeed we are en- the English Sappho. It is an exquithusiastic in this respect; and as far site story of unfortunate love ; and as our poetical taste and critical judg- extremely ingenious in its frame or ment 'enable us to form an opinion, construction. The Improvisatrice is we can adduce no instance, ancient an impassioned daughter of sunny Itaor modern, of similar talent and ex- ly, gifted with those powers of song cellence. That the Improvisatrice is which the name implies, and supposed the work of a young female, may, at to utter her extemporaneous effusions, the outset, lessen its importance in as occasions are presented in her the eyes of those who judge by anal- chequered life. Her career is reogy, without fairly examining individ- presented as alternately bright and ual merits ; but it will ultimately en- clouded; her perceptions are always hance the value and augment the ce- vivid, and her feelings intense. All lebrity of this delightful production. fire, and heart and soul, the chords of
If true poetry consist in originality her existence vibrate to the slightest of conception, fineness of imagina- impressions, and send forth tones of tion, beautiful fitness and glow of ex- various and striking melody when pression, genuine feeling, and the out- swept by the stronger impulses of her pourings of fresh and natural thoughts excitable and sensitive nature. Enin all the force of fresh and natural dowed with all the characteristic tenlanguage, it is pre-eminently conspic- derness, fragility, and loveliness of uous in the writings of L. E. L. Nei- woman, she is the very creature of ther are her subjects nor mode of inspiration ; and her being may be treating them, borrowed from others; said to be divided between the linest but simplicity, gracefulness, fancy, and sense of external beauty and the pathos, seem to gush forth in sponta- deepest consciousness of moral emoneous and sweet union, whatever may
tions. “I am," she abruptly but be the theme. And, especially for a charmingly exclaims, describing heryouthful author, her poems possess self at the opening of the poem,one rare and almost peculiar quality -their style is purely English. In I am a daughter of that land, the whole volume before us we do
Where the poet's lip and the painter's hand
Are most divine,—where earth and sky not meet with one ambitious word,
Are picture both and poetryone extraneous idiom, or one affected
I am of Florence. 'Mid the chill phrase. The effect is corresponding Of hope and feeling, oh! I still ly great; and never did accustomed Am proud to think to where I owe English words more distinctly prove
My birth, though but the dawn of woe! their high poetical powers. It seems My childhood passed 'mid radiant things, as if by some magic touch mean and Glorious as Hope's imaginings; household things were changed into
Statues but known from shapes of the earth, the rarest and most brilliant orna
By being too lovely for mortal birth;
Paintings whose colours of life were caught ments; and in reality it is that the
From the fairy tints in the rainbow wrought; spell of native genius throws a splen
Music whose sighs had a spell like those dour over the common, and imparts a That float on the sca at the evening's close ;
61 ATHESEUM VOL. 1. 2d seriess
Language so silvery, that every word
Farewell, my lute and would that I Was like the late's awakening chord;
Had never waked thy burning chords!
Poison has been upon thy sigb,
Yet wherefore, wherefore should I blame
Thy power, thy spell, my gentlest lute?
I should have been the wretch I am, My power was but a woman's power;
Had every chord of thine been mute. Yet, in that great and glorious dower
It was my evil star above, Which Genius gives, I had my part:
Not my sweet lute, tbat wrought me wrong; I poured my full and burning beart
It was not song that taught me love,
But it was love that taught me song.
If song be past, and hope undone,
And pulse, and lead, and heart are flame;
It is thy work, thou faithless one! This spirited commencement is But, no !-I will not name thy name! however but an unfavourable exam
Sun-god, lute, wreath, are vowed to thee! ple of the poem. It proceeds to de
Long be their light upon my grave pict the Improvisatrice's sensations My glorious grave--yon deep blue sea : on beholding the first produce of her I shall sleep calm beneath its wave! pencil. Her next painting is of the Immortal Poetess of Lesbos, to whom, satrice says
Returning to herself, the Improviin her genius, we have ventured to compare our own charming contem As yet I loved not ;--but each wild, porary. The portrait is worthy of High thought I nourished raised a pyre Raphael :
For love to light; and lighted once
By love, it would be like the fire,
The burning lava floods, that dwell
In Ewa's cave unquenchable.
That moment, so fearful for such a
we go to that epocha, we would fain There was a shade upon her dark,
pause to extract a Moorish RoLarge, floating eyes, as if each spark
mance,” which the scene suggests to Of minstrel ecstasy was fled,
memory ; our limits, however, debar Yet, leaving them no tears to shed;
us from the gratification. Fixed in their hopelessness of care,
Leaving this sweet example of diAnd reckless in their great despair.
versified talent, we can only find She sat beneath a cypress tree, A little fountain rap beside,
space for one feature of his portrait And, in the distance, one dark rock
who has the glory of inspiring the Threw its long sbadow o'er the tide; Improvisatrice's bosom with love : And to the west, where the nightfall Was darkeping day's gemn’d coronal,
Such a lip!-oh, poured from thence Its white shafis crimsoning in the sky,
Lava floods of eloquence Arose the sun-god's sanctuary.
Would come with fiery energy,
Like those words that cannot die.
Words the Grecian warrior spoke
When the Persian's chain be broke ;
Or that low and honey tone,
Making woman's heart his own; To this delicious personation (a Such as should be heard at night, few words of which we have marked In the dim and sweet starlight; in italics, to point their application to
Sounds that haunt a beauty's sleep, our introductory observations on the
Treasures for her heart to keep. author's felicitous choice of epithets He spoke not when the others spoke, and true poetry of expression,) is add
His heart was all too full for praise; ed the improvised death-song of Sap
But his dark eyes kept fixed on mine, pho; than which we are acquainted
Which sank beneath their burning gaze.
Mine sank-but yet I felt the thrill with nothing more beautiful in our of that look burning on me still. language :
I heard no word that others said-