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from this number a body of about 45,000 are kept constantly in service, without any expense to the state in time of peace. These troops are distinguished for their bodily strength, bravery and loyalty.

Population.] The population is nearly 28,000,000, and consists principally of five great races in the following order: 1. Sclavonians, in the Hungarian states, Galicia, Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, about 11,750,000; 2 Magyars or proper Hungarians, about 4,000,000; 3. Germans, about 5,000,000; 4. Italians, almost 5,000,000; 5. Wallachians, about 1,400,000. There are besides nearly 300,000 gypsies, chiefly in Hungary and Transylvania, and 400,000 Jews, with a few Greeks and Armenians.

Gypsies.] This singular race of people are dispersed over almost every country in Europe, but are most numerous in the Austrian dominions. They made their first appearance in Germany in the 16th century, and bistorians are not agreed as to their origin, some considering them as Egyptians who agreed to leave their country and disperse in small parties over the world, while others regard them as of Hindoo origin. Their whole number in Europe is believed to exceed 700,000. England endeavoured to expel them in 1530; France in 1560; and Spain in 1591; but never with complete success. For three centuries they have continued the same, wherever they have gone. Their swarıhy complexion, their physiognomy, and their manners and habits have not been affected by the lapse of time, the variation of elimate, and influence of example. In the neighborhood of civilized life they continue barbarous; and in the midst of cities and villages, they live in tents and holes of the earth, and wander from place to place as fugitives and vagabonds. The women are fortune-tellers, and the majority of both sexes are lazy beggars and thieves.

Religion. The established religion is the Roman Catholic; but in Hungary, Transylvania and Sclavonia, members of the Protestant and Greek churches have long been settled and in the enjoyment of considerable privileges. Indeed since the time of Joseph II. who commenced his reign in 1765, free toleration has been granted to all sects throughout the Austrian dominions. The number of the various sects is estimated as follows : Roman Catholics, nearly 22,000,000; Greek Christians, 2,500,000; Lutherans and Calvinists, 3,000,000; Jews, 400,000, and Unitarians, 42,000.

Education and Language.] There are universities at Vienna, Prague, Innspruck, Lemberg, Pest, Padua and Milan. Since the time of Joseph II. Austria has had a national literature, which is not confined to the German part of her population, but extends to the Sclavonians, Magvars, Greeks and Jews, and among these nations is still in a progressive state, but among the Italians it is stationary. The German language is the language used in the courts of justice throughout a large portion of the empire, but in many parts of Hungary Latin is the language of business and of literature, and in Italy, the Italian.

Government. The government is monarchical, but in some provinces the emperor has much more power than in others. In Hungary his power is limited by the diet, which is composed of four states or classes, 1st, the Catholic prelates ; 2d, the higher nobility ; 3d, the representatives of the inferior nobles; and 4th, the representatives of the royal free towns. The Tyrolese also possess many privileges. Austrian Italy was erected into a kingdom by an edict of the emperor in 1815, and though inseparable from the Austriañ empire, it has its own constitution, at the head of which is a prince of the imperial family, with the title of viceroy. Galicia bears the title of kingdom, and is governed by a viceroy; and in 1817 a liberal constitution was published, and a representative government established. Bohemia and Morasia have each an assembly of states but their power is merely nominal. The administration of the whole empire centres in Vienna, and is composed of a number of boards, under the name of councils, chanceries and conferences. In the German diet, Austria presides, and has one vote; in the general assembly she has four totes.

Revenue and Debt.] T'he annual revenue is estimated at about 60,000,000 dollars. The public debt before the French revolution was $90,000,000; in 1805, more than $350,000,000, and now more than $650,000,000.

Army and Navy.) The army on the peace establishment consists of 220,000 infantry, 36,000 cavalry, with about 15,000 artil. lery. For the protection of trade, a few frigates and other armed vessels are kept up on the Adriatic ; while on the Danube, towards the Turkish frontier, are stationed the vessels called tschaiken, manned by about 1,000 soldiers and seamen.

Manufactures and Commerce.] Austria has recently become a manufacturing state, and has not only made herself in this respect almost independent of foreign nations, but manufactured goods are to some extent articles of export. In the Hungarian states there is very little industry. The provinces which are most distinguished for their manufactures are Bohemia, Moravia, and the part of Lower Austria which lies below the Ens. Commerce is carried on partly by sea but principally by land. The principal sea.ports are Trieste and Venice. The principal centres of the land trade are Vienna, Prague, Brunn, Brody, Botzen, Pest and stadt.

TURKEY

Situation and Extent.) The Turkish empire lies in the centre of the Eastern continent, embracing a portion of Europe, Asia and Africa. Turkey in Europe is bounded N. by the Austrian dominions and Russia; E. by the Black sea, the sea of Marmora and the Archipelago ; S. by the Mediterranean; and W. by the Ionian sea, the Adriatic sea and Dalmatia. It extends from 34° 30 to 48° N. lat. and from 18° to 29° E. lon. The area is estimated at 206,000 square miles.

Divisions. Turkey in Europe is commonly divided into the following provinces :

Pop. on a sq. m

23 38 47

59

Provinces,

Square miles. Population I. Moldavia,

17,000 400,000 II. Wallachia,

24,658 950,000 III. Servia,

20,165 960,000 IV. Bosnia with Turkish Croatia and Herze 16,000

850,000 govina, V. Bulgaria,

88,000 1,800,000 VI. Rumelia,

35,990 2,200,000 VII. Albania,

48,526 1,920,000 1. Macedonia,

15,780 700,000 2. Albania proper,

15,210 207.000 3. Thessaly,

3,618 300,000 4. Livadia,

6,028 249,000 5. Morea.

7,890 464,000 VIII. Province of the Captain Pacha,

1,863 340,000 1. Province of Gallipoli, 833 100,000

2. Islands of the Archipelago, 1,030 140.000 IX. Candia or Crete, 4,218 281,000

47
61
40
44
13
83
41
59

129

124 136 66

Total,

206,000 9,600,000

46

Straits.] The Bosphorus or straits of Constantinople connects the Black sea with the sea of Marmora. The strait of the Dardanelles, (the ancient Hellespont,) connects the sea of Marmora with the Archipelago. The strait of Otranto connects the gulf of Venice with the Mediterranean.

Peninsulas.) Greece, or the country inhabited by the descendants of the ancient Greeks, embracing all that portion of Turkey which lies south of the parallel of 41° 30' N. lat. is a peninsula, jutting out into the Mediterranean and separated by the Ionian sea from Italy on the west and by the Archipelago from Asia Minor on the east. At the southern extremity of this peninsula is the sub-peninsula of the Morea (the ancient Peloponnesus)

connected with the rest of the continent by the isthmus of Corinth. The province of Gallipoli is a peninsula lying along the N. side of the strait of the Dardanelles.

Bays. The largest bay is the guif of Salonica, which forms the north-western arm of the Archipelago. East of the gulf of Salonica and separated from it and from each other by narrow peninsulas are the gulss of Cassandria, Monte Santo, and Contesse. The gulf of Lepanto is on the north side of the Morea. The golf of Egina is on the easi side of the Morea, and separated from the gulf of Lepanto by the isthmus of Corinth, which in its narrowest part is only 5 or 6 miles across.

Mountains.] The Carpathian mountains form part of the boundary between Turkey and Hungary, but the principal mountains of Turkey are the Humus rige, a branch of the Alps, which enters the country at its N. W. corner and proceeds in a semicircular form along the southern border of Bosnia, Servia and Bukgaria, separating the waters which flow north into the Save and the Danube from those which flow south into the Adriatic and the Archipelago, and terminating on the coast of the Black sea at cape Emineh, in lat. 42° 30° N. From the centre of this range a chain proceeds in a northerly direction between Servia and Bulgaria, and crossing the Danube at Orsova unites with the Carpathian mountains. Another chain, called the Rodope mountains, proceeding from nearly the same point, runs in a S. E. direction towards the strait of the Dardanelles. The Pangeus chain is a branch of the Rodope, which leaves it nearly at the commencement of its course and proceeds in a southerly direction towards the gulf of Contesse. Still farther west a chain proceeds from the Hemu: in a southerly direction to the peninsula included between the gulf of Contesse and the gulf of Salonica.

Down the middle of the peninsula of Greece, and parallel to its two coasts, runs a continuous range of lofty mountains, divid ing the waters which Aow east into the Archipelago from those which flow west into the lonian sea, and varying in height from 7 to 8,000 feet in the n rthern and central part, to as many hundred near the southern extremity. Of the former height may be reckoned the ridge of Pindus and Parnassus, while Parnes, Pentelicus and Hymettns in Attica do not exceed the latter. Branches are thrown off towards either coast from this central chain: to the eastward, the celebrated Olympus, rising near the head of the gulf of Salonica, to the height of 6,000 feet, forms the north extremity of an inferior chain, consisting of Ossa and Pelion, Oeta and Othrys, and continuing in a S. E. direction through the island of Negropont. The central range of Grecian mountains is continued in a northerly direction till it meets the Hæmus chain.

One of the most celebrated single mountains is Monte Santo, anciently called Mount Athos, situated on the point of a peninsula formed by the gulls of Contesse and Monte Santo, and nearly due west of the island of Lemnos. To the readers of Grecian bistory it is well known by its ancient name; the modern one of Monte

Santo (Holy mount) it has derived from the number of Greek monasteries that are built upon it. They amount to nearly 30, are protected by fortifications from the incursions of the corsairs, and are inbabited by about 6,000 monks, who are supported chiefly by the voluntary contributions of the Greek Christians in Russia, Wallachia, Moldavia, and other countries where the monks of Monte Santo are held in high esteem. Each of the 4 principal monasteries has one or more professors for the instruction of young ecclesiastics of the Greek church.

Rivers.) All the considerable rivers north of the Hæmus chain of mountains are tributaries of the Danube. The Danube enters the country at Belgrade, and after washing for some distance the northern border of Servia, it separates Bulgaria from Wallachia and Bessarabia, and discharges itself through five mouths into the Black sea. Its principal tributaries are, 1. The Save, which rises in Germany, but during the latter part of its course forms the boundary between Turkey and the Hungarian states, and joins the Danube at Belgrade, after receiving from the south the Bosna and the Drin. 2. The Aluta, which rises in Transylvania, and running south through Wallachia discharges itself into the Danube nearly opposite Nicopoli. 3. The Sereth, which rises at the foot of ibe Carpathian mountains in Austrian Galicia, and flowing in a S. E. direction through the principality of Moldavia falls into the Danube 4 miles above Galatz. 4. The Pruth, which rises also in Galicia, and passing through Voldavia joins the Danube a little below the mouth of the Sereth: the Moldavian part of the river forms at present the boundary ber tween the Turkish and Russian dominions.

The principal rivers souih of the Hæmus chain are, 1. The Marissa, which rises in the angle formed by the Hæmus and the Rodope mountains and running at first east and afterwards south passes by Philippopoli, Adrianople and Trajanopoli, and falls into the gulf of Enos. 2. The Strymon, which falls into the head of the gulf of Contesse. 3. The Vardar, which falls into the head of the gulf of Salonica after a S. E. course of 200 miles, during which it receives many tributaries. 4. The Salambria, the ancient Peneus, which rises at the fçot of the Pindus chain, and flowing through a wild and picturesque country, passes between the mountains of Olympus and Ossa, and after having received numerous branches which intersect the plains of Thessaly discharges itself into the gulf of Salonica through the celebrated defile of Tempe. 5. The Drin, a large river of Albania, which falls into a bay of the Adriatic called the gulf of Drino or Lodrino.

Face of the Country. The general aspect of the country in Greece is mountainous, but there are also extensive vallies and beautiful plains, some of which are elevated to a considerable distance above the level of the sea. The most considerable level tract is the plains of Thessaly, which extend for some distance on each side of the Salambria. In Moldavia the face of the country consists of ondulating plains of great beauty and vast extent, except towards the westero frontier where the Carpathian rangs

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