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inattention. He was,' says Mr. Custance, 'a man of considerable learning, of a sweet temper, &c.'

From this part of the work we shall extract the account of Cranmer's martyrdom, because it will interest our readers, and exemplify our author's historical talent.

Having suffered for twelve months after his condemnation for heresy, a very rigorous imprisonment, which no doubt had greatly enfeebled his body, and enervated a mind naturally tender and pliant, he was the more likely to be wrought upon by kindness and indulgence, than by continued cruelty and oppression. Elegant entertainments were therefore made for him by the papists, who now shewed him every mark of attention, and especially the dean of Christ's Church, to whose table he was repeatedly invited. During these seemingly friendly interviews, the unsuspecting archbishop was. informed from authority, that if he would submit to the present changes in religion, he might either be reinstated in his archepiscopacy, or retire on a liberal pension. A paper was then handed to him, which he signed professedly to discharge his conscience from his former errors; to acknowledge his belief in the Pope's supremacy; the seven sacraments; purgatory ; the corporal presence, and all the rest of popish nonsense; and to exhort all who had been led astray by his fallacious doctrines and example, to return to the bosom of the church !! The love of life increasing with: the prospect of its preservation, the holy man in an unguarded hour, fell. Who does not weep over such fai en greatness ? " Let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall," and not be too hasty in charging the pious Cranmer with hypocrisy!. They who are best, acquainted with their own hearts, will the most easily account for the archbishop's fall, and be the most ready to deprecate though not to justify his sin. Was the forward, courageous Peter intimidated into a denial of his Lord, even with bitter oaths and curses, at the voiee of a woman, when no particular personal danger immediately threatened him? And shall we wonder that a man of Cranmer's mild and gentle disposition should yield in the moment of temptation, after having been worn down with long confinement, deprivations, and cruel mockings; when life and restoration to the primaey were , promised him on compliance; when he knew that the most horrible, of all deaths would be the certain consequence of his resisting the solicitations of his artful and malicious enemies, and when their vigorous assault was made upon him under the diabolical mask of friendship? The papists were elated beyoad measure at their shortlived victory over this great Reformer, and published without delay his recantation to all the world. Having caught the unsuspecting archbishop in the snare they had laid for him, with a cruel haste they procured the warrant for his execution, which the revengeful queen had all along determined should speedily take place. On the evening of the 20th of March, doctor Cole, one of the heads of the papists, waited upon Çrånmer, and by an insidious conversation gave him the first indirect intimation of the fate that awaited him

still, however, he was ignorant that his death was certainly determined ; and his enemies were equally unacquainted with the secret feelings and intentions of his mind. No sooner had this eminent man signed his recantation, than he was filled with remorse and horror, and his rescued life afforded him not one moment's peace. But, happily for the cause of the Reformation ; happily for the ease of his own conscience ; happily for the security of his eternal sal.. vation, Cranmer repented." He fell like Peter ;-but like Peter wept.

The next morning the archbishop was conveyed to St. Mary's Church, where a very numerous audience waited his arrival. He was led to an elevated situation before the pulpit, and made a “spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men." Cole, who was an elegant scholar and a very eloquent preacher, then delivered an affecting discourse, in which he pointed out the necessity of Cranmer's death, notwithstanding his recantation; warning the con. gregation from the mournful example before them, to hold fast their profession without wavering. “You see," said he, “ that this ve“ nerable man, once a peer, 'a' privy councillor,' an archbishop, " and the second person in the realm, having renounced the faith, « is now fallen lower than lowest.” The preacher then addressing himself to the degraded primatė, exhorted him to support with becoming fortitude his last bodily trial; and turning round to the whole audience with a solemn and majestic air, desired every one to join with him in silent prayer for the unhappy man before them. The most impressive stillness ensued, and for a few minutes every hand and eye were lifted up to heaven. Cranmer also fell on his knees'; and, rising with a dignified sorrow, thanked the congregation for their supplications on his behalf, to which he begged permission to add his own. He then broke out into a most pathetic and penitential prayer, which greatly affected the whole assembly, and rendered the scene' sublimely awful. Having finished his devotions," he arose from his knees; and doctor Cole having congratulated him on his conversion, given him great hopes of heaven, and promised that there should be dirges and masses said for his soul, in every church in Oxford, desited him to make a declaration of his faith before all the people. He accordingly took a paper from his bosom, and spoke to the following effect: “ It is now, my brethren, no time to dissemble. I stand

upon " of life: a vast éternity is before me. For one action at least I “ am accountable to the world, namely, my late shameful sub" scription to opinions which are wholly opposite to my real sentiments. " Before this congregation I solemnly declare that the fear of death " alone induced me to commit this ignominious action, and that in

my heart, I totally reject the Pope, and the doctrines of the “ church of Rome, &c.” as he was this proceeding the whole audience was thrown into great confusion, and lord Williams cried out, “stop the audacious heretic. Immediately the priests and friars sprang from their seats, and pulled Cranmer down. Then dragging him into the street, they hurried him with great indecency to the

the verge

Stake, which was already prepared for him, and with a savage haste piled up

the faggots around him. But the penitent bishop having now discharged his conscience, was no longer cast down with shame; but looked on all about him with a sweet benignity of countenance that indicated the serenity of his soul, and the peace which he felt towards all mankind. The fire being then lighted, he was presently involved in smoke; but was distinctly seen to thrust his right hand into the flame, where he held it with astonishing firmness, crying out, " This hand hath offended! This hand hath offended! Lord Jesus receive my spirit.”' pp. 240_244.

With the didactic part of this volume, we are not by any means so well pleased as with the historical. The principles, which it inculcates are pure and evangelical ; the arguments plausible at least, if not conclusive; and the spirit which pervades the whole, is pious and catholic. But there is a want of method and accuracy, exceedingly detrimental to an elementary treatise ; and the style is also too diffuse and declamatory

The sixth, seventh, and sixteenth chapters on the lawfulness, expediency, and utility of the Church of England, ought to have been thrown into one. As the Established Church is, according to our author, purely a human institution, like alí other human institutions, its lawfulness must be derived from its expediency, which again depends on its utility. The utility of the Established Church as an instrument of furthering piety and virtue, which all Christians are bound to promote to the utmost of their power, induced the legislature to enact the present laws for its support and preservation. It is ever to be considered as the means of promoting true religion, and therefore its lawfulness can never be successfully maintained apart from the consideration of its utility. It was with much regret that we found Mr. Custance employing so weak an argument as the following, in support of the lawfulness of the Established Church.

It is spoken of as a high commendation of Abraham by God him. self, that he would command his children and household after him, that they should keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judgment. Now surely it cannot be less the duty of civil rulers to provide for the religious instruction of their subjects, than it is of parents to do the same for their children and servants. Accord. ingly we find that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, exercised their patriarchal authority, as civil rulers, in maintaining the true religion amongst their dependants ; and from them the same prin. çiple was adopted as the population of their families increased and bránched out into different communities. Thus we find that many ages after, the sovereign authority amongst the Jews, whether in the hands of kings, judges, or priests, was uniformly exercised in regulating the public worship of Jehovah. It is true that the Jewish administration was a pure theocracy, and cannot therefore in all things be an example for Christian governments to follow. But this much is obvious; that if the establishment of religion by the civil ruler were in itself unlaroful, it never could have formed a part of the Jewish dispensation since it is impossible that Jehovah could have prescribed that which is in itself abstractedly and morally wrong. Indeed on this


foundation rests one of the strongest arguments for infant baptism. We contend that the children of Christian parents are proper subjects for baptism, because Jewish infants were by the express direction of the Almighty admitted to all the privileges of the visible church by the right of circumcision. Since then a holy God could not possibly enjoin any thing con trary to his own will, or derogatory to his own honour, it follows, that neither infant baptism, nor an Established Church, is absurd or unlarofid.' pp. 273, 274.

A great art of Mr. Custance's reasoning in these chapters, tends not so much to evince the utility or expediency of the présent religious establishment, as the ben ficial effects of Christianity in general. For example, to promote civil liberty, t craise the tone of public opinion, to encourage charity and liberality, to release from spiritual tyranny, to ensure the observance of the Lord's day, to contribute to the diffusion of Christian knowledge and ihe education of youth; these are benefits by no means peculiar to the national Church : they are the common fruits of Christianity, which flourish in every quarter of the Christian world, and under every form of ecclesiastical polity. To recommend a particular form of Christianity as exclusively affording the benefits which it produces / under all forms, is bad reasoning and mistaken policy. When some of the arguments are found to be irrelevant, it will be the more difficult to work conviction by those that are more solid and satisfactory.

A controversial writer is particularly unfortunate when he employs an argument that is equally conclusive in the mouth of bis adversary. Thus when Mr. Custance infers the lawfulness of the Establishment from the frequent interpositions of divine providence in its preservation, a Dissenter, who considers the enactment of the tolerating laws as the interference of providence in favour of his principles, or a Scotch presbyterian, who views in the same light the hard-earned triumph of presbytery over episcopacy in that country, might employ the same argument with equal effect. Such considerations are motives of gratitude not grounds of reasoning.

From the eighth to the fourteenth chapter inclusive, Mr. Custande expounds the doctrines of the English Church, under the heads oi the Trinity, Original Sin, Justification by Faith, and Sanctification. On these points his statements are strictly in

unison with the decisions of the Church and the declarations of Scripture. But although the subjects are confessedly of great importance, the space taken up in the discussion of them, is out of all proportion for a brief view. The reasoning by which our author attempts to establish his positions is not always so forcible and apposite as we could have wished; nor has he taken sufficient pains to obviate the objections to the evangelical doctrines, which young minds are liable to encounter.

The fifteenth chapter, on the Spirit of the Church, (which is represented as Catholic, charitable, tolerant, and loyal) though it has very much the appearance of a panegyric, is not, perhaps, substantially untrue. It is rather an invidious subject.

As to the composition of this volume, it is perspicuous and flowing, without being elegant or very correct. Our author writes Pool for the name of the celebrated Cardinal, on what authority we know not. The following passages, among many others, seem written in


bad taste. • There was the greatest reason to fear that the enemies of the Reformation," who had been kept down below, would, by rising upon her friendly crew, be numerous and strong enough to seize and carry her back again within the reach of the formidable batteries of Rome, from under which she had been, with so much gallantry, cut off. But the wind still blowing from the right point, she continued her course under easy sail towards the harbour of safety, where she at length arrived.' pp. 185, 186.

• If in fact, this removed, the whole Christian system must inevitably fall and precipitate us into the fatal stream of error, which deepening and widening in its course, will at length plunge us beneath the fathomless abyss of woe.' p: 303.

• Behold! bringing up the rear, the elephantic Bishop Horsley, whose immense proboscis having drunk up rivers of learning, spouted them again, in all directions, over an astonished and admiring multitude, whilst many fled at the sound of his terrific roar, and others were crushed beneath the weight of his mighty powers.' p. 439. Art. IV. : The Character of the Rev. Thomas Robinson, Vicar of St.

Mary's, Leicester, as exhibited in the Speech of the Rev. Robert Hall, M A. at the Annual Meeting of the Leicester Auxiliary Bible Society, April 1813. 8vo. Price 1s. 6d. pp. 23. Hatehard,

Button. 1813... IT is with sincere pleasure we meet with this eloquent address

in a shape which allows us to enrich our pages with a few specimens of its excellence. Our first impulse, indeed, was to present it to our readers entire; as it is so finished and com plete, that nothing can be taken away, without impairing its proportions, and oinitting some essential beauty. But this,

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