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“At half past three, passed Holme's Hole. It is built at the bottom of a navigable Bay, which extends inland more than two miles. On the extremity of the western head, at the en'trance of the Bay, is the light. Sailing by H. H. you have 'a fair prospect of Falmouth on the main side, only four miles distant from Holme's Hole light. It shows about equal to H. Hole. Between the main, and a chain of Islands called Elizabeth Islands, which make a part of the southeastern side of Buzzard's Bay, you have a prospect through from the main channel to the Bay. Small vessels may pass through this opening, which is directly west.
“Having stood on a little beyond H. Hole light, westward, we bore away south-west, through the middle of the channel, between Martha's Vineyard and Elizabeth Islands. On the largest of these, is a good harbour, called Tarpaulin Cove, where is a public house and a light.
"Martha's Vineyard appears a little more elevated, and ' much more productive, than Nantucket.
April 15th. "Rocked about until near night, when the wind freshen*ing at south-east, we run into Newport Harbour, where I went ashore and passed the night.
April 16th. "Rose early, and walked through the Town. Found one principal street running from north to south, a little nearer the water than the eastern extremity of the Town, from which short streets led off at right angles either way. East of this street, there are two, and in some parts of the Town, more streets running parallel. West, there is no parallel
There are several very decent, and one elegant house for public worship. By a singular mixture of the different orders of architecture in the construction of the • lofty and highly embellished spire of the latter, its beauty ' and effect are much impaired. The houses on the princi
'pal street, are (less than one half) of brick -- the other houses and shops of the Town, are chiefly of wood.
“The Fort, built on an Island directly opposite the Town, three quarters of a mile distant, presents a very beautiful appearance, and is thought to be a place of strength.• There is, likewise, a strong post, on the point of the Island, * projecting to the south-west of the Town, and making one • shore of the narrowest part of the channel leading in.
"Nearly opposite this post, but farther to the west and south, on Canonicut Island, is a circular Castle, built of stone, and though small, has a commanding elevation, and the appear(ance of strength.
“The light at the entrance of Newport Harbour, is on Canonicut Island, two miles from Town. From Point Judith light, to that on Gull Island, is thirty-five miles. This light ' is at the entrance of Long Island Sound, although Montaug * Point projects eastward several miles beyond it.
"Up the Sound, are Gull Island, New London, Falcon Island, New Haven, Huntington and Sandy Point lights.
“New YORK, SABBATH, April 18th. "Early this morning, our Pilot came aboard, and before "nine, we were safely moored.
“Attended at Dr. Mason's church, Murray street, in the af• ternoon. The services were conducted by a Clergyman who appeared to be a man of education and piety, and a Scotchman;
forcible in his delivery, energetic and perspicuous in his style; he was deficient in nothing necessary for a good preacher, except elegance and modesty.
"April 20th. “This morning, got under sail for Baltimore. The narrows, nine miles from New York, are fortified Ist, by a strong work on a little Island situated near the Long Island "shore.
“2nd. By a battery, not so strong, on the Long Island side, nearly level with the water, and perhaps by a battery
on the height above. But this I could not, from the water, discover if there be any.
“3rd. By a powerful battery on Staten Island side, directly opposite the works on the east side, and just above ' high water level.
"4th. By a still stronger fortification on the heights, directly in the rear of the last mentioned, and overlooking it entirely.
“The channel, is here perhaps, three quarters of a mile wide; ship channel, about south-west, six or eight miles, after passing the narrows, and thence south, south-east, 'nearly to Sandy Hook light.
“Went ashore at Sandy Hook. Found the whole point of the Peninsula to have been formed by the rake of the sea, on a sandy bottom. The old man keeping the light, informed us that since the building of the principal lighthouse, 1762, the whole of the Peninsula north of it, had • been formed by the action of the sea. This alluvial point, " is at least half a mile in extent. The sand is very coarse, "yellow, and, only in the interior of the Hook, mingled with a very small portion of vegetable mould. There are three lights on this point. The first house, built 1762, is of stone,
octagonal, eight stories, exclusive of the basement, four feet "high. Height from the foundation, one hundred and two feet. Its light revolves--has eighteen lamps, six ranged " on each side of a triangular frame, so that thrice every
minute, the light alternately brightens and lessens, and is "thus distinguished from every other light on the American
coast. Nine hundred gallons of oil are consumed annually, sin feeding the lamps in this and the two inferior lights on this point.
“The upper story of this light-house, has its floor entirely - coppered; and the sides entirely glazed with iron window - sashes. The cap is either of sheet iron or copper, and at *the apex, is the funnel. The lamps consist of a tin pot,
which contains the oil--a cylinder in which the wick is • inserted and burns, fed from the tin pot in the rear'glass cylinder in which the blaze is enclosed, and a copper · backed burnished semi-spherical concave reflector of fifteen inches diameter.
“The frame is carried round by a little simple machinery, wrought by means of a weight that descends through five stories and is raised by means of a crank at top.
MONDAY, April 26th. "At half past seven o'clock this morning, went ashore on the extremity of the point, (Little Point Comfort) which we ' found indeed to be completely insulated at high water. Little Point Comfort is a barren neck of land, composed almost entirely of fine white sand. Its light is sixty feet high, the house built of cut stone of considerable size. Compared ' with the light-house at Sandy Hook, the structure of this is very slight, consisting of a single layer of stones from bottom to top. The steps in the stairway, are each a single stone, resting on the one next below, at one end, for support, and inserted into the wall at the other. The light does not re
volve—is produced by nine lamps, arranged in two tiers, 6 and fixed on a circular frame. The coppered and inside • burnished reflectors, are of the same construction as those of Sandy Hook; and in front of each, through which every ray is refracted, is placed a plane convex lens, of eight inches diameter, consisting of a species of green coloured glass, such 'as is used for sky lights in the quarter decks of vessels.
“The shrubbery of this spot, is to me, almost entirely new. • It consisted of live oak, ivy, myrtle, whortle bushes, prickly
pears, cedar and coarse marsh grass, such as I saw at Sandy · Hook. The land is a perfect level. The soil loose and san
dy, but by no means unproductive. A few apple trees were seen in a flourishing state. Peach and cherry trees produce the best fruit and yield it plentifully. The planter whom we visited, has a small family of six or eight slaves em
ployed, males and females, in planting sweet potatoes. Saw a small patch of land on which cotton had been raised the last year. The plant is eighteen inches high-branches " forth in long slender twigs in every direction. It is planted
in rows three feet asunder, and the plants are about eighteen ' inches apart. I should judge that six or eight pods or burs, might grow on a single plant. The seeds are lodged in the ground in May, and the cotton gathered in September.
“Negroes perform nearly the whole of the labour in this part of Virginia. The opinion I have formed of their treat'ment here, is favourable to the humanity of their masters.-They appear cheerful, hearty, and some of them, even robust. The houses provided to shelter them are small, and ? many of them of wretched appearance. I judge they are • incommoded by the smallness of the apartments into which the husbands and wives, parents and children of numerous families are sometimes crowded together.
“Generally no leisure or respite is allowed the slaves, ex. cepting on the Sabbath. The value of a man slave is en
hanced to his master, when he has, on the same plantation, • a wife to whom he is attached and diminished, when his wife belongs to another plantation.
"Every plantation in this part of Virginia, is supposed to manufacture the clothing of the negroes that belong to it, from the rearing of the raw material to the forming of the cloth into garments. The dress of the men and boys, is 6 either of white or coloured cotton cloth-a mixture of cot6 ton and wool, or wool alone. Whatever may be the material, the fabric is very coarse. Some of the men have shoes, and all are furnished with hats or caps. The dress of the men consists of a short or jacket, coat, shirt, and trowsers; of the women, of a frock and petticoat, together with some covering for the head; and in the winter, shoes and stock*ings. The dress of the females, is a strong, double, coarse, - white cloth.