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but if he should likewise offend a third time, for the third offence no sureties were to be exacted, but the offender's own body.

In the same year, the men of the religious orders refusęd98 to pay the king five shillings for each carucate in tillage, as the other subjects of the kingdom did; on which, an edict went forth from the king, that whoever in his kingdom should commit an offence against a clerk or any other member of the religious orders, he should not be compelled to make satisfaction to him; but if any clerk or other member of the religious orders should commit an offence against any layman, he should be immediately compelled to make satisfaction to him; in consequence of which, the members of the religious orders were compelled to ransom themselves [from this grievance).

The king also issued orders, that all persons, both clerks as well as laymen, who had charters or confirmations under his old seal, should bring them to be renewed under his new seal; and if they should omit to do so, nothing that was done under his old seal should be held to be ratified.

In the same year, pope Innocent sent letters of entreaty to Richard, king of England, in favour of Geoffrey, archbishop of York, begging him and, with paternal admonitions, exhorting him to receive the said archbishop, after his prayers and services, into his favour and brotherly love, and permit him in peace to return to his place, in order that he might not be obliged to proceed to ecclesiastical censure against him and his kingdom. In consequence of this, Richard, king of England, sent to the said archbishop, Philip, bishop of Durham, Eustace, bishop of Ely, Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, John, bishop of Worcester, and Savaric, bishop of Bath, begging, in a spirit of humility, on the king's behalf, that he would ratify the presentations which the king had made in the church of York, on which, the king would restore to him his archbishopric in its full entirety.

To these persons the archbishop made answer, You are my fellow-brethren, and I will do what


me, if you will give me your assurance in writing under the testimony of your seals, that you will stand by that advice in the presence of our lord the pope.” On this, the said bishops made answer,

98 The text of Hoveden has “voluerunt," "wished,” or “were ready;" the context shows that this is a mistake for “ noluerunt."

99 By paying, like the rest.

“We shall give you no writing, but it must be left to your own discretion; you are of sufficient age, therefore speak for yourself;" and so saying, those who had been sent returned to the king with the archbishop's answer.

On this, the archbishop set out for Rome, and the king of England sent envoys to Rome to oppose him, who [afterwards] wrote to him to the following effect: "Our lord the pope writes to you with earnest supplications, that you will restore to the archbishop of York his archbishopric in full, together with the revenues that have been received from the arch. bishopric, upon condition, however, that he shall


the sums of money in which we have alleged him to be indebted to you, wholly, and in full. He has also written to our lord the cardinal and some others, that they are to advise and induce you to do so; and if you persist in refusing the same, they are to compel you, first, by interdict of the province of York, and after that by interdict of the whole kingdom, all power of appeal withdrawn. Furthermore, according to the aforesaid instruetions, your clerks are to be strictly compelled, by the cardinal, to give up all the revenues which in the meantime they have received, unless they can defend themselves, either on the authority of the Church of Rome, or on the grounds of delay [to present] within six months, according to the statute of the council of Lateran, the time of his suspension being excepted therefrom. The canons of York are to be advised to come to a reconciliation, and if any new point shall arise, both parties are again to present themselves before our lord the pope, the privileges of the canons (meantime) remaining in their usual force.”

In the same year, during the summer, in a certain city in Italy, not far from Genoa, a thing took place that deserves to be related. In this city, first, one of the citizens, his sins so demanding it, became possessed, that is to say, a dæmoniac; and in a few days the number of them increased to such a degree, that each person was in dread for himself, lest a similar danger might befall him. Upon this, by the common advice of the citizens, some religious men were summoned to the city, and especially the abbat of Lucca, of the Cistercian order, who was called, and seemed to be the greatest authority among them in matters of religion, in order that they might deliberate upon what was to be done for the citizens thus terror-stricken. Ac. cordingly, a fast for three days was proclaimed. On the third

day the dæmoniacs were summoned into their presence, and the said abbat adjured them in the name of Jesus Christ, that they would explain the cause why they had dared to annoy that city more than others, and to depart from the servants of Christ who had been signed with this name. On this, one of them, crying out with a loud and terrible voice, exclaimed: “Are you for compelling us to come forth from the vessels that have been reasonably assigned to us ? Why, we are that legion of devils which your Jesus, after casting them out from the man, allowed to hurl the swine from the rock into the sea. But now, being released from the chains in which we were bound, we have received power over the blasphemers only of the Virgin Mary; and in this city we have found such persons, and having found them, it is our duty to torment them as they deserve. Wherefore, if we are driven out, know that you, hypocrite, and your order we shall torment the next.” At his second command, however, they came forth, though with great difficulty, leaving the traces of their foul footsteps behind.

In the same year, Aimeric de Lusignan, king of Baruth,» Accaron, prince of the Isle of Cyprus, and the other Christians in the land of Sulia, and the pagans, made a truce, to commence from the feast of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, and to last for the next six years, unless some powerful king of the Christians should arrive in those parts. In the same year also, Richard, king of England, and Philip, king of France, made a truce in the month of November, to last till the feast of Saint Hilary next ensuing.

In the same year, Philip, bishop of Durham, at the petition of Robert de Turnham, granted him, in the king's presence, a jury of twelve lawful men of the vicinity of Clif, to enquire which of them had the greater right to the said manor of Clif: that is to say, whether the said Robert ought to hold the said manor of the bishop of Durham, and to do homage to him for the same, or whether the bishop ought to hold it in demesne. Accordingly, on the oath of twelve lawful men, it was declared that that manor was the hereditary right of the wife of the said Robert, daughter of William Fossard, and so the said bishop lost the manor of Clif, which his predecesssors had, for a long period, peaceably and inviolably held. This took place at York, before Hugh Bardolph, Master Roger Arundel, and Geoffrey Hacket, at this time justices of the pleas of the crown. 1 In baptism. 2 Beyrout.

3 “ Filii,” is evidently a misprint.

In the same year, upon the death of Master Richard of Coldingham, Philip, bishop of Durham, and Bertram, prior of the church of Durham, disagreed as to the right of presentation of the churches of the aforesaid Richard. For the bishop said that the presentation belonged to him, as bishop and abbat of the church of Durham; to which, the prior made answer, that the presentation belonged to him, because his predecessors and himself, without any one gainsaying it, had presented the same as priors and lords of the soil, and that they held all the power of abbat in the choir, and in the management of the house, and of their revenues, by grant of the king, and through institution by the bishops of Durham, and confirmation by the Pontiffs of Rome. But this controversy was not allowed to rest, indeed it increased to such a degree, that by order of the bishop of Durham, Aimeric, the archdeacon of Durham, blockaded the church of Saint Oswald, in Elvet, to which the monks had retired, and would not allow provisions to be carried to them. One day even, after appeal had been made to the pope by the monks, the said Aimeric caused fire to be set to the door of the church, that thus, by means of the smoke and vapour, the fire might expel the monks. However, God changed the feelings of the bishop for the better, and, out of respect for Saint Cuthbert, he bestowed the said church on the monks, for their sole use, and by his charter confirmed the same; he also granted them the free disposal of their churches, though with but a tardy assent on his part.

In the same year, pope Innocent, during the affliction of the Christians who were in the land of Jerusalem, wrote to the following effect :The Letter of pope Innocent, on giving succour to the Holy Land.

“Innocent, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brethren, the archbishop of York and his suffragans, and his dearly beloved sons, the abbats, priors, and other prelates of churches, and the earls, barons, and all the people of the province of York, health and the Apostolic benediction. After the sad fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem, after the lamentable slaughter of the people of Christendom, after the deplorable invasion of that land on which the feet of Christ had stood, and where God, our king, had deigned to work salvation in the midst of the earth, after the ignominious retreat of the vivifying Cross

on which the salvation of the world had been suspended, and had thereby blotted out the handwriting of former death, the Apostolic See, alarmed at the sad occurrence of mishaps so unfortunate, was affected with agonizing grief, exclaiming and bewailing to such a degree that, from her continual crying, her throat became hoarse, and from excessive weeping, her eyes became dim. But, in the words of the prophet, If I forget thee, 0 Jerusalem, let my right hand forget, her cunning. If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth. Still does the Apostolic See shout aloud, and like a trumpet does she raise her voice, endeavouring to arouse the nations of Christendom to fight the battles of Christ, and to avenge the injuries done to Him crucified, using the words of him who says, 'All ye that pass by, behold and see if there be any sorrow like unto my sorrow.'' For behold, our inheritance has gone to strangers, our houses to other peopleThe ways of Zion mourn, because none come to the solemn feasts . . her adversaries are the chief.' The Sepulchre of the Lord, which the prophet foretold should be so glorious, has been profaned by the unrighteous, and has been thereby made inglorious. Our glory, of which the Apostle speaks when he says, 'God forbid that I should glory save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ,' is held in the hands of the enemy, and our Lord Jesus Christ, who, by dying for us, led our captivity captive, as though Himself a captive, is driven in exile from His inheritance. In former days, when the ark of the Lord of Sabaoth abode in tents, Uriah refused to enter his house, and withheld himself from the lawful embraces of his wife. But at the present day, our princes, the glory of Israel having been transferred from its place, to our disgrace, give themselves up to adulterous embraces, thereby abusing their luxuries and their wealth; and, while they are harassing each other, with inexorable hatred, while one is using all his endeavours to take vengeance on another for injuries done, there is not a person who is moved by the injuries of Him crucified, not considering that now our enemies are insulting us, saying, 'Where is your God, who can neither deliver himself nor you from our hands ? Behold! now have we profaned your sanctuaries; behold! now have we extended our hands to the ob

4 Psalm cxxxvii. 5, 6. It is well known that this psalm is not a composition of king David. 5 Lament. i. 12. 6 Lament, i. 4, 5,

7 Gal. vi. 14. 8 “Sanctam” is most probably a wisprint. 9 2 Sam. x. II.


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