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cracy of Scotland, apparently in as racter. If the alternative which has ample a proportion as those of Eng- been chosen inferred that the student land are now to be found at Oxford enjoyed the benefit of parental or domesand Cambridge. Thus, in an inven- tic care when out of the lecture-room, tory of occupied rooms, apparently the change might be less objectionable ; in one floor, the aristocratic element but when we observe the crowds of young
men brought from distant homes to our has decided preponderance in the nomenclature : Lord James's universities, living at large and alto
gether uncontrolled, except the cla chamber, Francis Montgomerie's room, we may look back with some rechamber, Kilmarnock's chamber, gret to the time when the good regent Richard Elphinstone's chamber, of a university, living among his pupils, George Smyth's chamber, James came in the parent's place as well as the Fleming's chamber, Joseph Gill's master's. chamber, James Simson's chamber."* “But it was not only the discipline of
It is not perhaps generally known the university that was benefited by the that the practice of a common table collegiate life. The spirit of fellowship was continued in St Andrews down
that existed among young men set apart to about the year 1820. In evidence
for the common object of high education,
was on the whole favourable, though before the University Commission in
liable to exaggeration, and often running 1827, Dr Hunter stated that “there
into prejudice. Nearly all that common were two public tables; one of them, feeling of the youth of a great univerthe higher table, was attended only sity is gone. The shreds of it that are by boarders, and by the bursars preserved by the dress, scarcely honoured on the Ramsay mortification; the in the crowded streets of a great city, board was high, and the entertain- and the rare occurrence of a general ment altogether was better : the meeting of students, serve only to suggest other was the barsars' table. The
to what account it might be turned for college was induced to contract with
exciting the enthusiasm and raising the an economist or provisor to supply
standard of conduct among the youth of
Scotland. If such collections as the preboth tables; and if the boards feil
sent, in revealing the old machinery of short, or if the expense increased
the scholar life, tend in any degree to from the articles of subsistence being the renewal of the bond of common feel. dearer than ordinary in any year, or ing among the younger students, and of exceeded the amount allowed by the sympathy with their teachers, they will contract, the College often compen- not be useless." sated to him that loss.” Having We were led towards the vestiges of thus offered some notices of the col
the collegiate system by the observalegiate system in its full vitality, and
tion, that while in England it had traced it to its last lurking-place, we overshadowed and concealed the oricannot help giving a place to the signi, ginal outline of the universities, it ficant reflections which have occurred had in Scotland disappeared, leaving to the editor of the Glasgow Records the primitive institutions in their on the extinction of the system. original loneliness. When we con
“In all the universities in Scotland, template, with this recollection, the the old collegiate life, so favourable for decayed remains of the older universcholastic discipline, has been abandoned. sities, it will be seen that they were Perhaps the increasing numbers rendered not so inferior in wealth and magniliving in college under the masters' eye ficence to those of our neighbours, as inconvenient; though some modification the mass of collegiate institutions of the systems of living in the univer- which these have gathered around the sities and the great schools of England primitive university might lead one might meet the difficulty. The present academic life in Scotland brings the Church and King's Chapel are fine
Undoubtedly Christ master and the student too little in contact, and does not enable the teacher to buildings ; but the remains of the educate in that which is more important chapels of St Salvator at St Andrews, than scholastic learning, nor to study and of King's College in Aberdeen, and train the temper, habits, and cha- are not to be despised. Of the for
Fasti Unit. Glasg., p. 548.
mer, alas ! there are little more than scholars, than to have carried their the truncated walls and buttresses, learning across the Grampians. The with here and there a decoration to character of the foundation may be show what the edifice was when it derived from the following abstract stood forth in all its symmetry. Near of the Bull of erection of 1495, prethe end of last century a suspicion fixed to the Spalding edition of the was entertained that the roof was de- Fasti Aberdonienses. cayed and would fall. So groundless
“ Bull of Pope Alexander VI., issued was the supposition, that after the
on the petition of James IV., King of workmen who were removing it had Scots, which sets forth that the north gone too far to recede, they found parts of his kingdom were inhabited by that they could not take it to pieces, a rude, illiterate, and savage people, and but must first weaken its connection therefore erecting in the City of Old with the wall plates, and let it fall Aberdeen a 'Studium Generale' and Uni. plamp down. Of course it smashed to versity, as well for theology, canon and atoms nearly every interior ornament,
civil law, medicine, and the liberal and it just left enough of the marble arts, as for any other lawful faculty, tomb of its founder, Bishop Kennedy, siastical and lay Masters and Doctors,
to be there studied and taught by eccleto let us see what a marvellous group
in the same manner as in the Studia of richly-cut Gothic work it must have
Generalia’ of Paris and Bologna, and for originally been. Within it there were
conferring on deserving persons the defound, among other ornaments, a grees of Bachelor, Licentiate, Doctor, heavy silver mace of Parisian work. Master, and all other degrees and honmanship, wonderful as the tomb itself ourable distinctions ; conferring on Wil. for the quaint intricacy of its work- liam, Bishop of Aberdeen, and his sucmanship.
cessors, the office of Chancellor, empowThe chapel of King's College has ering them, or, during the vacancy of the fared better. Like a modest northern
See, the Vicar deputed by the Chapter, to wild flower, its beauties are bidden
confer these degrees in all the faculties from the common gaze of the peering after due examination, be deemed fit by
on such well-behaved scholars as shall, tourist, but to the adepts who exa
the Rector, Regents, Masters, or Doctors mine them they are of no ordinary of the faculty in which the degree is character. From the difficulty of sought ; granting to such graduates full working the indigenous granite, and power of teaching in this or any other the cost of importing freestone, the studium, without any other examination; Gothic builders of this district seem giving power to the Chancellor or his to bave been frugal in their stone deco- Vicar, the Rector for the time, and the rations, so that the glory of King's resident Doctors, with the assistance of a College consists in its interior wood
competent number of Licentiates in each work of carved oak, worked in archi- faculty, and of circumspect scholars of tectural forms, like fairy masonry. King's Councillors at the least, to make
the said studium, and of two of the We question if there is anywhere a
statutes for the good government thereof; collection of specimens of Gothic fret- and conferring on the students and grawork more varied and delicate.
duates thereof all the privileges and imIt is difficult to conceive anything munities of any other University. 10 more depictive of high and daring edu- February, 1494-5.” cational aspirations tban the planting The character of the institution, of this beautiful edifice in so distant a and the extent to which it embodied spot, as the place of worship of those the matured practices of the foreign students who were to flock to it from the universities, will be more amply unwild bills and dreary moors of the north. derstood by a document, dated a few Its founder was Bishop Elphinston, an years later, in the shape of a collegiate ardent scholar, a traveller, and a fre- endowment by the Bishop, appliquenter of the Continental universi
cable, along with the foundation of a ties, who might rather have been certain Duncan Scherar, to thirty-six expected, had he followed the dictates members. of his refined tastes instead of his
“Of the foresaid thirty-six persons, conscientious convictions, and bis zeal five to be Masters of Arts and Students for the spread of learning, to have
of Theology, exercising the functions of spent his days among the Continental the priesthood, and daily acting as read
ers and Regents in Arts, each having a to visit the College once a-year, and to stipend of ten pounds, four of them being mark defects in the persons and property paid out of the lands and feu-duties as- of the College, an account of which shall signed by the Bishop, and the fifth out of be written by four persons, deputed for the foundation of the foresaid Duncan that effect, and presented to the ChancelScherar ; thirteen to be scholars or poor lor, who, with their advice, shall adminisclerks, fit for instruction in speculative ter correction; a Procurator to be seknowledge, and whose parents cannot lected from the College by the Principal, support them at scholastic exercises, Canonist, Civilist, Sub-principal, Cantor, twelve of them having each a stipend of and Sacrist, and to have for his pains, in twelve merks from the revenues of the addition to his stipend, five merks ; eight said churches, with chambers and other Prebendaries and four youths, accomcollege conveniences, and the thirteenth plished in singing, to be in the College, a stipend of five pounds from the founda- and to celebrate matins, vespers, and tion of the said Duncan Scherar ; the five mass, in surplices and black copes, in the Students of Theology to be supported for presence of the members of the college ; seven years until they are licensed, and the first of these Prebendaries to be one of these, of sweet temper, to be select called the Cantor, and the second the ed by the Principal and Sub-principal to Sacrist, each with a stipend of twenty read and teach poetry and rhetoric to merks; the other prebendaries (from the other Students; and the Students in among whom the Chancellor must apArts to be supported for three years and point one who is a proficient on the a-half until made Masters ; at the end of organ) having sixteen merks, and each of which periods, these Students of Theology the youths five merks. 17 September and Arts, whether graduated or not, to 1505." be removed, and others instituted in their stead; the Principal, Canonist, Civilist, Me.
It is curious to mark how distinctly diciner, Sub-principal, and Grammarian, the traces of its French origin have to be nominated by the Bishop and his remained in the northern University. successors, Chancellors of the University; In addition to some instances in the the Students of Theology to be admitted preceding article, it is worthy of notice by the Chancellor, and nominated by the that the Students, and even the comRector, Dean of Faculty of the Arts, Principal and Sub-principal; and the thir- snch words as Bejant and Magistrand.
mon people, are still familiar with teen Scholars to be admitted in like manner, and nominated by the above parties
Can our chubby friend there, who and the Regent of Arts ; of the thirteen blushes as brightly as the fresh scarStudents in Arts, the two first to be of let gown in which he has gone forth the name of Elphinstoun, who, after being to attract the gaze, more spiteful than graduated in Arts, shall be admitted admiring, of the untogaed schoolfelamong the Students of Theology, and lows whom he has left behind him, three to be from the parishes of Aber- tell why he is called a Bejant? lethnot, Glenmyk, Abirgerny, and Slanis:
Ducange tells us that Beanus means all the members to have their residence
a new student who has just come to within the College, except the Canonist, the academy, and cites the statutes of Mediciner, Grammarian, and Regent, who the University of Vienna, prohibiting are to have manses without the College; all persons from cheating or overthe Principal and the Students of Theology, after being made Bachelors, to read charging the new-comers, who are Theology every reading - day, and to called Beani, or assailing them with preach six times a-year to the people ; other injuries or contumelies. Lamand the Students, before being made becius, in the Epistolæ Obscurorum, Bachelors, to preach by turns in Latin in finds Beanus in a monogram-“Beanus the Chapter of the College on every est animal nesciens vitam studioLord's day and holiday throughout the sorum." We come nearer the mark, year before all the students ; the Regents however, in France, the Bejauni frein Arts to give instruction in the liberal quently occurring in Bulleus's massciences, like the Regents of the University of Paris ; and the Canonist, Civilist,
sive History of the University of Paris. and Mediciner to read in proper attiré Thus, in the year 1314, a statute of every reading-day, after the manner ob- the University is passed on the supserved in the Universities of Paris and plication of a number of the inesOrleans ; the Rector or (if he be a mem- perienced youths, qui vulgo Bejauni ber of the College) the Dean of the Fa- appellebantur. Their complaint is an culty of Arts, and the Official of Aberdeen, old and oft-repeated tale, common to freshmen, greenhorns, griffins, or by have now shown our scarlet friend the whatever name the inexperienced, reason for his being called a Bejant, when alighting among old stagers, but why the word should be corare recognised. The statute of the rupted into Benjie, and still more why Universitas states that a variety of he should be called a "Buttery benjie, predatory personages fallon the newly- are etymological problems which we arrived bejaune, demanding a be- no more pretend to solve, than the jaunica, or gratuity, to celebrate a reason why his fellow freshman at jocundus adventus; that when it is Heidelberg is called a Leathery fox. refused, they have recourse to insults We could notice several other relics and blows; that there is brawling and of ancient university phraseology still bloodshed in the matter, and thus the clinging round the usages of our discipline and studies of the Univer- humble institutions in Scotland. The sity are disturbed by the pestiferous Lauration is still preserved as the apt disease. It is thence prohibited to give and classical term for the ceremony any bejaunica, except to the bejaun's of admission to a degree; and even companions living in the house with Dr Johnson, little as he respected bim, whom he may entertain if he any Scottish form, especially when pleases; and if any efforts are made it competed with the legitimate insti. by others to impose on him, he is tutions of England, has given in his solemnly enjoined to give secret in- dictionary the word Laureation, with formation to the procurators and the this interpretation attached thereto: deans of the faculties. *
“It denotes in the Scottish univerThe etymology attributed to the sities the act or state of having deword bejaune is rather curious. It is grees conferred, as they have in some said to mean yellow neb—béc jaune of them a flowery crown, in imitation: - in allusion to the physical pe- of laurel among the ancients.” culiarity of unfledged and inexperi- Elsewhere we are honoured in the enced birds, to whose condition those same work with a more brief but still who have just passed from the func- a distinctive notice. Among the defition of robbing their nests to the dis- nitions of “Humanity,” after “ the cipline of a university are supposed to nature of man,” “humankind," and have an obvious resemblance. “Ce “benevolence, we have “Philology mot," says the Trevaux, “a été dit -grammatical studies ; in Scotland, par corruption de béc jaune, per méta- humaniores literæ.” The term is stili phore de oisons et autres oiseaux as fresh at Aberdeen as when Maimniais qui ont le béc jaune-ce qu'on a bourg spoke of Calvin making his appliqué aux apprentis en tous les humanities at the College of La Mark. arts et sciences.-Rudis Tiro Imperi- The “Professor of Humanity" has tus." Yet in the same dictionary there his place in the almanacs and other are such explanations about the use official lists as if there were nothing of the words begayer, to stutter, and antiquated or peculiar in the term, begayement, stuttering, as might, one though jocular people have been would think, have furnished a more known to state to unsophisticated obvious origin than the ornithological. Cockneys and other foreign persons, “Les enfans," we are told, “begayent that the object of the chair is to en apprenant à parler. Ceux qui ont inculcate on the young mind the la langue grasse begayent toute leur virtue of exercising humanity tovie. Quand un homme a bû beaucoup wards the lower animals; and we il commence a begayer." Bat it is used believe more than one stranger has also figuratively: "Des choses qu'on conveyed away, in the title of this a peine d'expliquer, ou de faire en professorship, a standing illustration of tendre — Ce commentateur n'a fait the elaborate kindness exercised toque begayer en voulant expliquer wards the lower animals in the United l'Apocalypse.” Whatever were its Kingdom, and in Scotland especially. remote origin, however, the term was A curious incidental matter call. in full use in the University of Paris, us back to King's College and its whence it passed to Aberdeen. We connection with Paris. In his visit to
* Hist. Unio. Paris, iv. 266.
Scotland in 1633, Charles I. observed, and delivered me a copy of all those or learned from his adviser, Arch- things which he hath to move the bishop Land, who had more prying king. I have already spoken with eyes, that the ancient formalities of his majesty about them, and shall the Scottish universities had fallen continue to do him all the kindness into disuse. It appears that his hopes I can to help on his despatch, and to of a restoration were chiefly centred show all the favour I can to the Uniin Aberdeen, where he knew that versity.”+ the Presbyterian spirit had its loos- It would be interesting to know more est hold, and he resolved to com- than the printed documents show as mence the work there. A curious of the projects then under discusroyal letter to Patrick Forbes, Bishop sion. Laud was a meddler with many of Aberdeen, and Chancellor of the things— in Scotland, unfortunately, University, drops mysterious hints with at least one too many. His acabout having “observed some things tivity in university matters is suffiwhich we think fit to put in better ciently known to fame in the Laudeian ordour, which we shall do as we shall Code of Oxford. But it has been find cause." But in the mean time the fate of that system to be charged there is a very strong reprehension of with a subversion of the fundamenthe unacademic practice of sending tal principles of the English univerthe students “to the parish churches sities, while in Aberdeen the moveto service and sermon, and there sit ment which its author seems to have promiscuously with the rest of the directed was towards the restoration audience, which loses much of the of the old Parisian model. The aphonour and dignity of the Universi- parent difference, however, has been ties."
probably caused by unintended pracThe cause of University restora- tical results in England, -the object tion, after such a kingly hint, naturally was doubtless the same in both cases. received much local support; and at a Among the projects of King Charles sort of convocation of the University with which bis adviser of course indignitaries at the Bishop's Palace on terfered, was the union of King's and the 19th of December 1634, some Marischal Colleges in Aberdeen. In investigations were made to obtain fact, they are not only two colleges, materials for re-establishing of this but, in the literal sense of the term, University in her jurisdiction, conser- two universities ; and thus, according vatorie, and privileges, according to to the statistical distribution of these her ancient rights granted thereanent." institutions, Aberdeen used to appear Among the other methods of inquiry, as well supplied with the commodity there is sent " a special letter to our as all England. Between the two native countryman and special good establishments, little more than a mile friend, Dr William Davidson, Doctor apart, there is, indeed, unfortunately, of Physic, and resident in Paris in a gulf, wider than the mileage between France, requesting him to deal, in Oxford and Cambridge. The one name of the said University of Aber- was founded before, the other after, deen, with the rector and University the Reformation ; and there were eleof Paris, for a just and perfect writ- ments so distinct and repulsive in the ten donble of the rights and privi- spirit of the foundations, that nothing leges of that University of Paris, but great coercive force could bring for the better clearing and setting in the two into union. good order the rights and privileges King Charles, who was too apt to belonging to this University of Aber- suppose that fundamental changes deen."*
could be made by an Act of VisitaA letter from Archbishop Laud is tion, or an Order in Council, professed read to the meeting, showing that he to unite them, and called them, in was in communication with the re- conjunction, the Caroline University. storers. “For the business which But in reality they never you have recommended to me," he chemically fused into one. On the says, “Dr Gordon hath been with me, contrary, the documents connected
* Fasti, p. 400.
+ Ibid., p. 400.