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the provinces the soil is highly cultivated, but in others, particularly in those east of the Oder, the agriculture admits of much improvement. Wheat, oats, barley and potatoes are raised in sufficient quantity for the supply of the country. Flax, hemp and tobacco are also cultivated, but not to such an extent as to prevent importation. The vine flourishes in the western division, along the banks of the Rhine, the Moselle and the Nahe. Cattle and sheep are raised in almost all the pryvinces, but the horses for the cavalry are imported from Russia and Holstein. Westphalia has long been celebrated for its hams, and Pomerania fur its poultry. In the mountainous districts of the western provinces and in the Hartz are found iron, copper, lead, silver and other minerals., Salt from brine springs is also abundant in some parts of Prussian Saxony.

Chief Towns.) Berlin, the capital of the Prussian states, and the residence of the king, is situated in a sandy plain on loth sides of the Spree, and is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. The circumference of its walls is 11 miles. The streets are for the most part broad and straight, and the squares regular and spacious, and adorned with numerous elegant buildings. Berlin is indebted for its chief embellishments to the celel rated Frederick II. who is supposed to have expended yearly in the improrem nt of the city 400,000 dollars. Among the most remarkable public buildings is the royal castle, which is 430 feet long and 276 hrvad. In it is the king's library, which contains upwards of 200,000 volumes. The city is highly distinguished for its manufactures : the principal articles are silk, woollen, linen and cotion goods, jewelry, porcelain, &c. The number of manufacturers in the various establishments is al:out 16,000, of which number nearly 3,000 are in the extensive sık manufactories, and 500 in the royal porcelain manufactory. The population has greatly increased during the last 150 years ; in 1661 it was only 6,500; in 1818 it was 182,387, or including the military 188,485.

Breslau, the capital of Silesia, stands on the left bank of the Oder, at the influx of the small river Ohlau which runs through the town. It is surrounded with strong walls and other fortifications. Breslau is the centre of trade for the whole of Silesia, and the manufactures of the town employ several thousand workmen. Four fairs are held here annually. The population, incluuing the military, is 76.813.

Konigsberg, the chief town in East-Prussia, is on the Pregel, 4 miles from its mouth. The river flows from east to west, and approaches the city in two arms, which join and form a small ob. long island. On this island is built a part of the city, and the rest stands opposite to it, on the north bank of the river. The houses have their foundations on piles as at Amsterdam. Konigsberg is connected with the interior by the Pregel, and carries on a considerble trade with foreign countries. The population is 63,239.

Dantzic, an opulent commercial city of West Prussia, is situated on the left bank of the Vistula, about 5 miles from its mouth. It is surrounded with ramparts, but a more effectual defence consists in the power of laying the country on one side under water, and of resisting assailants on the other from fortified heights. The barbor is formed by the mouth of the Vistula, and is also defended by forts. The commerce of Dantzic is very extensive, and consists chiefly in the export of corn, potash, timber, hemp, flax, &c. from Prussia and Poland, and the inport of merchandise from all parts of Europe. The population is 52,821.

Cologne, in the province of Cleves-Berg, is situated in a flat country, on the left bank of the Rhine, and is built in the form of a crescent, close to the river. The walls have a pumber of towers, and form a circuit of nearly 7 miles. The streets are in general parrow, winding and gloomy, and the houses ill-built. Cologne carries on considerable commerce, and is celebrated for the manufacture of the famous Cologne water. The population is 54,938.

Magdeburg, in the province of Saxony, is situated in a very beautiful, though flat country, on both sides of the Elbe. It is one of the strongest fortresses in Germany, and in the citadel, which stands on an island in the river, are shown the cells where baron Trenck and La Fayette were succe

ce-sively confined. The manufactures of Magdeburg furnish the basis of a flourishing trade. The population in 1817 was 35.448.

Aix-la-Chapelle, celebrated for its warm baths, and for two treaties of peace concluded here, is in the province of the Lower Rbine, 36 miles W. S. W. of Cologne. It was long the favorite residence of Charlemagne, and for some time the capital of bis empire. It is now distinguished for the manufaciure of fine broad cloth and needles. The population is 32,300.

Stettin, on the left bank of the Oder, 60 miles from its mouth, carries on an extensive trade, consisting principally of the export of the manufactures of Silesia, and the impori of colonial gonds and foreign fabrics required by that province as well as hy Berlin and some other towns in Brandenburg. Vessels of more than 100 tons are obliged to stop at Swinemunde, at the mouth of the river. The population is 25,000.

Potsdam is 15 miles W. S. W of Berlin, on the north bank of the Havel, which here spreads its waters in one expanse after another, like a succession of small lakes. Potsdam is to Berlin what Versailles is to Paris, having been since the close of the 17th century, the occasional residence of the court, but indebted for its chief improvements to Frederick II. The streets are reg. ular and spacious, and in some of them the houses resemble rows of palaces. The royal palace on the hank of the Havel is a magnificent structure. The town is surrounded by a wall and ditch; the population in 1818 was 23,642.

Halle, in the province of Saxony, on both sides of the Saale, 56 miles S. by E. of Magdeburg, is chiefly celebrated for its literary institutions, particularly its university. In one of the suburbs is the orphan-house, and Capstein's establishment for printing the Scriptures, erected in 1712, which is said to have produced since that time nearly 1,000,000 testaments, and 2,000,000 bibles. Population, including the suburbs 25,000.

Frankfort-on-the-Oler is a place of considerable trade, having three annual fairs. It contains 15,453 inhabisants. Elbing, near the mouth of the Nogat or eastern arm of the Vistula, 30 miles S. E. of Dantzic, exports large quantities of Prussian and Polish produce. It contains 18,000 inhabiiants. Stralsund is a commercial town on the strait which separates the island of Rugen from the main land, and contains 15,876 inhabitants Erfurt, on the Gera, 12 miles W. of Weimar, is in a territory almost detached from the rest of the Prussian dominions, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Wittenberg, on the Elbe, 60 miles N. of Dresden, is celebrated as the residence of Martin Luther, and in one of the churches lie his remains and those of Melancthon. Naumburg, 28 miles W. S. W. of Leipsic, has two yearly fairs. Population 12,000.

Coblentz is in a delightful country at the confluence of the Moselle and Rhine, opposite the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein. The situation is highly favorable for trade, as it has a direct intercourse with France by the Moselle, and with Germany and Switzerland by the Rhine. The population is 10,500. Dusseldorf, on the Rhine, 20 miles below Cologne, contains 19,000 inhabitants. Munster, on the small river Aa, about 6 miles from its junction with the Ems, contains 14,000 inbabitants. Treves, on the Moselle, has 12,750 inhabitants. Bonn, on the Rhine, 14 miles above Cologne, bas a university established in 1818 and 10,000 inhabitants. Cleves, in the province of Cleves-Berg, is a nearly built town 2 miles from the west bank of the Rhine, containing 5,000 inhabitants. Elberfeld, 20 miles N. E. of Cologne, is extensively engaged in manufactures of various kinds. Population 18,000.

Posen the capital of the province of the same name, is on the Warta, 144 miles E. of Berlin, and contains 22,700 inhabitants. Thorn, on the Vistula, 70 miles S. of Dantzic, is famous as the birth-place of Copernicus. It contains 9,000 inhabitants.

Education. In respect to the cultivation of literature, Prussia holds a high rank among the European states. There is an academy of sciences at Berlin, established by Frederick II. and associations of a similar nature, but on a smaller scale, are established in most of the great lowns. The most celebrated universities are at Halle, Berlin, Breslau and Konigsberg; and in many other towns there are colleges or higher schools for instruction in mathematics and the ancient and modern languages. T'he elementary schools in Brandenburg, Saxony, and part of Prussia proper are numerous and in general well conducted.

Population and Religion.] The population of the Prussian states, in 1818, according to Hassel was 10,154,549, of which Dumber 60,800 were in Newfchatel, and 250,000 in the army. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran, but that of the royal family is Calvinistic. All sects enjoy equal rights. The number of the principal denominations a few years since, was as follows; Lu.

therans 6,100,000, Calvinists 350,000, Catholics, 3,500,000, Jews 75,000. In the year 1817 the Lutherans and Calvinists of the Prussian states agreed to lay aside their distinguishing appellations, and to unite in one body under the name of Evangelical Christians This praise-worthy example will probably be followed in several of the Protestant stiits.

Govern nent. Prussia has formerly a representative body under the nime of -tates The powers and privileges of the pobility were also very extensive. By degrees the power of the crown, acting with the vigor of unity and concentration, reduced that of the aristocracy; and the sovereign found means to conduct the public business without the intervention of states, so that the government during the 18th century was an absolute monarchy. Recen:ly, however, the people have manifested an anxious desire for the restoration of the states, and i his has been promised by the king, but as yet (1820) nothing satisfactory has been done.

Debt. Revenue and Army.] The public debt amounts to about £10,000,000 sterling. T'he revenue is about £6,000,000. The army exceeds 150,000 men, but the whole number of men connected with the military establishment, according to Hassel, is 250,000.

Manufactures.) The manufactures have been patronized to an extraordinary extent by the government, and are in a very flourishing condition. Many articles are produced in greater abundance than is necessary for the supply of the country, and furnish a large surplus for exportation. The most industrious provinces are Cleves-Berg, Silesia, Brandenburg, Saxony and some parts of Westphalia. The principal manufactures are linen, of which Silesia alone produces to the value of several million dollars ; woollen goods, for which Silesia is also the most distinguished ; and iron ware, which is the staple in Cleves-Berg. Besides these three principal articles, there are cotton goods, leather, tobacco, and numerous others of less imporance. Berlin is more distinguished for its manufactures than any other city, and is particularly famous for silk, porcelain and cotton gouds.

Commerce.] The situation of Prussia on the Baltic, the many Davigable rivers and canals by which it is traversed, and the fine roads which connect ihe principal towns in the interior, are very favorable to commerce. The foreign trade, however, is pot extensive, but there is a very active internal commerce. The principal seaports are Dantzic, Stettir, Kongsberg, Elbing and Stral. sund. The principal places of trade in the interior are Berlin, Breslan, Magdeburg. Aix la-Chapelle, Coblentz, Cologne, Muno ster, Naumburg and Frankforl-on-the-Oder. The exports are linen, corn, wool, 1:mber. pitch, tar, potash, &c. and the value of the whole may be estimated on an average at £7,000,000 or £8,000,000. The principal trade is with Great Britain,

Island. The island of Rugen is opposite Stralsund on the coast of Pomerania, from which it is separated by a channel about a mile broail. It contains 360 square miles and 28,000 inhabitants, and formerly belonged to Sweden, but was ceded to Prussia in 1814.


Sination and Ertent.] Spain is bounded N. by the bay of Biscay ; N. E. by France, from which it is separated by the Pyrenees; E. by the Mediterranean; S. by the Mediterranean and the Atlantic; W. by Portugal and the Atlantic. It extends from 36° to 43° 17' N. lat. and from 9° 13' W. to 3° 15' E. lon. The area is estimated at 182,000 square miles.

Divisions.) Spain is at present divided into 31 provinces. The names of several of the old divisions, however, are still in

Both are given in the following table.

Conmon use.

Provinces. Square miles, 1. Seville,

9,080 2. Granada, Andalusia,

9,720 3. Cordova, 4,202 4. Jaen, 5,036 5. Murcia, 7.957 6. Valencia, 7,764 7. Catalonia, 12,111 3. Aragon,

14,822 9. Navarre, 2,475 10. Biscay,

1,280 Biscay,

11 Guipuzcoa, 628
12. Alava, 1,093
13. Asturia, 3,725
14. Galicia, 16,060
15. Leon, 5,943
16. Palencia, 1,751

17. Valladolid, 3,272
16. Zamora,

1,606 19. Toro, 1,992 20. Salamanca, 6,128

(21. Burgos, 7,752 Old 22. Soria,

4,118 Castile, ) 23. Segovia, 3,502

24. Avila, 2,600

R 25. Madrid, 1,330 New

26. Guadalaxara, 1,970

27. Cuenca, Castile,

11,410 28. Toledo, 8,863 29. La Mancha, 7,620 30. Estremadura, 14,478 31. Majorca, 1,775



Pop. on a sq. m.

82 71 60 64 48 106 71 44 89 87 166 62 97 61 40 67 57 41 49 34 61 48 46 45 172

61 26

42 27 29 105


182,000 10,350,000


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