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necessary to the understanding of it. In the minute or two you will perceive the coal in first trial I made of this kind of stove, which the air diminish gradually, so as to form a was constructed of thin plate iron, I had in- neck; while the part in the flame continues stead of the vase a kind of inverted pyramid of its first size, and at the neck being quite like a mill-hopper; and fearing at first that consumed it drops off: and by rolling it bethe small grate contained in it might be clog- tween your fingers when extinguished you ged by cinders, and the passage of the flame will find it still a solid coal. sometimes obstructed, I ordered a little door However, as one cannot be always putting near the grate, by means of which I might on on fresh fuel in this stove to furnish a continuoccasion clear it: though after the stove was al flame as is done in a candle, the air in the made, and before I tried it, I began to think intervals of time gets at the red coals and this precaution superfluous, from an imagina- consumes them. Yet the conservation while tion, that the flame being contracted in the it lasted, so much delayed the consumption narrow part where the grate was placed, of the coals, that two fires, one made in the would be more powerful in consuming what it morning, and the other in the afternoon, each should there meet with, and that any cinders made by only a hatful of coals, were sufficient between or near the bars would be presently to keep my writing room about sixteen feet destroyed and the passage opened. After the square and ten high, warm a whole day. The stove was fixed and in action, I had a pleasure fire kindled at seven in the morning would now and then in opening that door a little, to burn till noon; and all the iron of the masee through the crevice how the flame de- chine with the walls of the niche being therescended among the red coals, and observing by heated, the room kept warm till evening, once a single coal lodged on the bars in the when another smaller fire kindled, kept it middle of the focus, a fancy took me to ob- warm till midnight. serve with my watch in how short a time Instead of the sliding plate E, which shuts it would be consumed. I looked at it long the front of the box C, I sometimes used anwithout perceiving it to be at all diminished, other which had a pane of glass, or, which is which surprised me greatly. At length it'oc- better, of Muscovy talc, that the flame might curred to me, that I and many others had seen be seen descending from the bottom of the the same thing thousands of times, in the con- vase and passing in a column through the box servation of the red coal formed in the snuff C, into the cavities of the bottom plate, like of a burning candle, which while enveloped water falling from a funnel, admirable to such in flame, and thereby prevented from the con- as are not acquainted with the nature of the tact of passing air, is long continued, and aug- machine, and in itself a pleasing spectacle. ments instead of diminishing, so that we are Every utensil, however properly contrived often obliged to remove it by the snuffers, or to serve its purpose, requires some practice bend it out of the flame into the air, where it before it can be used adroitlý. Put into the consumes presently to ashes. I then supposed, hands of a man for the first time a gimblet or that to consume a body by fire, passing air a hammer (very simple instruments) and tell was necessary to receive and carry off the se- him the use of them, he shall neither bore a parated particles of the body: and that the hole nor drive a nail with the dexterity and air passing in the flame of my stove, and in success of another who has been accustomed the flame of a candle, being already saturated to handle them. The beginner therefore in with such particles, could not receive more, the use of this machine, will do well not to and therefore left the coal undiminished as be discouraged with little accidents that may long as the outward air was prevented from arise at first from his want of experience. coming to it by the surrounding flame, which Being somewhat complex, it requires, as alkept it in a situation somewhat like that of ready said, a variety of attentions; habit will charcoal in a well luted crucible, which, render them unnecessary. And the studious though long kept in a strong fire, comes out man who is much in his chamber, and has a unconsumed.
pleasure in managing his own fire, will soon An easy experiment will satisfy any one find this a machine most comfortable and de of this conserving power of fame enveloping lightful. To others who leave their fires to red coal. Take a small stick of deal or other the care of ignorant servants, I do not recomwood the size of a goose-quill, and hold it mend it. They will with difficulty acquire horizontally and steadily in the flame of the the knowledge necessary, and will make fre candle above the wick, without touching it, quent blunders that will fill your room with but in the body of the flame. The wood will smoke. It is therefore by no means fit for first be inflamed, and burn beyond the edge common use in families. It may be adviseaof the flame of the candle, perhaps a quarter ble to begin with the flaming kind of stone of an inch. When the flame of the wood coal, which is large, and, not caking together, goes out, it will leave a red coal at the end is not so apt to clog the grate. After some of the stick, part of which will be in the flame experience, any kind of coal may be used, and of the candle, and part out in the air. In a with this advantage, that no smell, even from
the most sulphurous kind can come into your a body of thick smoke. But every one accusroom, the current of air being constantly into tomed to coal fires in common grates must the vase, where too that smell is all consumed. have observed, that pieces of fresh coal stuck
The vase form was chosen as being elegant in below among the red coals have their smoke in itself, and very proper for burning of coals: so heated as that it becomes flame as fast as it where wood is the usual fuel, and must be is produced, which flame rises among the burned in pieces of some length, a long square coals and enlivens the appearance of the fire. chest may be substituted, in which X is the Here then is the use of this swivel grate. By cover opening by a hinge behind, B the grate, a push with your tongs or poker, you turn it C the hearth-box with its divisions as in the it on its pin till it faces the back of the chimother, D the plan of the chest, E the long ney, then turn it over on its axis gently till it narrow grate. (Plate, figure 17.) This I have again faces the room, whereby all the fresh not tried, but the vase machine was completed coals will be found under the live coals, and in 1771, and used by me in London three the greater part of the smoke arising from the winters, and one afterwards in America, much fresh coals will in its passage through the live to my satisfaction; and I have not yet thought ones be heated so as to be converted into of any improvement it may be capable of, filame: whence you have much more heat though such may occur to others. For com- from them, and your red coals are longer premon use, while in France, I have contrived served from consuming. I conceive this conanother grate for coals, which has in part the struction, though not so complete a consumer same property of burning the smoke and pre- of all the smoke as the vase, yet to be fitter serving the red coals longer by the flame, for common use, and very advantageous. It though not so completely as in the vase, yet gives too a full sight of the fire, always a sufficiently to be very useful, which I shall pleasing object, which we have not in the now describe as follows.
other. It may with a touch be turned more A, is a round grate, one foot (French) in or less from any one of the company that dediameter, and eight inches deep between the sires to have less of its heat, or presented full bars and the back; (Plate, figure 18. ) the to one just come out of the cold. And supsides and back of the plate iron; the sides ported in a horizontal position, a tea-kettle having holes of half an inch diameter distant may be boiled on it. three or four inches from each other, to let in The author's description of his Pennsylvaair for enlivening the fire. The back with- nia fire-place, first published in 1744, havout holes. The sides do not meet at top nor ing fallen into the hands of workmen in Euat bottom by eight inches : that square is fill- rope, who did not, it seems, well comprehend ed by grates of small bars crossing front to the principles of that machine, it was much disback to let in air below, and let out the smoke figured in their imitations of it; and one of its or flame above. The three middle bars of the main intentions, that of admitting a sufficient front grate are fixed, the upper and lower quantity of fresh air warmed in entering may be taken out and put in at pleasure, when through the air-box, nearly defeated, by a prehot, with a pair of pincers. This round grate tended improvement, in lessening its passages turns upon an axis, supported by the crochet to make more room for coals in a grate. On B, the stem of which is an inverted conical pretence of such improvements, they obtained tube five inches deep, which comes on as ma- patents for the invention, and for a while made ny inches upon a pin that fits it, and which is great profits by the sale, till the public befixed upright in a cast iron plate D, that lies came sensible of that defect in the expected upon the hearth: in the middle of the top and operation. If the same thing should be atbottom grates are fixed small upright pieces tempted with this vase stove, it will be well E E about an inch high, which, as the whole for the buyer to examine thoroughly such preis turned on its axis, stop it when the grate tended improvements, lest, being the mere is perpendicular. Figure 19 is another view productions of ignorance, they diminish or deof the same machine.
feat the advantages of the machine, and proIn making the first fire in a morning with duce inconvenience and disappointment. this grate, there is nothing particular to be The method of burning smoke, by obliging observed. It is made as in other grates, the it to descend through hot coals, may be of coals being put in above, after taking out the great use in heating the walls of a hot-house. upper bar, and replacing it when they are in. In the common way, the horizontal passages The round figure of the fire when thoroughly or flues that are made to go and return in kindled is agreeable, it represents the great those walls, lose a great deal of their effect giver of warmth to our system. As it burns when they come to be foul with soot; for a down and leaves a vacancy above, which you thick blanket-like lining of soot prevents much would fill with fresh coals, the upper bar of the hot air from touching and heating the is to be taken out, and afterwards replaced. brick work in its passage, so that more fire The fresh coals, while the grate continues must be made as the flue grows fouler : but in the same position, will throw up as usual by burning the smoke they are kept always
clean. The same method may also be of mented by such contraction. And this will great advantage to those businesses in which also be the case, when both the opening belarge coppers or caldrons are to be heated. fore the fire, and the funnel above the fire are Written at Sea, 1785.
contracted, provided the funnel above the fire
is more contracted in proportion than the To Miss Stephenson.
opening before the fire.—So you see I think Method of Contracting Chimneys. Modesty in you had the best of the argument; and as Disputation.
you notwithstanding gave it up in complaisCRAVEN-STREET, Saturday evening, past 10.
ance to the company, I think you had also The question you ask me is a very sensible though convinced, that know
how to give up;
the best of the dispute. There are few, one, and I shall be glad if I can give you a satisfactory answer. There are two ways of in maintaining; there is therefore the more
even an error they have been once engaged contracting a chimney; one by contracting merit in dropping a contest where one thinks the opening before the fire; the other, by one's self right; it is at least respectful to contracting the funnel above the fire. If the
those we converse with. And indeed all funnel above the fire is left open in its full dimensions, and the opening before the fire is from a thousand causes so perpetually subject
our knowledge is so imperfect, and we are contracted; then the coals, I imagine, will burn faster, because more air is directed to mistake and error, that positiveness can through the fire, and in a stronger stream; and modesty in advancing any opinion, how
scarce ever become even the most knowing ; that air which before passed over it
, and on ever plain and true we may suppose it, is aleach side of it, now passing through it. This is seen in narrow stove chimneys, when a ways decent, and generally more likely to sacheverell or blower is used, which still more
procure assent. Pope's rule contracts the narrow opening.–But if the To speak, though sure, with seeming diffidence, funnel only above the fire is contracted, then, is therefore a good one; and if I had ever seen as a less stream of air is passing up the chim- in your conversation the least deviation from ney, less must pass through the fire, and con- it, I should earnestly recommend it to your sequently it should seem that the consuming observation. I am, &c. of the coals would rather be checked than aug.
of land from whence to draw his subsistence,
(the husbandman subsisting on much less, the Concerning the Increase of Mankind, peopling gardener on still Jess, and the manufacturer
of Countries, frc.—Written in Pennsylvania, requiring least of all) the Europeans found 1751.
America as fully settled, as it well could be 1. TABLES of the proportion of marriages to by hunters; yet these, having large tracts, births, of deaths to births, of marriages to the were easily prevailed on to part with portions number of inhabitants, &c. formed on obser- of territory to the new-comers, who did not vations made upon the bills of mortality, much interfere with the natives in hunting, christenings, &c. of populous cities, will not and furnished them with many things they suit countries; nor will tables, formed on ob-wanted. servations made on full settled old countries, 6. Land being thus plenty in America, and as Europe, suit new countries, as America.
so cheap, as that a labouring man, who un2. For people increase in proportion to the derstands husbandry, can, in a short time, save number of marriages, and that is greater, in money enough to purchase a piece of new proportion to the ease and convenience of land, sufficient for a plantation, whereon he supporting a family. When families can be may subsist a family; such are not afraid to easily supported, more persons marry, and marry; for if they even look far enough forearlier in life.
ward to consider how their children, when 3. In cities, where all trades, occupations, grown up, are to be provided for, they see, and offices, are full, many delay marrying, that more land is to be had at rates equally till they can see how to bear the charges of a easy, all circumstances considered. family; which charges are greater in cities, 7. Hence marriages in America are more as luxury is more common; many live single general, and more generally early, than in Euduring life, and continue servants to families, rope. And if it is reckoned here, that there is journeymen to trade, &c. Hence cities do but one marriage per annum among one hunnot, by natural generation, supply themselves dred persons, perhaps we may here reckon with inhabitants; the deaths are more than two; and if in Europe, they have but four the births.
births to a marriage, (many of their marriages 4. In countries full settled, the case must being late,) we may here reckon eight, of be nearly the same, all lands being occupied which, if one half grow up, and our marriages and improved to the height; those who can- are made, reckoning one with another, at not get land, must labour for others that have twenty years of age, our people must at least it; when labourers are plenty, their wages be doubled every twenty years. will be low; by low wages a family is support 8. But notwithstanding this increase, so ed with difficulty; this difficulty deters many vast is the territory of North America, that from marriage, who therefore long continue it will require many ages to settle it fully, servants and single. Only as the cities take and till it is fully settled, labour will never supplies of people from the country, and there be cheap here, where no man continues long by make a little more room in the country, a labourer for others, but gets a plantation of marriage is a little more encouraged there, his own; no man continues long a journeyman and the births exceed the deaths.
to a trade, but goes among those new settlers, 5. Great part of Europe is fully settled with and sets up for himself, &c. Hence labour i: husbandmen, manufacturers, &c. and there no cheaper now, in Pennsylvania, than it was fore cannot now much increase in people. thirty years ago, though so many thousand liAmerica is chiefly occupied by Indians, who bouring people have been imported from Gersubsist mostly by hunting. But as the hun- many and Ireland. ter, of all men, requires the greatest quantity 9. The danger, therefore, of these colonie 36
interfering with their mother conutry in marry and raise families. If the nation be trades, that depend on labour, manufactures, deprived of any branch of trade, and no new &c. is too remote to require the attention of employment is found for the people occupied Great Britain.
in that branch, it will soon be deprived of so 10. But, in proportion to the inerease of many people. 4. Loss of food : suppose a nathe colonies, a vast demand is growing for tion has a fishery, which not only employs British manufactures; a glorious market, great numbers, but makes the food and subwholly in the power of Britain, in which fo- sistence of the people cheaper : if another nareigners cannot interfere, which will increase, tion becomes master of the seas, and prevents in a short time, even beyond her power of the fishery, the people will diminish in prosupplying, though her whole trade should be portion as the loss of employ and dearness of to her colonies
provision makes it more difficult to subsist a 12. It is an ill grounded opinion, that by family. 5. Bad government and insecure the labour of slaves, America may possibly property: people not only leave such a counvie in cheapness of manufactures with Britain. try, and, settling abroad, incorporate with The labour of slaves can never be so cheap other nations, lose their native language, and here, as the labour of working men is in Bri- become foreigners; but the industry of those tain. Any one may compute it. Interest of that remain being discouraged, the quantity money is in the colonies from 6 to 10 per of s tence in the country is lessened, and cent. Slaves; one with another, cost 301. the support of a family becomes more diffisterling per head. Reckon then the interest cult. So heavy taxes tend to diminish a peoof the first purchase of a slave, the insurance ple. 6. The introduction of slaves: the neor risk on his life, his clothing and diet, ex- groes brought into the English sugar islands penses in his sickness, and loss of time, loss have greatly diminished the whites there; by his neglect of business, (neglect is natural the poor are by this means deprived of emto the man, who is not to be benefited by his ployment, while a few families acquire vast own care or diligence) expense of a driver to estates, which they spend on foreign luxuries; keep him at work, and his pilfering from time and educating their children in the habit of to time, almost every slave being, from the those luxuries, the same income is needed for nature of slavery, a thief, and compare the the support of one, that might have mainwhole amount with the wages of a manufac- tained one hundred. The whites, who have turer of iron or wool in England, you will slaves, not labouring, are enfeebled, and there see, that labour is much cheaper there than fore not so generally prolific; the slaves beit ever can be by negroes here. Why then ing worked too hard, and ill fed, their constiwill Americans purchase slaves ? Because tutions are broken, and the deaths' among slaves may be kept as long as a man pleases, them are more than the births; so that a conor has occasion for their labour, while hired tinual supply is needed from Africa. The men are continually leaving their master (of northern colonies, having few slaves, increase ten in the midst of his business) and setting in whites. Slaves also pejorate the families up for themselves. $ 8.
that use them; the white children become 13. As the increase of people depends on proud, disgusted with labour, and, being eduthe encouragement of marriages, the follow- cated in idleness, are rendered unfit to get a ing things must diminish a nation, viz. 1. The living by industry. being conquered; for the conquerors
14. Hence the prince, that acquires new gross as many offices, and exact as much tri- territory, if he finds it vacant, or removes the þute or profit on the labour of the conquered, natives to give his own people room ;—the as will maintain them in their new establish- legislator, that makes effectual laws for proment; and this diminishing the substance of moting of trade, increasing employment, imthe natives discourages their marriages, and proving land by more or better tillage, proso gradually diminishes them, while the fo- viding more food by fisheries, securing proreigners increase. 2. Loss of territory: thus perty, &c., and the man that invents new the Britons, being driven into Wales, and trades, arts or manufactures, or new improve crowded together in a barren country, insuffi- ments in husbandry, may be properly called cient to support such great numbers, diminish- fathers of their nation, as they are the cause ed, till the people bore a proportion to the of the generation of multitudes, by the encouproduce; while the Saxons increased on their ragement they afford to marriage. abandoned lands, till the island became full 15. As to privileges granted to the married, of English. And, were the English now (such as the jus trium liberorum among the driven into Wales by some foreign nation, Romans) they may hasten the filling of a there would, in a few years, be no more Eng- country, that has been thinned by war or pes lishmen in Britain, than there are now peo- tilence, or that has otherwise vacant territo ple in Wales. 3. Loss of trade: manufactures, ry, but cannot increase a people beyond the exported, draw subsistence from foreign coun- means provided for their subsistence. tries for numbers, who are thereby enabled to 16. Foreign luxuries, and needless manu