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ravaged Olympus in Mysia, and in the hunting of which Atys, the son of Croesus, king of Lydia, unfortunately fell, instead of the boar, by the spear of his guardian, Adrastus?
Nor has Marcianus, the hero of this altar, missed all his desired share of earthly immortality as a boar hunter, by destroying a monster of that species, which in the Roman age had long spread devastation and terror through the neighbourhood of Stanhope; for his votive altar to Silvanus still remains as a memorial of the fame he acquired by the capture of this " aper eximiæ formæ "-this "mighty swine, "to obtain celebrity for which exploit many before him had unsuccessfully aspired, and for which he gratefully erected, probably on the spot where he spilled the monster's blood, an altar to the invincible god Silvanus. J. H.
ROMAN ALTAR AT HARDRIDING.
We have been favoured by Mr. John Bell, of Gateshead, the Librarian of the Newcastle Society of Antiquities, with a drawing of the altar discovered on an estate belonging to Sir Thomas John Clavering, Bart. at Hardriding in Northumberland, in June 1838, the subject of the remarks by our much esteemed correspondent J. H. already printed in p. 186.
GENT. MAG. VOL. XII.
We are more particularly glad to have the present opportunity of publishing this inscribed altar, as we regret to say that, since our former publication, Mr. Bell has received a letter from the agent of Sir T. J. Clavering, to state "that it is not in his power to allow the Antiquarian Society to keep the Roman altar found at Hardriding, in consequence of that property being entailed."
In our next number we shall publish some recent acquisitions of the Newcastle Museum, through the liberality of W. C. Trevelyan, Esq.
OLD HOUSE AT DONCASTER.
An ancient low building, at the corner of Marsh-gate, near the Dispensary, the property and residence of Mr. Ward, farmer, &c. in whose family it has been upwards of 150 years, abuts into the road, and some time since the corporation wished to purchase the property for the purpose of removing the obstruction, but as the agreement was not completed the building still remains, and has recently undergone a thorough internal repair. These operations have brought to light the age of the building, which was originally of" stud and mud" for the exterior, and of oak for the interior. In the middle room up stairs (the house is only one story high), the plasterers were ordered to remove the walls and the roof, and after scraping off whitewash, the accumulation of centuries, and at least an inch thick, they perceived something like the figure of a horse; they used more care, and having removed the whole, but not without injury, the following sketch painted in oil presented itself:-The foremost figure is a full-length representation of one of the Queens of England, in ancient costume, with the crown upon her head; behind her is a herald blowing a trumpet, and holding the reins of a richly caparisoned horse. Many other figures are destroyed, but it is said that the date, 1305, is perfect.
The Minister of the Interior has granted 2,000f. to be applied in the restoration of a fine specimen of the statuary of the middle ages, called the Puits de Moise, in the ancient monastery of the Chartreux, at Dijon.
During the researches carrying on at Troyes, among the MSS. and other documents of the archives of that town, there has been discovered an autograph letter from Mme. de la Vallière, addressed to the abbess of a convent of Troyes.
During the recent expedition of a 3 G
French force, under General Galbois, to the town of Setif, a dependency of Algiers, one of those splendid triumphal arches erected by the Romans was discovered, in perfect preservation, bearing an inscription which records that it had been dedicated to Caracalla, and Julia his mother, in the third century of the Christian era.
MUMMIES AT DURANGO, MEXICO.
A million of mummies, it is stated, have lately been discovered in the environs of Durango, in Mexico. They are in a sitting posture, but have wrap♦pings, bands and ornaments as the Egyptians; among them was found a poignard of flint with a sculptured handle, chaplets, necklaces, &c. of alternately coloured beads, fragments of bones polished like ivory, fine worked elastic tissues (probably our modern India-rubber cloth), moccasins worked like those of our Indians, bones of vipers, &c. It is unknown what kind of embalming was used, or whether the mummies were preserved by nitrous depositions in the caves. A fact of importance is stated, that necklaces of a marine shell are found at Zacatecas, on the Pacific, where the Columbus of their forefathers probably therefore landed from Hindostan, or from the Malay or Chinese coast, or from their islands in the Indian Ocean.
In a field adjoining the road leading from Rudston to Kilham, near Bridlington, a tesselated pavement, about six inches from the surface, was uncovered— the tesseræ differing in size from 1 inch to
inch, colours white, red, and blue,— white prevailing; laid in lines and forming diamonds-extending over a surface of about 4 yards by 3 yards, walled round on three sides with large rough stones similar to the chalk stones of the Wolds. A great part of the pavement had been destroyed at a former period by some labourers, who had dug it up in the hope of finding treasure; it contained red bricks, of a square form, 91⁄2 inches by 8 inches, 1 inch thick; pieces of plaster, smooth on one side and painted, some red all over, some in lines, and some with dashes of red and green, apparently water colours. Below this, at about 3 feet from the surface, were a number of tiles, in regular order, slightly curved, and having a flank at each side. They were
placed flank to flank one with another, having the hollow side downward. The top surface presented an indented half circle, extending from one end to about onethird of the whole length. The size of
each tile is about 15 inches by 114, and about of an inch in thickness. Immediately under these was another layer of the same sort of tiles, laid in the same manner, but transversely with the other. Below these was a small quantity of exceedingly black ashes, and near were some pieces of a rather bony-like substance, porous, and having a great semblance to the incrusted moss from the Dropping Well at Knaresborough. Still lower was a layer of fine rich earth, a few inches in thickness, and then a bed of fine natural red clay, probably the material similar to that of which the bricks and tiles had been formed. From the description of these remains the building may be supposed to have been a bath.
The capacious bonding-pond, which is now being excavated at South Stockton, has led to the discovery of an extensive subterranean forest. The timber is chiefly oak. A yew tree, of considerable size, has been found, the wood of which is sound and good, and fit for the turner's lathe. Many of the oaks are of large dimensions, and it is expected some of them will be suitable for the purpose of building. Whilst examining this forest, Dr. Young, of Whitby, with some friends, discovered one of the oaks to have been cut in two, which had evidently been done previous to its being covered by the earth. He supposes the forest may have been cut down by the Roman soldiers, as they were in the habit of laying timber on the low swampy grounds, for the purpose of making roads. Be this as it may, it is
certain the hand of man has been exerted on the timber, and it may form a fertile subject for the lover of ancient history and the geologist to speculate on.
HUMAN SKELETONS AT GLOUCESTER.
The men employed in excavating in the new market, Gloucester, for the works connected with the intended depot of the Gloucester and Birmingham Railway, discovered, at the depth of some feet, two dozen skeletons. It is supposed that they are the remains of the soldiers who fell in 1640, when Charles I. besieged the city, the spot where they were found being near to the north gate, around which there was great carnage. A military button, on which there is the figure 9, surmounted by a crown, and, in the usual part, the maker's name," C. Jennings, London," was also found, together with a spur, and a horse's skull and a leg in a decayed state. Most of the skeletons have been re-buried.
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.
HOUSE OF COMMONS, Aug. 15. The COUNTY AND DISTRICT CONSTABLES Bill, for the establishment of a Rural Police, was taken into further consideration, and some discussion ensued on a provision proposed by Lord Granville Somerset that nothing in the Bill should invalidate the appointment of parish constables, on which the House divided, and the proviso was rejected by 32 to 30, which implies that the parish constables are to be done away with. The motion that the bill do pass was opposed by Mr. D'Israeli; but on a division it was carried by 45 to 13, and sent up to the Lords; who passed it on the 24th.
Aug. 19.-Mr. Rice moved that the House resolve itself into committee on the BANK OF IRELAND Bill,-Mr. O'Connell expressed his determination of continuing his opposition to the progress of the measure, which he regarded as odious monopoly, and moved, as an amendment, that the House do proceed to the next order of the day. This amendment being negatived, he proposed several others, which shared the same fate; but he nevertheless contrived to prevent the Bill being proceeded with on that day. The Reports of the CONSOLIDATED FUND APPROPRIATION Bill and the EXCHEQUER-BILLS', (12,026,0507.) Bill were brought up, and agreed to, and ordered to be read a third time to-morrow.-Mr. Rice explained to the House his plan of Funding Exchequer-bills, as modified by the circumstances and results of the late competition. He should require an Act of Parliament, of which the three resolutions moved by him would form the basis. The first resolution went to effectuate that part of the measure which consisted in the arrangement of 500,000l. with the Bank of England, by declaring that the purchasers were entitled to 1097. 5s. 10d. Three per Cent. Consols for every Exchequer-bill of 1007. The second resolution declared that such persons as might be willing to contract for the remaining 3,500,000l., or any part thereof, should be entitled for every Exchequer Bill of 100l. to 1107. Consols; and Mr. Rice stated that he already was aware of intended contracts at that price to the extent of 700,000. The third
resolution declared, that, if the two former contracts did not exhaust the whole 4,000,000l. of Exchequer-bills, whatever should remain on a certain day might be exchanged with Government in sums of not less than 1000l., for such an amount of Consols as those remaining bills would have brought at the average price of the three months then preceding.-Mr. Hertimated in the statement of the Budget. ries said this step ought to have been in
One of the most serious considerations connected with it was, that it created a permanent charge, without meeting that charge by a permanent provision, which
had not been the usual course of financial Ministers. The Resolutions were re
Aug. 20.-Mr. Rice announced his intention of not persevering with the BANK OF IRELAND Bill. He afterwards obtained leave to bring in a Bill to continue the Act relating to the Bank of Ireland for one year, which was read a first time; and a resolution for the funding of 900,000l. Bank of Ireland was agreed to. of Exchequer-bills in the hands of the
On the 27th of August her Majesty went to the House of Peers, and delivered the following most gracious Speech :
"My Lords and Gentlemen,
"The public business having been brought to a close, I have now the satisfactory duty of releasing you from your long and laborious attendance in Parlia
"I rejoice that a definitive Treaty between Holland and Belgium, negotiated by the mediation of the Five Powers, has settled the differences between those two countries, and has secured the peace of Europe from dangers to which it had so long been exposed.
"The same concord which brought these intricate questions to a peaceful termination prevails with regard to the affairs of the Levant. The Five Powers are alike determined to uphold the independence and integrity of the Ottoman Empire; and I trust that this union will insure a satisfactory settlement of matters which are of the deepest importance to the whole of Europe.
"It has afforded me the sincerest plea
sure to have been able to assist in effecting a reconciliation between France and Mexico. Intent upon preserving for my subjects the blessings of peace, I am highly gratified when I can avail myself of an opportunity of removing misunderstandings between other Powers.
"I have recently concluded with the King of the French a Convention calculated to put an end to differences which have arisen of late years between the fishermen of Great Britain and France. This Convention, by removing causes of dispute, will tend to cement that union between the two countries which is so
advantageous to both, and so conducive to the general interests of Europe.
"I shall continue to pursue with perseverance the negociations in which I am engaged to persuade all the Powers of Christendom to unite in a General League for the entire extinction of the Slave-trade; and I trust that, with the blessing of Providence, my efforts, in so righteous a cause, will be rewarded with success.
"I regret that the differences which led to the withdrawal of my Minister from the Court of Tehran have not yet been satisfactorily adjusted by the Government of Persia.
"In order to fulfil the engagements announced to you at the opening of the present session, the Governor. General of India has moved an army across the Indus, and I have much satisfaction in being able to inform you that the advance of that expedition has been hitherto unopposed, and there is every reason to hope that the important objects for which these military operations have been undertaken, will be finally obtained.
"I have observed with much approbation the attention which you have bestowed upon the internal state and condition of the country. I entirely concur in the measures which you have framed for the preservation of order, the repression of crime, and the better administration of justice in this metropolis, and I have given a cordial assent to the Bills which you have presented to me for the establishment of a more efficient constabulary force in those towns which peculiarly
required it, and for effecting the important object of generally extending and invigorating the civil power throughout the country.
"Gentlemen of the House of Commons,
"I thank you for the zeal and readiness with which you have voted the supplies for the service of the year.
"It has been with satisfaction that I have given my consent to the reduction of the Postage Duties. I trust that the Act which has passed on this subject will be a relief and encouragement to trade, and that by facilitating intercourse and correspondence it will be productive of much social advantage and improvement. I have given directions that the preliminary steps should be taken to give effect to the intention of Parliament as soon as the inquiries and arrangements required for this purpose shall have been completed.
"The advantageous terms upon which a considerable amount of the Unfunded Debt has been converted into Stock, afford a satisfactory proof of the reliance placed on the credit and resources of the country, as well as on your determination to preserve inviolate the national faith.
"My Lords and Gentlemen,
"It is with great pain that I have found myself compelled to enforce the law against those who no longer concealed their design of resisting by force the lawful authorities, and of subverting the institutions of the country.
"The solemn proceedings of Courts of Justice, and the fearless administration of the law by all who are engaged in that duty, have checked the first attempts at insubordination; and I rely securely upon the good sense of my people, and upon their attachment to the Constitution, for the maintenance of law and order, which are as necessary for the protection of the poor as for the welfare of the wealthier classes of the community."
The Lord Chancellor then declared it to be her Majesty's pleasure that Parliament be prorogued till the 24th of October next.
six battalions commanded by Maroto. As he passed before the front of the first battalion, the Guides of Navarre, the soldiers cried "Viva el Rey!" Don Carlos then went up to the second battalion, composed of Castilians, who cried "Long live the King, and our General!" The prince suddenly stopped, and, addressing
the corps, said, "Wherever the King is, there is no other General." The troops' remained silent. He then rode before the line of the third battalion, consisting also of Castilians, who saluted him with the same cries as the second. Seeing this, Don Carlos discontinued the review, and immediately left for Bergara. He had, however, scarcely reached that town when be received an express, informing him that Maroto had gone over to the Christinos, and advising him to repair without delay to Navarre, if he did not wish to be overtaken and delivered into the hands of the enemy.
The next day Maroto had an interview with Espartero, between Bergara and Villareal; and on the 29th they concluded a treaty of peace, depending on the ratification of the Cortes, for the pacification of Biscay and Guipuzcoa. The following are the principal conditions-voluntary submission on granting the fueros to the inhabitants, maintaining the rank of the Carlist officers, and granting pensions to the wounded. The 25 battalions and 10 squadrons of Maroto are to lay down their arms. This news was received at Madrid with the greatest enthusiasm. Both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies went up with addresses to the Queen, congratulating her on the auspicious event; and the Queen has won all hearts by stating in her reply that the great work was accomplished by Spaniards alone. All the Spanish papers repeat these words with similar delight, and each contains an article asserting that neither France nor England have given any effectual aid in the negotiation, and that the whole is the work of General Espartero.
On the 14th Sept. Don Carlos took refuge in France by the road of Ainhoa and St. Pé: a very numerous immigration of his adherents had taken place for some days before. The French government has assigned Bourges for his temporary residence. Louis-Philippe has conferred the grand cordon of the Legion of Honour on General Espartero, Duke of Vittoria.
On the 6th Sept. a serious riot took place at Zurich, arising from the following circumstances.
Some months ago the government of Zurich called from Germany, to fill the theological_chair of the university, the neologian Professor Strauss, whose doctrines had excited great sensation. This appointment, although strictly legal, met with great opposition from what is termed the orthodox part of the population, influenced by the Committee of Faith, and
which had a correspondence with the communes. Dr. Strauss, although retaining his post, was unable, from the clamour raised against him, to perform the duties attached to it. The committee, appealing to popular feeling, put forth a circular, complaining that religion was in danger from the laws preparing by the govern... ment against the schools, and calling upon the communes to send in petitions to the grand council. The executive council, on its side, sent forth a proclamation, prohibiting the communes from deliberating on the orders of the central committee. The committee of faith retorted by another circular, which the executive council, regarding as seditious, seized, and instituted a prosecution against its authors. In consequence of this, the Committee of Faith called upon the citizens to assemble on the 2d Sept. at Kloten, a village two leagues from Zurich.
In the night of the 5th, large bodies of peasants assembled under the walls of the town, demanding, first, that the Canton of Zurich should withdraw from the concordat of 1831; and, secondly, that the executive council should engage not to apply in any case for federal aid. On the morning of the 6th one of these bands penetrated into the town, and the arsenal was attacked by between 5000 and 6000 persons, but not more than 100 had firearms; the rest were armed with hatchets, pikes, and bludgeons. They engaged with a body of militia, which was under arms, in a conflict, at the end of which, not being in sufficient strength, the peasants were compelled to evacuate the town. In this skirmish eight persons were killed, and about 20 wounded. M. Heyetschweifer, a member of the executive council, was seriously wounded. The executive council dissolved itself, and its members spontaneously constituted themselves into a federal council of state. They proceeded to elect a member to replace the one who had been wounded, and another who had given in his resignation. This measure appears to have re-established a calm.
Accounts from Constantinople, dated July 30, state that the Divan, after three extraordinary sittings, had signified its acceptance of the propositions of the Egyptian Viceroy, Mehemet Ali; and bad thus granted him the hereditary possession of the whole of the provinces under his government.
Runjeet Singh died at Simla on the 27th June, in the 60th year of his age,