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cause Walter, archbishop of Rouen, would not revoke the sentence of interdict which he had laid upon Normandy; for the bodies of the dead were lying unburied throughout the lanes and streets of the cities of Normandy. Accordingly, the king sent William, bishop of Ely, his chancellor, to the bishop of Lisieux, and Philip, the bishop elect of Durham, to plead his cause in the presence of our lord the pope, against the said archbishop of Rouen. On their arrival in Poitou, William, bishop of Ely, the king's chancellor, fell ill, even unto death, and died and was buried; and, as long as he appeared to be in the mortal agony, a wooden crucifix in the cathedral church of the same city, which is called the cross of Saint Martial, was seen to weep so vehemently, that streams of water, as it were, poured down from its eyes, and moistened the face. The people indeed said that this now happened for the third time; the first time at the death of a bishop of the said city, the second time on the departure of John Belesmains, bishop of that city, and the third time on the death of this William, bishop of Ely.

After his decease, the bishop of Lisieux, and the bishop elect of Durham, proceeded upon the business of their master. Our lord the king, however, not unmindful of the services which the said chancellor had rendered him, gave to his brother Robert, prior of Ely, the abbey of Saint Mary at York; and Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and legate of the Apostolic See, consecrated him abbat.

The said archbishop of Rouen, and the bishop of Lisieux, and the bishop elect of Ely now meeting in the presence of our lord the pope, the archbishop of Rouen asserted his right which he had over Andely, and the injury which Richard, king of England, had done him in fortifying a castle upon the possessions of the church of Rouen thus unjustly, and against his will and consent. To this the above-named envoys of the king made answer, that the king their master had often and repeatedly made him offer, through his envoys, venerable men and discreet bishops, abbats, earls, and barons, that he would make him reparation in every respect, according to the estimate formed by honorable men. For, as they asserted on the king's behalf, he could on no account give up the said island of Andely, on which, he had fortified the castle, because the king of France and his people every now and then were making inroads into Normandy, and frequently ravaged it, in consequence of which the king of England had fortified that place for the defence of

his territory against the king of France. Upon these matters the said archbishop of Rouen, and the aforesaid envoys of the king submitted to the decision of our lord the pope and of the Roman Church. Accordingly, after our lord the pope and the cardinals had long deliberated on the matter, considering the losses and inconveniences that would result to Normandy, if the said place of Andely should not be fortified, they advised the said archbishop of Rouen to settle the matter with the king his master on amicable terms, and to receive from him a sufficient recompense for what had been taken from him, accord. ing to an estimate formed by honorable and prudent men, saying, that the king was fully at liberty, and indeed any potentate was, to fortify the weaker portions of his territory, that injury might not result therefrom to himself and his people.

In the meantime, our lord the pope Celestinus consecrated Philip, the bishop elect of Durham, to the bishopric of Durham, on the Lord's day on which is sung Misericordia Domini,"55 which in this year fell on the twelfth of May. The bishop of Durham having been thus consecrated, pope Celestinus revoked the sentence of interdict which Walter, archbishop of Rouen had pronounced against Normandy, on account of the fortification of the castle of the island of Andely, and then dismissed them. Accordingly, the said archbishop of Rouen, and the bishops of Durham and Lisieux returned to our lord Richard, the king of England, with a form of reconciliation between the said king and the archbishop of Rouen, drawn up by the advice of our lord the pope, and the cardinals.

On this, the said king, having convened the bishops, abbats, earls, and barons of Normandy, gave to Walter, archbishop of Rouen, and his successors, by way of compensation for his town of Andely, the town of Dieppe with all its appurtenances, the valley of Malendai, the mills of Robec, in the city of Rouen, and Louviers with its appurtenances, and by his charter confirmed the same; in return for which, Walter, archbishop of Rouen, quitted claim to Richard, king of England, and his heirs, of Andely with its appurtenances, on the part of himself and his successors.

In the same year, Richard, king of England, came to Saint Valery, and burned that town to the ground, and having de

55 The beginning of the introit for the second Sunday after Easter, “The earth is full of the mercy of the Lord.”

stroyed the monks that were there in the service of God, carried away with him into Normandy the shrine, with the relics of Saint Valery: in that harbour he also found some ships, which had come from England, laden with corn and provisions, on which he seized them and ordered the sailors in them to be hanged, and then burned the ships, and distributed the corn and provisions among his people.

In the same year, the people of Champagne and Flanders, and the Bretons, deserting the king of France, became adherents of the king of England, hostages being given on either side that they would not come to a reconciliation, nor make peace with the king of France, unless with the common consent of both parties. For the king of England had brought over them, and nearly all the most powerful men of the kingdom of France, with presents ; as his bounteous hand in its gifts surpassed all other gifts. “ Nor yet in giving does he go beyond all bounds; nay rather, to each he assigns a purpose fixed and definite." 56

Accordingly, he gave to Baldwin, earl of Flanders, for his assistance five thousand marks of silver; and he gave hostages that he would not make peace with the king of France, unless with the consent of the king of England, and the king of England did the same with him. After this, William Crespin, constable of Anjou, being compelled by force, surrendered to Richard, king of England, the castle of Anjou, which the king immediately placed in a sufficient state of defence with men, arms, and provisions ; and the king of France shortly after assembling a large army laid siege to it. While these things were going on, Richard, king of England, proceeded to Auvergne, and took ten of the castles of the king of France and of his followers. But before the king of England could return to Normandy, the king of France took the castle of Anjou, granting to the knights and men-at-arms therein safety to life and limb; and after he had levied from them five hundred marks of silver for their ransom, he gave them liberty to depart, and fortified the castle and retained it in his own hands.

In the meantime, Baldwin, earl of Flanders, laid siege to the castle of Arras ; on hearing of which, the king of France came thither with a numerous army. Upon his approach, the earl of Flanders raising the siege, returned into his own

56 “ Nec tamen in dando mensuram deserit, imino,

Singula describit certo moderamine finis."

territories, the king of France pursuing him. When the king of France had proceeded to a considerable distance, the earl of Flanders caused the bridges to be broken down that lay both in front and rear of the king of France, so that neither provisions nor his army could come near him. Upon this, the king of France being placed in a dilemma, entreated the earl of Flanders that he would not cast a blot on the crown of France, alleging that he had entered Flanders with the intention of making amicable arrangements with him, and swearing that he would give him all his rights if he would forsake Richard, king of England, without making peace with him. As the earl of Flanders declined to act in contravention of the terms which he had made with the king of England, a conference took place between the king of France and the king of England, on the fourth day of the week after the Exaltation of the holy Cross, between Gaillon and Andely; and so, the king of France, escaping capture by the earl of Flanders, returned into France, but would observe none of the covenants he had made with the earl of Flanders.

In the same year, Richard, king of England, gave to Master Eustace, his vice-chancellor, the bishopric of Ely. In the same year, Joanna, sister of Richard, king of England, and wife of Raymond, earl of Saint Gilles, was delivered of her first-born son, and his name was called Raymond. In the same year died king Rees, the son of Griffin ;58 after whose death a dissension arose among his sons, which of them should reign in the place of their father; for the purpose of putting an end to which, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, the king's justiciary, repaired to the Welch territory, and established peace between them.

In the mean time, Philip, bishop of Beauvais, having sent his brother, the bishop of Orleans, to Rome, while he was still in captivity with the king of England, wrote to Celestinus, the Supreme Pontiff, to the following effect :The Letter of Philip, bishop of Beauvais, to Celestinus, the

Supreme Pontiff “ To his venerable lord and master, Celestinus, the Supreme Pontiff, Philip, bishop of Beauvais, health and duteousness in all canonical obedience. The favour of the supreme power has raised on high your felicity and your

manifold successes, bring85 Rice ap Griffydd.

ing to mind that maxim of the law, 'He invites the guiltless to offend who passes the guilty by unpunished. It is a thing now almost notorious to all the churches, how disrespectfully, and how inhumanly, the king of England has, for some time past, been in rebellion against his lord, the king of the Franks; like a man who, fastening a rope round a large mountain, tries to throw it down. Accordingly, bringing with him fire and sword, and supported by apostate companies of Brabanters, he has made attacks upon our country, ravaging it on every side. Upon seeing this, being not unmindful of the legal maxim, 'It is lawful to repel force by force, and of that other one, ‘Fight for your country,' mingling in the throng of warriors and citizens, and in the ranks of the nobles, I went forth to meet the enemy in their onward career. But fortune, that stepdame of human counsels, brought my intended purpose to an unhappy result; for there I was taken prisoner, and thrown into heavy chains and fetters; neither the dignity of my order, nor reverence for God, afforded me any relief or mitigation. In such wise, then, the king of England has not dreaded to rage against Christ, our Lord, after the manner of a wolf. Nor do I suppose that this has been unknown to your ears. Why, then, do you dissemble? What father would see his son doing wrong, and be silent thereon? Who would not chasten his son with a rod, that he might not run upon a sword ? The father despairs of his son, when he chasteneth him not with threatening, or with the whip. Indeed, it is clearer than light itself, that the king of England, and the rest of his accomplices, who have violently laid hands on us, have rendered themselves subject to the visitations I have above mentioned; wherefore, attentively listening to the injuries done to ourselves, and the grievous enormities committed against your fatherly affection, do with mercy condescend to listen to our tears, and to our petition. For it were an unworthy thing that the petition, made to you by those subject to you, should return useless and of no effect; one too that savours of all humility, and that is based on the firm support of reason. He, in fact, is not entirely free from a fault, who, when he can correct it, pretends that he cannot rectify it; nor is he free from some suspicion of secret connivance, who forbears to prevent a manifest misdeed.' Wherefore, holy father, do not wonder that I have to such a length multiplied the words of sorrow. Perpetual

59 Probably a quotation from the codes of civil law.

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VOL. II.

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