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39 symmetrical physical development — yet all ages, either individually or in classes ; gymnastic apparatus adds so greatly to and that insure geniality and generous emuthe variety, precision, and effectiveness of lation alike in the fainily, the school, and the athletic exercises, that it may be re- the gymnasium. garded as indispensable.
The apparatus is all made of wood. If The apparatus used in our modern gym- not given the French polish, it should be nasiums seems to have been almost wholly varnished with shellac, at least three unknown among
the ancients. Ilolding as coats. It should be well rubbed with they did, especially in the Grecian States, fine sand paper, both after the first that there could be no health of the mind and second coats of varnish are apunless the body were cared for, and view- plied. Thus prepared, the more it ing exercise also as a powerful remedial is used the smoother it becomes. agent in disease, they adopted the gymnasium as their school, making the public games and festivals its annual exhibitions.
T. WANDS. Gymnastics, instead of being made a mere appendage in their system of education, Wands furnish such an extended occupied a position certainly not inferior course of beautiful and peculiarly to Grammar, Music, Architecture, and effective exercises, that they may Sculpture. The results were, “living mod- be regarded as almost indispensaels of manliness, grace, and beauty”—an
ble in the formation of a system of equal development of the powers of the physical training. Intelligently and mind and of the body. If, however, with ingeniously employed, they call inthe discus, or quoit; the leaden dumb-bell; to play, separately and in combinatheir games of ball; the sport called ska- tion, all the muscles and joints. perda, in which a single rope drawn over Firm and uncompromising, the a pulley was employed; and by running, wand is only equaled by the Inleaping, wrestling, and boxing, such splen- dian club in giving flexibility to the did results were secured, what ought we ligaments and muscles of the arms not reasonably to expect, having all the and shoulders. As a promoter of modern appliances of the gymnasium! digestion, and a curative for dys
Parallel bars, both vertical and horizon- pepsia, it surpasses all other gymtal, vaulting bars, Indian clubs, dumb-bells, nastic apparatus. peak-ladders, horizontal ladders, weights It may be used by persons of all and pulleys, suspended rings, hand-rings, ages, and is alike accessible to the the wooden horse, the spring-board, the rich and the poor. Any straiglit, leaping-pole, the wand—in a word, every smooth stick of moderate size piece of gymnastic apparatus worthy of will answer. A staff from the the name, probably has peculiar advan- commonest sapling becomes, in the tages, affording new positions from which hands of a gymnast, more potent interesting movements may be executed than any magician's wand; the that bring into play, more vigorously than limbs of the beech, the birch, of any thing else, certain classes of muscles. nearly all of our forest trees, more As, however, our gymnasiums are usually precious than fabled boughs, heavy private, and only accessible to the few; with their golden apples, fresh from and as it is better to know every thing the gardens of the Hesperides. with regard to the use of a fer pieces of The form of the wand, illustrated apparatus than to know something of many, by Fig. 3, is superior to all others. we have restricted ourselves to those only It has eight plane, equal faces, or that are easily secured and cheap; that sides. It is seren-eighths of an inch afford the most and best exercise in the thick for men and women, and shortest time; that may be used with three-fourths for boys and girls. equal facility under cover, or in the open When held vertical by the side, air; that may be employed by persons of it extends from the floor to the Fig. 8. lobe of the ear, as will be seen in Fig. 4. It wand nearly all of the single movements should be exactly of this length, as some of may be executed by the students arranged the most valuable movements can not be in pairs, as in Fig. 5. excecuted with a shorter one. With this Any hard, well-seasoned wood will an
swer for a wand. The best material is white ash.
Though metallic balls at the end of wands may be dispensed with, and should be for children, they add greatly to the precision and effectiveness of the exercise. These balls differ in size and weight. They should not generally weigh more than three pounds each for strong men. The size better adapted to ordinary purposes than any other, is one inch and a half in diameter, with a hole through the center of the ball of five-eighths of an inch in diameter, in which the well-fitted end of the wand is inserted and securely wedged.
The best balls are cast of iron. They should be japanned, at least three coats, and well baked.
Some of the wand movements are rendered more difficult by seizing the wand near the ends, and others by drawing the hands in so that they are but a few inches from the center.
ical culture, to any other article of gymII. DUMB-BELLS.
nastic apparatus. With a single pair, a man DUMB-BELLS, all things considered, are may exercise every muscle and joint of incomparably superior, as a ineans of phys- his body in half an hour, if he has sufficient 1861.)
ingennity in positions and movements. In they appear to be; at the next, a pair of his hands, as by magic, they undergo a Indian clubs, gymnastic rings, parallel constant change—at one moment what bars, a wand, a foil—in short, the entire
apparatus of the gymnasium, though occupying but little space either at rest or in motion.
The dumb-bell is available at all seasons and in all places, affording the most pleasing, varied, and concentrated of all the athletic exercises, both for singlo and combined movements, individuals, and classes.
Cast-iron dumb-bells, of proper form and weight, are deservedly popular among the best gyinnasts. Heavy bells, however, are almost usoless for exercise, affording only a few movements that serve as a test of strength. When
using a single bell for this purpose, both arms should be employed to the same extent, to avoid a one-sided development. Dumbbells, weighing from 3 to 5 pounds, properly used, are sufficiently heavy for the strongest man. Be one's time never so much limited, they should not weigh more than 25 pounds to the pair.
The best and most approved dumb-bell at the present time is made of wood. The timber, before it is turned, should be sawed into scantlings or plank, and well seasoned.
Maple, beech, birch, oak, and hickory, make very good bells for family and school use. Locust is the best domestic wood for this purpose, rosewood is still better, lignumvitae is best of all.
The bell illustrated by fig. 8, affording, as it does, an opportunity both for the handle No. 2 is intended for women and youth. (fig. 7) and the ball grasp (fig. 6), is re- Its length is ten and three-quarters inches; garded as greatly superior to all others. diameter of each ball, three and threeThere are four sizes.
eighths inches; length of the handle, three No. 1 is intended for men. Its length and three-quarters inches. is eleven and three-quarters inches; length of handle, including the shoulders, four and a quarter inches; diameter of each ball, three and threequarters inches.
The Agricultural College of Pennsylvania.
The entire length of No. 3 is nine and though No. 3 answers equally well for one-half inches; diameter of each ball, women and youth, when made of heavy two and seven-eighths inches; full length wood. of the handle to the balls, three and three- In executing the movements, the stufourths inches.
dent usually employs a pair of bells, as in The entire length of No. 4 is eight and Figs. 7 and 8, though some of the very one-half inches; diameter of each ball, best exercises are taken with a single bell, two and one-half inches; full length of as in Fig. 10. Many of the most beautiful, handles to the balls, three and one-half pleasing, and effective combined moveinches.
ments are executed by the students arNos. 3 and 4 are intended for boys and ranged in pairs, as in Figs. 9 and 11. girls from six to twelve years of age; (To be concluded in the next Number.)
THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
ENNSYLVANIA appears to have pity thật so much money as the building
beaten her sister States in the cost-over one hundred thousand dollars tion of a farm college. Almost every one -should not have been employed with of the free States has projected such an better taste. As it now stands, it will serve academy, but this one was the first to open, excellently—on the outside at least—as a and is, we believe, the only one open at model to show students precisely what a this time.
school-house of any kind should not look like.
In the interior, too, use is regarded to the The college is located about ten miles exclusion of ornament; and effect is lost from Bellefonte, on a tolerably high table- by too great and irregular subdivision of land. From the summit of the building is the space. But the ends for which the a magnificent view, which alone is worth building was designed have been closely the journey thither. A mountain spur lies kept in view, and there is no lack of room, just opposite in front, and curves somewhat or of material either, for instruction in the abruptly to an end some miles away, as various branches of science which are and may be gathered from the local name of will be taught. Nor has the important this immediate district, which is called matter of ventilation been forgotten in the * End-of-the-Mountain.” This range sepa- numerous dormitories, halls, and studyrates two rich and beautiful valleys, the rooms. Nitany and Penn's Valley, and you look It may give but little notion of the size far into these vales on miles of fair acres of the building to say that it has two hunand comfortable farm-houses.
dred and thirty-four feet of front, and that the centre is one hundred and thirty feet
deep. A more definite notion of its size The establishment has been laid out on is gained from the fact that it is intended a scale so large that this may embarrass it to accommodate five hundred students, all for some time. The building is an immense of whom will live entirely in the building; pile, put up with little attempt at architec- and that it has, besides the proper number tural grace or effect. The builder was evi. of dormitories, all the requisite halls, lecdently a utilitarian; he has not given a ture and recitation rooms, museums, laborathought to ornamentation; and while one tories, etc. might forgive this, no one will ever forgive liim for belittling the whole structure by a
THE COLLEGE FARM. mean entrance, in the style of the usual The college buildings stand in the midst doorways of country school houses. It is a of four hundred acres of as fine and fair