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met the public eye, and gained no small share of ap- with them on terms of intimacy. Here we are in our plause. But we must beware of hallooing ere we are own quiet parlour, or by our own kitchen-hearth, book out of the wood.

in hand, and what striking scenes are passing before our Biographical sketches of celebrated persons will appear mind's eye! There is old Cromwell, severe, yea stormy in our columns as often as a due regard to other topics in his mien, with his three hundred soldiers at his back, will permit. This department of our work we shall dismissing the Long Parliament, pointing to the mace strive to render alike pleasing and profitable. Talent, lying on the table, and ordering an attendant to take worth, well-earned fame, belong to no one country and away the bauble! There sits, in the porch of his humble to no one class of men. We shall choose, therefore, cottage, the venerable Milton, musing on the evil days the subjects of these sketches without regard either to and evil tongues' whereon he had fallen, and rolling off profession, rank, or nation. Illustrious statesmen, line after line of his great epic! There is Newton under heroes, philosophers, poets, painters, physicians, chris- the apple-tree, seizing the law that keeps the sun in his tian ministers, &c., will supply themes varying in inte- sphere and the planets in their orbits ! There is Galileo, rest—all of them, however, replete with valuable in- his eye fixed on the swinging chandelier ; meanwhile struction. With the principal facts in the lives of the happy moment for the world !-his spirit darts on his individuals whose histories may be given, there will also, famous theory for measuring the flight of time! There in most instances, be something like an analysis furnished is Johnson, the scowl of disdain on his brow, writing to of the more prominent features of their intellectual and my Lord Chesterfield, to assure him how little value he moral character. To the biographical section of our

set on his patronage, when proffered after it was no longer labours, we look forward with a lively interest-an in- needed by him! There is Bunyan in his dungeon at Bedterest sharpened by the conviction that there is no kind ford, and Tasso in his at Ferrara-mighty dreamers both ! of reading more extensively useful, or better adapted to We see Tell informing Gessler why that other arrow was persons of all grades of intellect. Dr Johnson somewhere stuck in his belt; and Chatham all but espiring on the observes, that there has perhaps rarely passed a life, of floor of the House of Commons; and Blake and Welwhich a judicious and faithful narrative would not be lington bearing themselves proudly amidst the perils of useful;' and a still higher authority has a remark to this flood and field ! But we ask our readers' pardon. We are effect—that the moral bistory of a beggar, fully and not writing a dissertation on biography, but are anxious honestly given, might greatly enlarge and enlighten the that they should sympathize with us in the interest we views of a philosopher. Understood in a qualified sense, feel about this department of our undertaking. there is truth in Pope's line, which has almost become a Of the Poetry that shall appear in our pages we have proverb— The proper study of mankind is man.” Now, only to say, that, whether original or selected, it shall be biography supplies us with materials for this study. It sparingly given, and always in remembrance of the classic introduces us to the best and most illustrious of our race. rule, that, in this art, there is no such thing as mediocrity. It makes us the companions of the wise, the gifted, and

Our Tales will be varied in character-such only being the good. It shows us how they wrestled with difficulties excluded as would impede the growth of our best affecand vanquished them, how they encountered temptations tions. For this department, it may be right to add, we and were not scathed by them. It points out to us the hare secured the services of several of the best storypath by which some men rose to a noble elevation, and tellers of the day. Besides original tales, others will that by which others sank into disgrace. It warns as occasionally be given, translated from the French, Italian, well as encourages us. It allures to a course of virtue; German, and Swedish languages. it cautions us against the gilded snares of vice. It gives

When to the above we have added our notices of new us strength, in a word, for our own battles with the and useful publications—intelligence respecting any fresh evils of the present scene. And, irrespective of these ad discoveries in science, or recent improvements in artFantages, as a means of gratifying a lawful curiosity about an essay now and then, about the virtues of social life, or the illustrious portion of mankind, what shall we com- those evils that disturb its peace--some useful hints to pare with it? or rather, what substitute shall we find for our fair friends, whose good graces we shall endeavour it? We all experience this curiosity; philosophers them- | by all means to win—and an occasional chapter that shall selves are not exempted from it. Dr Adam Smith, the prove especially interesting to those of both sexes who are famous political economist, used to declare, that he felt yet in the spring-time of their days—our readers will thankful for the information that the author of Paradise have a tolerably accurate idea of the weekly meal we Lost wore latchets in his shoes instead of buckles; and mean to present to them. we have all heard a remark to the same effect about the We have only to add, that all politics shall be kept in fry neck of Catiline, the conspirator against the liberties abeyance. There may surely be some quiet spots in the of Rome. A mysterious interest, in fact, which we can- region of periodical literature which the storms of faction not bid away, attaches to everything about great men. shall not disturb, and where men of common candour We are eager to know all about them we can ; we feel and charity may meet without the asperities of party feelwe have a right to get this information, regarding the ing. As proof of our wish to adhere strictly to this pledge, lions of our race as a kind of common property. Bio- it may be enough to mention the fact, that among those graphy, then, meets this desire. Through this medium who feel interested in the prosperity of the INSTRUCTOR, we hear them converse, see them act, learn what their and who have had a hand in its projection, there are inpeculiar tastes were, what their daily habits; in what dividuals whose opinions on political questions widely style they lived, and what kind of persons they chose for differ. They are quite at one, however, as respects the their companions. We may thus really know more about object it is meant to promote—the increase of knowledge, them than had we been their cotemporaries, and lived virtue, and happiness.

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preme Council in Calcutta, under the East India ComPORTRAIT GALLERY.

pany's new charter. He returned to England in 1838. He is now one of the members for Edinburgh, having

been thrice chosen to that honour. T. B. MACAULA Y.

These are nearly all the public facts of his life that There is a charm, we confess, about the writings of we know. They are what may be called the husks of Thomas Babington Macaulay, which half-reconciles us his history; and as inadequate to enable our readers to to his opinions, even when these may happen to differ drink into the spirit of the man, as the running over our from our own.


pen has a kind of magic power over prospectus is to realize to them all the wells of literature us; to use a modern phrase, it magnetizes us. We feel and pleasant science that we shall open in our pages. Has somewhat as Pitt may be supposed to have felt, when, he not told the story of Hastings and Hampden as few after Sheridan's brilliant speech in a well-known case, other men could ? Has he not shadowed forth the spirit he declared the House of Commons to be incapable of of Milton and Johnson with that effect which only a coming to a cool and fair decision, and proposed an ad-man of similar mental calibre may do ? and, with the journment. We shall endeavour to steer clear of this ease of sport, though not the amiableness, has he not fascination, however, in presenting our readers with his shown himself a master of anatomy, when subjecting to literary portrait, taking care to give as correct and faith- the cool critical dissection of his scalpel the poet-laureates ful a likeness of him as possible. What, then, are we to of Satan and the Georges ? say about this chieftain of modern literature? His glories, The hobby which he loves to ride, and which he rides are they not illustrated in Hansard's Parliamentary De- the best, appears to be the philosophy of history, literary bates, the Edinburgh Review, and the Lays of Ancient and political; and in this character he has galloped Rome? Do not men of all shades of politics agree in over much of our country's annals, taking an occasional warm admiration of his literary powers: a sure sign that scamper over those of others. Nothing comes amiss to there is something good about him, and useful, and des- him, from Milton to Machiavelli, from the comic poets tined not to die. Still, we trust it wont be looked upon of Charles's reign to the civil disabilities of the Israelites. as presumption in us to do to him what he has done to He must have an honest manly heart to have preserved others-serve him up as a dainty dish to the public. We the purity of his taste, and the impartiality of his may do this without giving offence to any one, since we likings, and the healthful vigour of his pen, in the midst mean to eschew entirely that part of him that belongs of his versatile studies and varied pursuits. He can adto politics and party. His enemies, or sneering friends, mire what a gifted but eccentric cotemporary in the have, we are told, tried to fix upon him the title of world of letters would call a 'sincere man,' though, on • Tom the Lucky. There are some men on whom it questions of politics, he may widely differ from his own is impossible to make a nickname stick; and he who, at views. We like this aspect of his character, we confess; half the fourscore years that are measured out to man, and those who have been in the habit of reading his conhas risen to a front rank in the British legislature-to tributions to the Edinburgh Review, will admit the juswhom the public look, more than to any other man per- tice of our remark. haps, to put the characters of history in their places In considering what might be described as the chatacand who has sung the ballads of old Rome with such a teristics of Mr Macaulay, the first thought that strikes trumpet power-we should incline to think, must be one us is, that he is not so much marked for possessing one of them.

or two peculiar excellences, as for possessing a round Mr Macaulay is the son of Zacharias Macaulay, a rich number of them, and these well-balanced and admirably African merchant, and a friend of Wilberforce, who, proportioned. The fire of the early Roman is in him; though his interests lay the other way, was an ardent he is a master in logic; he has a memory for details that and sincere advocate for the abolition of, slavery in might delight an antiquary; a perception of the humourour colonies. His son, the subject of the present sketch, ous, subtle and thorough-going; a power of language studied, we believe, at Trinity College, Cambridge, and that would satisfy a scold : and, withal, his writings are distinguished himself there, having gained some of the pervaded and toned by a healthy moral power, which highest honours which the University can confer. He should render even his rivals and opponents willing to took his bachelor's degree in 1822, and obtained a fel- lend him a shoulder up to the pinnacles of literary glory. lowship at the October competition, open to graduates If some of them have special qualities as bright, few of Trinity. His stomach, it is understood, like the have them so well combined and in such extent. stomach of many a sensible nian, did not much lie to He is too much of a party man to be placed in the first mathematics. At the Union Debating Society, he gave order of characters or minds; but few party men surely carly indications of great power, realizing Words- haye, in their writings, manifested such ability to look at worth's well-known observation, the boy is father to history and her actors so fairly, so unbiassedly, so critithe man.' Mr Macaulay also studied at Lincoln's Inn, cally-preserving all the time their moral warmth, and and was called to the bar in 1826. In the same year courage, and decision. One characteristic of his historihis essay on Milton appeared in the Edinburgh Re- cal essays there is—arising, we suppose, from his wellview; he has been a pillar of it, and one of its chief balanced taste, and judgment, and imagination, and knowornaments, ever since. We confess, that when a friend ledge-power; and which partly pleases and partly dissatiswhispers to us, on the occasion of a fresh number being fies us—and that is, he is not an optimist in his views of published, that it contains one of Tom Macaulay's racy men and things. He seldom brings any other standard and sparkling articles, we feel impatient till we get a in his hand for testing men, than some one which they hold of it. And we will give him this our feeble praise, themselves, or those around them, acknowledge-the that we have rarely sat down to peruse his contributions moral code of history, or fashion, or Parliament; and without finishing them at a sitting, and rising, as we be- seems less anxious about men having a good footing in i lieved, wiser and happier, and with a more sincere admi- another world, or even in an improved state of mundane ration of the writer's literary powers. There may be society, than about having a fair and firm footing on the exceptions to this remark; we cannot, however, recall dark ball they are at present treading. 'An acre of them at present, and we have no wish. His political Middlesex,' as he somewhere says, when speaking of the career may be told in few words: By the Whig admi- practical nature of Bacon's philosophy, “is better than an nistration he was appointed one of the commissioners of estate in Utopia.' Not untrue, Mr Macaulay; and yet, bankrupts. He entered Parliament as member for Calne, without some genuine aspirations and efforts after what in the Reform Parliament of 1832. He sat again for the majority of mankind seem to deem utopian, we are Leeds in 1834 ; at which time he was secretary to the but poor pitiable creatures, and neither realize the naIndia Board. His seat was, however, soon resigned; for, ture of our being, nor the nobility of our origin, nor the in the same year, he was appointed member of the Su- | grandeur of our destiny, nor (what is more to the pur

pose, you will perhaps think) the blessedness of our with which Mr Macaulay describes the influence his per

acres of Middlesex. "No; to the man who cannot get sonal habits and poetry produced on a certain class of pera castle on the ground, or who cannot get one that will sons tempts us to indulge in another extract. Well do we keep out the weather, far be it from us to speak slight- remember the sickly sentimentalism, the burning brows, ingly, if he should build a few in the air; and our hearty the maddening brains, the sighings for an early grave, encouragements to him, if he shall try to raise one on the bitter denunciations of mankind, the countless some purer planet than our own. But the best sort of gloomy personages, in the style of the Giaour and the biography, or memoir, or notice of a man is to make Corsair, with which the productions of a host of poethim speak for himself (it is thus we may observe the asters were stocked, both before and after their great power and spirit of the man), and not merely exhibit model went to his account. We could scarcely tolerate him with the impertinence of showmen.

many of those things in Byron himself; and, in his puny The following sketch of a great poet, now in his grave, imitators, they were nauseating in the extreme. There or rather of the elements which shaped his character and was copying, even in the article of dress; so much so, destiny, is in Mr Macaulay's happiest vein. We are not that we cannot doubt that most of the poet's imitators in aware that the character of Byron has, by any writer, this point must have had repeated attacks of quinsey, as been more powerfully analyzed or more vividly drawn, the result of their servile imitation. Would that the than in the essay from which we quote, though many and poetry and character of Byron had produced no more able hands have tried it. The influence of Byron's hurtful influence, however! But we shall let Mr Macpoetry on modern society has been extensive-would we aulay speak what we mean :could add happy and there are few who do not feel an . Among that large class of young persons whose readinterest, strong and intense still, in this gifted son of ing is almost entirely confined to works of imagination, song, though it is now more than a score of years since the popularity of Lord Byron was unbounded. They the grave closed over him. We give the following extract, bought pictures of him; they treasured up the smallest though somewhat lengthy, as a specimen of Mr Macau- relics of him; they learned his poems by heart; and did lay's graphic power. Speaking of Byron, he says :- their best to write like him, and to look like him. Many

* The pretty fable by which the Duchess of Orleans of them practised at the glass, in the hope of catching illustrated the character of her son the Regent, might, the curl of the upper lip, and the scowl of the brow, with little change, be applied to Byron. All the fairies, which appear in some of his portraits. A few discarded save one, had been bidden to his cradle. All the gossips their neckcloths, in imitation of their great leader. For had been profuse of their gifts ; one had bestowed no- some years, the Minerva press sent forth no novel, withbility, another genius, a third beauty. The malignant out a mysterious, unhappy, Lara-like peer. The number elf who had been uninvited came last; and, unable to of hopeful under-graduates and medical students who reverse what her sisters had done for their favourite, became things of dark imaginings, on whom the freshbad mixed up a curse with every blessing. In the rank ness of the heart ceased to fall like dew, whose passions of Lord Byron, in his understanding, in his character, in had consumed themselves to dust, and to whom the rehis very person, there was a strange union of opposite lief of tears was denied, passes all calculation. This was extremes. He was born to all that men covet and ad- not the worst. There was created in the minds of many mire. But in every one of those eminent advantages of these enthusiasts a pernicious and absurd association which he possessed over others was mingled something between intellectual power and moral depravity. From of misery and debasement. He was sprung from a house, the poetry of Lord Byron they drew a system of ethics, ancient indeed and noble, but degraded and impoverished compounded of misanthropy and voluptuousness—a sysby a series of crimes and follies, which had attained a tem in which the two great commandments were, to hate scandalous publicity. The kinsman whom he succeeded your neighbour, and to love your neighbour's wife. This had died poor, and, but for merciful judges, would have affectation has passed away; and a few more years will died upon the gallows. The young peer had great in- destroy whatever yet remains of that magical potency tellectual powers ; yet there was an unsound part in his which once belonged to the name of Byron. To us he is mind. He had naturally a generous and feeling heart; still a man, young, noble, and unhappy. To our chilbut his temper was wayward and irritable. He had a dren he will be merely a writer; and their impartial head which statuaries loved to copy; and a foot, the de- judgment will appoint his place among writers, without formity of which the beggars in the streets mimicked. regard to his rank, or to his private history. That his Distinguished at once by the strength and by the weak- poetry will undergo a severe sifting-that much of what ness of his intellect-affectionate yet perverse—a poor has been admired by his cotemporaries will be rejected lord and a handsome cripple-he required, if ever man as worthless, we have little doubt. But we have as little required, the firmest and the most judicious training. doubt, that, after the closest scrutiny, there will still But, capriciously as nature had dealt with him, the remain much that can only perish with the English lanparent to whom the office of forming his character was guage.' intrusted was more capricious still. She passed from Mr Macaulay's personal appearance is prepossessing. paroxysms of rage to paroxysms of tenderness. At one He is about the middle size, and well formed. His eyes time she stifled him with caresses; at another she in- are of a deep blue, and have a very intelligent expressulted his deformity. He came into the world, and the sion; his complexion is dark; his face is rather inclined world treated him as his mother had treated him-some- to the oval form; and his features are small and regular. times with fondness, sometimes with cruelty, never with He does not speak often in the House of Commons, but justice; it indulged him without discrimination, and always to the purpose, and with effect-handling some punished him without discrimination. He was truly a great principle of the British constitution or of public spoiled child—not merely the spoiled child of his parent, expediency and justice. Hence, unlike those of many but the spoiled child of nature, the spoiled child of for- others, his speeches read well, and will stand a grave tune, the spoiled child of fame, the spoiled child of so- perusal long after the events that gave them birth have ciety. His first poems were received with a contempt been well nigh forgotten. His utterance is natural, which, feeble as they were, they did not absolutely de- rapid, and tumultuous-indicative of the flood of sentiserve. The poem which he published on his return from ment, and passion, and information, that runs below. his travels, was, on the other hand, extolled far above its Long may he live to adorn the

world of letters! and, in merit. At twenty-four he found himself on the highest his capacity as a legislator, may he not fail to profit by pinnacle of literary fame, with Scott, Wordsworth, those lessons-so familiar to his mind—which the past Southey, and a crowd of other distinguished writers teaches! Byron, we think, said of George Canning, that beneath his feet. There is scarcely an instance in his he was a universal genius—an orator, a poet, a wit, and tory of so sudden a rise to so dizzy an eminence.' a statesman. The same may be said, with some slight

So much for the character of Byron. The correctness modification, of Thomas Babington Macaulay!

in his history, and one which strikingly exhibits the geneBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

rosity of his disposition, whatever it may say for his pru

dence, that he married the woman who waited on him JOHN HOWARD.

during his illness, though she was twice his own age, and

of a very weakly constitution. There is some proverb to 'In prison and ye came unto me.'

the effect that a boy's first love is generally made to a The name of John Howard will not quickly fade from the woman as old again as himself. Whether Howard's first recollection of mankind. Men of all religious sects and wife was also his first love we have no means of ascerof all political parties now honour it. And posterity, to taining; such, at all events, was the disparity of years use Milton's words in reference to his great epic, will betwixt his partner and himself, a disparity not the most not willingly let it die.' To this man and his philanthro- favourable to connubial blessedness. The whole of the pic achievements, indeed, we may apply with truth and property which his wife had when he married her, he, with justice the sacred maxim— The righteous shall be in his wonted disinterestedness, settled upon her sister, so everlasting remembrance.' And surely it is not too much that whatever may be thought of the prudence of such a to add, that the respect in which he and kindred spirits union, he did not, on entering into it, sacrifice his feelings shall be held in time to come, and the terms in which and taste, as many do, for the gratification of their avathey shall be spoken of, will form a tolerably accurate rice. They passed three years together in unbroken hartest of the progress our race have made in wisdom and mony, when, in 1756, Mrs Howard died, and he once more virtue. The eulogy pronounced upon this famous philan- repaired to the Continent. The chief object he had in thropist by an American divine, now in the dust, no one

view when he left England was to see the ruins of Lisbon, aware of what he did in the service of suffering humanity which had recently been desolated by a tremendous earthwill think too fervid or too highly coloured. In search quake. In this, however, he was frustrated, the vessel of a specimen of the true sublime in the region of morals, in which he sailed having been captured, so that his second the pious Wayland found one we may believe quite to his visit to France was in the capacity of a war-prisoner. taste in the character and merciful exploits of John How- | This incident, regarded no doubt as a serious inconveard. The following is no every-day tribute; of how few nience by Howard at the time it happened, may be said to could half as much be said without stooping to play the have contained the germ of his future greatness. It was sycophant :- Surveying our world like a spirit of the the key note of his subsequent history. For to the priblessed, he beheld the misery of the captive, he heard the vations he then personally endured, and witnessed in the groaning of the prisoner. His determination was fixed. case of others, we are at liberty to ascribe the peculiar He resolved, single-handed, to gauge and to measure one form, or rather the precise direction, which his benevoform of unpitied, unheeded wretchedness; and bringing lence took. Our own sufferings teach us to sympathize it out to the sunshine of public observation, to work its with those of others. And hence it is that, as a general utter extermination. And he well knew what this under- rule, we reckon on receiving most compassion and prompttaking would cost him. He knew what he had to hazard est aid from those who have been exposed to dangers or from the infection of dungeons; to endure from the fa- have met with hardships similar to those we ourselves tigues of inhospitable travel ; and to brook from the inso- have been called to encounter. The toil-worn mechanic, lence of legalized oppression: Ile knew that he was de- whom commercial distress has reduced to the pitiable convoting himself upon the altar of philanthropy, and he dition thus described by our national poet :willingly devoted himself. He had marked out his des

"See yonder poor o'er-laboured sight, tiny, and he hastened forward to its accomplishment with

So abject, mean, and vile, an intensity which the nature of the human mind for

Who begs a brother of the earth

To give him leave to tvil :' bade to be more, and the character of the individual forhade to be less. Thus he commenced a new era in the this man will apply with far stronger hope of receiving history of benevolence. And hence the name of IIoward relief to one who he knows was once reduced to his will be associated with all that is sublime in mercy, till own hapless state, than to another who has all his days the final consummation of all things.'

been wealthy and independent. The bereaved mother 1 John Howard was an Englishman by birth. And well will rather unburden her heart to a woman who has seen may England be proud to claim as one of her sons a man the grave close over the child she loved, than to her whose whom the world delights to honour! He was born at family circle is yet unbroken. Our own disasters, we reLower Clapton, in the parish of Hackney, in the year 1727. peat, teach us to feel for others. We have a beautiful Here his father lived in retirement, freed from the din illustration of this in the present instance. Had the ship and bustle of the great metropolis, having, as a London in which John Howard set sail for Lisbon been allowed nierchant, earned a comfortable independence. When to reach its destination, that field of suffering which he taken from school, at which his education was rather ne- afterwards so successfully explored, might still have been glected, he was apprenticed to a Mr Newham, a whole- left neglected, and the fate of thousands of prisoners of sale grocer in the city of London. In this situation he every class, from his time to ours, been rendered far more continued for some time, but finding it by no means con- severe than what through his enterprising benevolence it genial to his tastes and feelings, on the death of his father, happily has been. Thanks to the enemy that captured when ample means were left at his command, he bar- that ship! may not Europe, ay the world, say? As soon gained with his master and got his engagement dissolved. as he was set at liberty he prepared a memorial, in which A story is told of hini about this period of his life pleas- he detailed the privations which he and others had eningly characteristic. When coming from the metropolis dured, and laid it before the proper authorities: To their to Clapton, he very often reached his destination about honour it should be told, the document was received with the time the baker's cart was passing his gate. On such courtesy and gratitude, and its immediate effect was to occasions he would purchase a loaf, throw it over the gar- mitigate in no small degree the rigorous treatment of den wall, and afterwards tell his gardener to look among war-prisoners. the cabbages, and he would find something for his fa- A few years after the death of his first wife, Howard mily.

married a second. The object of his second choice was He was now on the verge of manhood, and, actuated by the eldest daughter of a Sergeant Leeds of Croxton, Camthat enterprising and inquiring spirit which, when guided bridgeshire. This was every way a suitable alliance. He by love to his species, led afterwards to such important resided at this period on his estate at Cardington, in the results, he visited several countries of the Continent. On vicinity of Bedford. The second Mrs Howard was in all his return to England his health threatened to give way, i respects worthy of such a husband. She felt it her joy to and this circumstance, in connexion with his studious ha- co-operate with him in his benevolent labours; though inbits and his fondness for rural scenery, made him pre- dependent in circumstances, she was an industrious and fer a country to a city life. It is a singular incident frugal housewife; and we need not say that her excel



lence was fully appreciated by him whom she felt it both , land, and various countries on the Continent. The mass her duty and delight to please. They had not been long of valuable information he collected was immense, and, married when the delicate state of her health induced with his characteristic self-denial, he gave it to the pubMr Howard to purchase a house and small estate in the lic in works, the getting up of which involved an outlay New Forest, Hampshire, where the climate was more sa- for which he could never dream he would be refunded. lubrious than at Cardington, and where he fondly hoped And here it may be noticed, that all these, whether his the health of his amiable partner would quickly be re- earlier or later ones, were characterized by that coolness stored. Disappointed in this, they returned to Carding- and candour of tone, that perfect command of temper, ton, intending it should henceforth be their fixed place of which, coupled with the writer's unblemished fame and abode. Acting upon the wise maxim, charity begins at unsuspected purity of motive, gained for the statements home,' Mr Howard set on foot a number of benevolent they contained the respectful attention of all parties in projects for the good of his poor neighbours, and espe- the state. His various proposals to men in power met cially his own tenants. His charity was not only large but with that reception to which they were so well entitled ; well directed. He built a number of neat cottages on his and very soon after his return from his continental tour, estate, with a patch of garden to each. He established to which we have just alluded, he was gratified by Parliaschools, in which the youth of both sexes were educated ment passing an act for the establishment of houses of gratuitously. He gave with a liberal hard to the sick correction, in complete harmony with his own ideas. This and destitute around him, while various public charities token of approval from so high a quarter he felt increased found in him a zealous and efficient supporter. His own his obligation to pursue with vigour the path on which he domestic establishment, it need scarcely be added, was a had entered. Visit after visit was made to the Continent; model for regularity, decorum, and all the virtues that survey upon survey was taken of the prisons in Scotland, adorn a household. His solitary hours were devoted to Ireland, England, and Wales; appendix succeeded appenstudy;

and to the Royal Society, of which he was a mem- dix, presenting to the public the details of his inquiries, ber, he sent several valuable papers on scientific subjects. all involving an amount of toil and travel, pecuniary sacriThe picture we are sketching is one on which the mind fice, and personal privation, which it would be difficult to loves to linger. We are tempted by its beauty to ask estimate. In the course of these tours his benevolence whether Howard, pacing over Europe in quest of wretch- found a new field on which to expatiate, viz., the state of edness-penetrating the recesses of its dungeons, and hospitals. Their inspection involved his exposure to the there conversing with the roughest outcasts of humanity, most infectious and appalling diseases, yet nothing could presents a more fascinating object of contemplation than damp the ardour of his heroic zeal. He was a hero inHoward, as we now behold him, at the head of his patri- deed, in the highest sense, and the task he now underarchal establishment at Cardington, diffusing peace and took-the visitation of hospitals, with the especial purpose comfort on all within the sphere of his influence, and find- of devising means by which the progress of contagious dising his greatest happiness in communing with his God, and ease among their inmates might be siayed, demanded a doing good to his fellow-men? What a pattern he was now style of courage far higher than that of the man who setting before the rich! How valuable the lesson he was seeks the bubble reputation even at the cannon's mouth.' teaching mankind! How fair a comment the life he now He felt satisfied that an examination of the principal led on the Christianity he believed! Thus some few years lazarettos of Europe might throw considerable light upon rolled happily and usefully away, and we almost repine the subject, and suggest some valuable hints for preventat the event which crushed for a season his spirit, though ing the spread of disease, and especially that awful mait did not interrupt his labours of love. We refer to the lady the plague. In the latest edition of his work upon death of his partner, which happened about three years prisons, he suggested the propriety of such an examinaafter their union. She died after giving birth to a son, tion; but the hint not having been taken up by any one, Howard's only child, and, as the event proved, a source he resolved to act it out himself. He set out on this of deep grief to him in his declining years. He had fresh expedition towards the close of 1785, unaccompanied scarcely tasted the new delight of being a father, when his even by a servant, feeling that he had no right to expose beloved Henrietta was snatched from him. “So swift to the perils he was about to encounter any life save his trod sorrow on the heels of joy! Grief trains the spirit own. He took his way by the south of France, through for great things. The best and noblest of our race have Italy, to Malta, Zante, Smyrna, and Constantinople. His been reared in her school. John Howard was now sent inquiries into the state of disease in the prisons and to it, and learned there lessons, we may believe, of high inospitals of these and other cities, exposed him to perils, moment to him in after-life. But we must proceed with privation, and insulting treatment from parties in authohis history.

rity, that must have severely tried his benevolent and Several years after the death of his wife, he was ap- meek spirit. The following extracts from letters to pointed high-sheriff of the county of Bedford. Conscien- friends in England may give some idea of the scenes he tious in the discharge of all his duties, ardent in his dis- witnessed and the dangers he faced :position, and active in his habits, it could not be that such 'I am sorry to say some die of the plague about us ; à post would be regarded by him as a mere sinecure. one is just carried before my window. Yet I visit where Howard could not have been a sinecurist. His constitu- none of my conductors will accompany me. In some tion as well as his principles forbade. He could have felt hospitals as in lazarettos, and yesterday among the sick no joy in a life of inglorious ease; nor was any luxury slaves. I have a constant headach ; but, in about an sweeter to him than the luxury,' as the poet calls it, hour after, it always leaves me. Sir Robert Ainslie is of doing good.' Aware that there was much requiring very kind; but, for the above and other reasons, I could reform in the management of the jails and houses of cor- not lodge in his house. I am at a physician's, and keep rection throughout England, and resolved to obtain accu- some of my visits a secret.' rate knowledge on the subject, he visited every one of * At Smyrna the foreigners' houses are shut up; every them in person. The result of his observations he com- thing they receive is funigated, and their provisions pass municated to the House of Commons, for which he re- through water; but in Constantinople, where many of ceived a unanimous vote of thanks. It was mainly owing the natives drop down dead, the houses of foreigners are to the testimony furnished by him on this occasion that still kept open. I conversed with an Italian merchant two bills were passed by that house at the time, one of on Thursday, and had observed to a gentleman how them making provision for more attention being paid to sprightly he was; he replied, he had a fine trade, and the health of those who were imprisoned. Now fairly was in the prime of life; but, alas! on Saturday he died entered on a career, in pursuing which he felt he might and was buried, having every sign of the plague.' be the humble instrument of benefiting a portion of his 'I came hither [to Salonica] on Saturday in a Greek fellow-creatures hitherto too much shut out sympathy boat full of passengers, one of whom ing taken ill he and care, he extended his observations to Scotland, Ire- I was brought to me, as I always pass for a physician. I

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