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only think what have been the consequences of a ments; we give them food, clothing, ground, inwar, that precipitated into death and oblivion the struction, morals, religion. Humanity cries out, better part of two generations, through nearly the “O tell them they are men !” and we hear her. whole of Europe. It has reduced to poverty ten Is she silent for the Greeks ? have their voices ao millions of ourselves : it has consigned to slavery echo in her breast ? do we treat them cruelly besixty millions, partly of our neighbours, partly of cause they have not the advantage of being barour allies : it has enabled the French ministers to barous? do we spurn them because they cling to recall the Jesuits, the Spanish to restore the In- us? is it because they trust only in us, that we quisition, the English to appoint their colleagues reject and repulse them, them only of all manand successors : it has abolished republics and kind ? republicanism : it has cast the dregs of democracy Odysseus. The ships of Ismael Bey repass the on and over the loftiest thrones, constitutional Mediterranean and Archipelago, laden with the and monarchal : it has multiplied and widened sons and daughters of a half-extinguished race; ! the cracks and crevices of the church : it has half-extinguished under our eyes. Their terrors sustained and sanctified the mosk : it has pro- are not at death ; their tears are not for captivity; scribed the traffic of those who dealt in Africans : their loss, though their country is Greece, is not it has legitimated the practices of such as carry of country. God alone can avenge it: God alone off the Greeks: indulgent to the gambler, gene- must hear it. Something may surely be done to rous to the robber, honorific to the poisoner and alleviate the sufferings of the few survivors, wanassassin, indifferent to the improver of his coun- dering among naked rocks, or lifting up their try, inimical to the enlightener, and rancorous to heads from the rushes in the pestilential marsh the defender.
They require of you no land to cultivate, no sus Do I think it little, you may ask me, to have tenance, no raiment: they implore of you permisabolished the slave-trade? Do I speak heedlessly sion to live under the safeguard of laws, and to of the blacks? No. Much would it have been if partake with the most ignorant and ferocious this accursed trade were really abolished: if we tribes, with murderers and cannibals, a spare had united with America to treat as pirates all moment of your attention and concern. concerned in it, French or Portuguese. We with- Surely, surely this is not too much; if you condraw from the redress of wrongs, we enforce no sider that the finest eloquence ever heard in your stipulation of treaties, we act dastardly with Parliament was admirable only in proportion as it every despot, and perfidiously with every people. resembled the eloquence of our ancestors; and Nothing can suffer from aggression without pain- that gods were bowed down to and worshipped. ing me when I know it : but other nations do not by the wisest and most powerful nations, for being interest me like the Greeks, to whom I owe every in form and dignity like them. exalted, every generous, every just sentiment. I His Imperial Majesty was taught from his never can be induced to imagine, that the extinc- youth upward to contemplate the glories of antition of all the tribes in Africa, and all in Asia, quity, nearly all of which are crowded in one with half of the dwellers in Europe, would be so people ; has he never felt that there is something lamentable as the destruction of Missolonghi, or more and better than ambition? Has he never even as the death of Bozzaris. Animal life in thought that he may now enjoy by uniting, as his itse little: animal life, however, is nearly all people calls upon him to do, the scattered members that belongs to the greater part of mankind, unless of the Greek nation and the Greek church? If not, some glorious recollection, some mighty aim and yet no king or emperor on earth has the right or intent, shall raise them above the level of trodden the power to hinder your co-operation with us; no and trite humanity. No such feeling can belong people has the wish; excepting that which at this to the generality of nations. England and Swe- instant is leading thousands into slavery, thouden, always contending against greater numbers, sands of women and children, from famished and almost always signally victorious, may be cities, from the cinders of villages, from defiled justly proud of military glory; Italy of the arts : altars ; thousands who cry in the agony of despair, but which of them in either has outrivalled “() God! is there none to save us!” Greece ? Her old heroic age was less heroic than No monarch could ever by any exertion render the present : grant her another, and your children so great a service to humanity as the emperor can may see a Phidias and a Sophocles.
without an effort. The effervescence and disconShould I have wronged our ministers in doubt- tent of his subjects would subside at one word. ing their sincerity, and in underrating their ex- And what word? Not enslave, not depopulatt, ertions to suppress the slave-trade, let me retract not conquer : but a voice that would be heard or soften the expression : let me say, if truth will with transport from every quarter of the world : bear it, we are zealous in protecting from slavery a voice indeed of glad tidings: "Save ! save!" the remotest nations of Africa, who have always It depends on his determination, which nothing for thousands of years been subject to that visita- in the universe should set aside or shake or alter tion, and who never have expected, or even heard or delay, whether he will be the most glorious, the tidings of, our generous interference. We take most potent, the most beloved, the most secure of them away by righteous force from under the princes, or whether he will pass his anxious days proudest flag; we convey them to our own settle among suspicions and murmurs and seditions and
treasons; whether he will suffer those who have head ? upon what parental breast can hers repose, prayed with him and for him, to bend under lust O blessed avenger of insulted Freedom? And thou, and cruelty, to be driven from their country, to Quiroga! where is the region of thy wanderings? expire in tortures, and to leave a progeny, not of Must thou ponder and pore over the vestiges of Greeks in religion, name, or habitation, to fight gratitude in lands across the Atlantic? Shall not in future wars against him, and to burn the re- Spaniards bear toward thee eternally the love and mainder of the churches to which their mothers veneration that the rudest once of Columbian bore them as the last refuge.
tribes bear still toward their father Vasco ?* In Let one voice more inform him then, the voice the islet of Pascuaro rest his bones ; art thou of England, that any prince in Europe would be among those who weep over them? Envying his abandoned by his subjects, military and civil, who repose, art thou doubtful of participating his should venture to draw the sword against him, glory? Such are the first names for children to while his is protecting Greece.
gather up, the last for men to drop into oblivion. If the appeal be ineffectual, let us believe that Despots are now the revolutionists, and the Providence will bring about by means of folly learned and liberal are become more than ever and perversity, what wisdom and rectitude were their aversion and scorn. The present race of not permitted to accomplish.
princes, throughout the continent of Europe, are Trelawny. The world is shaken off its axis, and the most ignorant and gross barbarians that have the highest nations are gasping for existence, appeared contemporaneously since the revival of crushed by the superincumbence of the lowest. letters. If the sufferings of others are any alleviation to Odysseus. Nevertheless the autocrat of Russia, yours, turn toward them. Undoubtedly Greece if he continued to be master of the Ionian Islands, hath suffered much, Odysseus ! but sufferings are would from policy found a college in them, at never extreme while there remains a conscious- which the youth of Greece should receive on easy ness of power to resist. Spain has lost it. Every terms the instruction necessary for the learned man in Spain who has laid before his fellow- professions. At present they study chiefly at citizens the riper and richer fruits of education, Pisa, and are under no obligation to any power every man who has made a sacrifice to the public that can protect them. The French are solicitous good, is marked out for priestly and for royal | to draw them to Paris; with what intentions we vengeance. Fewer families in the same period may easily conceive. Nearly all of them are were reduced to misery in France by the tyranny favourable to France, and averse to England : a of Robespierre, than in Spain by the aggression bias which might have been reversed. of Louis. Restoring his relative to despotic power, Trelawny. We fancy that everything is to be he might at least have stipulated against his done by money and force; and we use no other inordinate and wanton love of bloodshed, and means. Much indeed may be effected by them : have placed some barrier, some boundary, some but the same means must continue in exercise, or imaginary line at least and visible horizon, to the the effect ceases : while means less expensive are insensate fury of his bigotry and revenge. It is equally efficacious and more durable. known that upward of one hundred and seventy On my way hither I visited the Ionian Univerthousand persons have been imprisoned, driven sity, projected, founded, and principally endowed, from their houses, placed under the power of the by the most public-spirited and the most literary police, or deprived of their occupations and liveli- of our nobility. He was unseconded by the hood, since the departure of Ferdinand from ministry, and thwarted by the governor of the Cadiz. So much of wretchedness hath never been islands. His lodgings were less habitable than occasioned by any one man within so short a time, would be furnished to a journeyman tailor for to so many of the brave, the industrious, and the eighteen pence a week, at the worst alehouse of virtuous. The nineteenth century is now thrown any country town in England. I will venture to back upon the sixteenth.
assert that every county-jail furnishes a fraudulent Odysseus. By the help of England !
debtor with more convenient accommodation than Trelawny. Where there is the same oppression, the English ministry, in the prodigality of its there will be the same resistance : where there is grants, allowed to the Chancellor of the Ionian the same cruelty, there will be exerted the same University. And this was not the treatment of a energy to extinguish it.
single year; although a single one occupies no Deplorable! that Virtue must assume the atti: undefinable or scanty space in a life too far on its tude of Despair; that bad actions must remove wane, a life of energy and of study. At the same bad men ; that Justice must use in her defence time enormous sums were voted for the barracks the weapon she hath wrested from the criminal. and government-house. So preferable are guards
Odysseus. Shall Spain abjure her first friends ? to friends! so greatly more important and necesher earliest defenders? Never be it said of her: sary are soldiers than citizens, force than hunever may she lose our sympathies.
manity, subjection than improvement ! Trelawny. But where art thou, Riego! abandon- Do not hope for any aid or intervention from ing, to preserve the honour of thy country, the most the ministers of kings. They abandon you from beloved and tender of women, in the first hour of * Vasco de Quiroga, first bishop of Michuacan, was justly union. Upon what mountain-crag rests thy devoted called so.
the first moment they sit comfortably in their | After a war undertaken not for power but prin. places. Chateaubriand, who wrote The Spirit ciples, so we are told it was, no sooner are the of Christianity, and chatters about freedom, no Spaniards become an independent and free people, sooner was admitted to office, than he demanded than the envoy of the King of England aids the the punishment of death on the publishers of King of Spain to break his oath with them; and sedition : by which term all ministers mean the they look down together from the royal palace, exposure of their abuses or their incapacity. When with equal complacency, on the murder and people suffer most they complain loudest; and banishment of how much better men. With the same hand that has made them suffer most, Bonaparte, when every government and every will punish most severely their complaints. The chance was against us, we contended year after clearer the truth is, the more partisans will it year, that the power of the French might not collect; and the more partisans it collects, the prevail in Spain. Yet the laws and institutions more dangerous must it be to the proprietors of they introduced were calculated to reform and power. Chateaubriand will never be seditious civilise a generous and aspiring, but a degraded against any exercise of tyranny but that which and ferocious people. We destroy the usurpation excludes him from the participation of it; and of Napoleon ; we restore a Bourbon ; we promise although he may go far enough to get whipped, a free constitution. Everything is in our power: he will lift up one ear and scurry off when the what is it we do? We allow a beaten enemy to bloodhound takes the turn of the beagle. He supplant us: we allow a Bourbon to exert an 10throws into his Spirit of Christianity the spirits thority which a Bonaparte did not arrogate or he secreted from the hall of the jacobins : they attempt. We give up Spain to France : we give were too strong for the baptisers at Nantes and up those who had fought bravely at our sides, to the regenerators at Lyons.
imprisonment and exile, to tortures and death! Chateaubriand is called the most liberal of the We permit our commerce to be excluded, our French privy councillors, and Canning of the merchants to be pillaged, our capitalists to be de English. Yet, when Chateaubriand was in power, frauded, and our allies, or rather our ally, for we we found the African slave-trade in full vigour have only one left in the universe, to be invaded under his protection, as we find the European by the arms of Spain under the eyes and under under Canning's. Who would have believed that the flag of France. Are the Bourbons then a England should permit the Egyptians to carry on preferable race to the Bonapartes, that we should the slave-trade against Greece, and should remon- be so tolerant, so long-suffering, so supine? Are strate with Portugal and France for carrying on they more honourable, more just, more wise, more theirs against Guinea ! There is no earnestness, conciliatory? They reign : we have strapped and no sincerity, no truth whatever, in this remon- cross-barred them in their thrones, and must not strance. We know that our minister must tickle all ask questions about them : let us ask then a few the humours of his master; and that none was ever about the dynasty that is passed. Were the readier to do it, with every joint of every finger. Bonapartes the most slothful, were the Bona: If any proof were wanting of the man's duplicity, partes the most bigoted, were the Bonapartes after his conduct toward Lord Castlereagh, and the most unprincipled, the most ungrateful of indeed toward every one with whom he ever mankind? Were they persecutors, were they peracted, we might adduce his countenance of that jurers, were they parricidal ? A'Court who betrayed the Neapolitans, by further- Odysseus. Do not wait for an answer from me. ing a secret correspondence between the king and I wish we had them again at the head of nations, his son, and who was the main instrument in with less power and more experience. Kings undermining the Spanish constitution. Wherever taught to walk by priests and to ride by plan he is sent or maintained, it is for some such pur- derers, will wantonly lay waste all the cultivation pose as at Madrid and Naples. Be assured that, that lies before them: and since there are no if the English government should pretend to others, we will try to keep them out of Greece. espouse your cause, it will be only to relax your where a robber the more or the less is no grare efforts, to unman your navy, and to deliver you matter. And indeed there is a likelihood of abore up to worse servitude than the past.
one the more and above one the worse where this Odysseus. Your minister did revive our hopes fur is hung out to cover them. by his speeches.
We have heard occasionally fine things read to Trelawny. He would be an imitator of Chateau- us from newspapers about the person thou hast briand; but he has not a tithe of the Frenchman's been describing. abilities, as a writer or a politician. The English Trelawny. Part of our money goes to pay the nation was never so abased in the eyes of Europe, people who mislead us, and another part to pay as when this adventurer, for the sake of support those who enable them to do it, by newspapers, from abroad, sat down quietly and silently at his reviews, and magazines. post, and saw the French army pass the Pyrenees. Odysseus. Has the sun hurt thy head, Trelawny! The French were not recently vanquished, were Trelawny. Not at all : why do you ask me! not bound hand and foot in their metropolis, Odysseus. I feared it. Thon saidst, "by neve when England in the reign of Louis the Fourteenth papers, reviews, and magazines.” What, in the made war against them to break a family alliance. name of God, have military evolutions and stores in common with political writers? Why dost, diers and robbers and (what are worse than the thou laugh, my son ?
one, and no better than the other) merchants. I Trelawny. We never should laugh at a mistake; have lived among those who, although not the and yet it is almost the only thing we do laugh most virtuous of the Turks, are much superior in at. Faith! the reviews and magazines I was gravity and decorousness of deportment to the speaking of, have nearly as little to do with litera- principal men in Russia or Austria, in Italy or ture as with war. They are printed sheets, pre- France. Wary and unconfiding, they behave tending to give an account of new publications : toward all with the winning courtesy of pliant the writers of them are paid to traduce the cha- grandeur. Never does a word escape them within racter and vilify the productions of those who the possibility of offending. To those who by think differently from their employers. They are their services have merited their favour, they are likewise the eulogists of the ministry or the oppo- the most grateful and the most generous of mansition, and are among us what the Albanians are kind. These are their virtues. We already know among you ; faithful and trusty while you pay too well their vices; of which in our eyes the most them well, but ready at any hour to go over to grievous and intolerable, is, the desire of holding your enemy, and to be as trusty and faithful to us in subjection. So long as this is unquenched him, if he will pay them better.
in them, we are their enemies : but if justice or Odysseus. Ho! these I find are the public criers exhaustion should subdue it, rather would I conwho extol your minister for his liberality and fide in them as allies and friends than in any other wisdom. What can we Greeks expect from him ! nation under heaven. promises, delays, deception, destitution !
Trelawny. Let us try whether we can not Trelawny. Let those uphold the cabinet con- bring about, by force of arms, this desirable conspirator who have places or promises or expecta- summation. tions; but let them obtain no more credit for I have little respect for the autocrat of Russia ; their rectitude, than when they swear to you they little regard or commiseration for his hordes of believe he expended fourteen thousand pounds at slaves; and I confess that I regret none of his conLisbon, for three months' board and lodging. quests, excepting Finland. The others are hap
Odysseus. I do not understand how this can be. pier than they were before, and will render more Trelawny. Nor does any man. However, the service to freedom and humanity, than they could House of Commons, at that time composed in have done without a temporary subjugation. If great part of stockjobbers, contractors, commis- Alexander does not succour you, there are two sioners, together with some six-fingered patriots, reasons : first, the secret-service-money given by who have since robbed the poor Greeks through England, France, and Austria, to his mistresses their rags, instituted no inquiry into the impudent and confidants; secondly, what naturally flows and incredible declaration, that, although he had from it, the allurements of pleasure that have received fourteen thousand pounds of the public lately been thrown into his way by them, in order money, he had spent somewhat of his own beside. to counteract the impressions of policy, to stifle The wonder is, nobody had the spirit to propose the voice of conscience, to efface the last vestige that so disinterested a patriot should at least be of honour, and to deaden any fibre in his breast indemnified by the nation, for the few remaining that may respond to the throbbings of his country. thousands he had generously disbursed in her ser- Odysseus. If, as thou seemedst to say, the emvice. He accepted the office from Castlereagh, pire of the Czars being already incompact and vast, whom he had attempted by clandestine means to a little more added to the extremity of this enorprove unworthy of the king's confidence, and mous lever would render it so cumbrous that no Castlereagh was rejoiced to cover him with con- human arm could support it, policy would not urge tempt by acceding to his solicitation.
the Autocrat to extend his dominions any farther. Odysseus. I care little what your public men Trelawny. It surely is a rational and just desire, are doing one against another: but it concerns and countenanced by the soundest policy, to annex me nearly if they quail at Russia.
whatever is within the Greek communion, with the Trelawny. If they apprehend any danger from sole exception of the land of Greece, which is too her, they should connive at the accumulation of far off, and would be too restless, too vulnerable, her territory. She is weakened by every people and greatly more serviceable and much less invi. she enslaves, because the extremities are weightier dious as an ally. Nothing can exceed the levity and than the centre. Europe, far from being threatened impudence of French politicians, who reprehend by her with future irruption of barbarians, is pre- and condemn this imaginary project, while their served from it. She will civilise her tribes; she court interferes in behalf of the Catholic Greeks, can not amalgamate nor unite them. Were she and presumes even to threaten the majority of mistress of Turkey, she would soon lose Poland : the nation, if these are compelled to perform the and the Turks, being a nobler and more dignified duties of citizens. While they were compelled by race than the Muscovites, would, under Muscovite Turkey to perform the offices of slaves, no threat discipline, expel them.
was heard, no complaint. Russia, having a right Tersitza. O those horrid creatures ! what makes by treaty to interfere in behalf of her communion, them noble ? what makes them dignified ? exhibits more discretion and moderation. She
Odysseus. Tersitza! we see few, excepting sol- | appears to have read in the astrological section of
her almanack, compiled in London and revised | when I am found unworthy of fighting at your in Paris, that conquest will ruin her, and she side, or unable to execute the most arduous of shrinks back in vacancy with her sword un- your commands. sheathed.
Odysseus. Of ability and of zeal thou hast given Odysseus. Luxury is more likely to enfeeble me many proofs. The memory of thy courage and her; for, barbarous as she is, she is no less dis- of thy friendship lies deep within my heart; but solute.
without witnesses, without reward : for those who Trelawny. I believe it was never contradicted have fought with me may die with 'me before nor doubted, that every great empire has decayed another year; and England, in the prodigality of through luxury : this theory I suspect to be un- her honours, hath none in reserve for the chamfounded. Luxury, if confined to few, can do pions of Greece. little mischief to the people at large, particularly Beside . . I am slow to mention it in thy pre where the population lies scattered ; if general, sence .. English officers are accustomed to some there can be no better proof of the state's flourish. conveniences. ing condition; no surer exposition of its tute- Trelawny. I am no longer one of them. Lieutelary laws. It is only when great interests clash, nants and ensigns all expect to find here, on the only when great properties are torn away and morning of their arrival, a new colonel's uniform insulated from the mass, only when one portion of hanging over the back of the sofa, with a pair of ! the citizens has something to compensate it for shining boots on the carpet in the centre of it, the loss of country, and the other can sustain no reflecting their equally smooth countenances. loss whatever, that nations are enslaved and Odysseus. We have nothing of this : we have ruined.
only reeds and rushes; for they grow in moist We must regulate the index of luxury by the places, where the enemy can not burn them: and places we are in, and calculate its effects by what when we lay down our bodies on the field, we it acts on. The Babylonians, the Persians, the press a couch strown over with such spoils as they Macedonians, the Tartars, were ruined by their perhaps would not go into battle for, but the best conquests. Rome was not subdued on the trichli- in my opinion that any one can win .. sound sleep nia of Apicius or Petronius. Her citizens fell from sound consciences, and, more refreshing away and yielded to the enemy, when no common than soundest sleep, dreams of victory from hard bond of interest held them together; when they fighting. possessed large estates in the provinces, and their Do not fancy me ungrateful or invidious : it is money was put out to interest in them. By true, I expected more from the reputation of Eng. degrees the chief property of the Roman senators land for public spirit and enlightened counsels. and gentleman lay out of Italy ; which country Trelawny. We were dealers and chapmen when therefore was deserted by the Genius of Agricul- we were at the best: we are now gamblers and ture. Innumerable slaves were employed about sharpers: purse-bearers to Ali-Pasha, purveyors to their villas and gardens, while their tables were Ibrahim-Bey, slave-importers and pandars to Turk, supplied from Syria, Pamphylia, Egypt, and Algerine, and Egyptian. Even those who press Numidia. They were never so respectable, never forward to offer you their gold, filch from you so formidable, as when they spent many months while they offer it; and you will find among these of the year on their patrimonial estates; small liberal men more roguery and robbery than among ones, and thence near enough one to another both the vilest slaves of the harem. The spirit of spe for conviviality and for checks.
culation possesses them ; of all spirits the most A man is not the weaker in mind or body for unclean, and the last to be exorcised. eating a turbot in preference to a roach, or a pea- Odysseus. When I hear an Englishman speak cock in preference to a raven : in his social state thus of his country, I am only the more inclined he is the weaker, and deplorably indeed, when his to believe in his ardent love for her. He rememinterests and affections lie beyond his country, bers what she has been, he feels what she ought to which soon pines away at his indifference. be, he anticipates what she may be, and he mis
Odysscus. Now, Trelawny, turn thy attention a represents what she is. Such is the effect of little to thyself.
passion, which has been the purest and tenderest Thou camest hither with an ardent and intense on torn and ulcerated hearts : indifference is free desire of doing good : activity is requisite to thee. from it. Be thou, 0 Trelawny! what the insenWhile the goats are being milked, and such other sible can be without an effort, the generous on refreshments are preparing for us as the place some occasions not .. be just. affords, let me again exhort thee to consider well, Tersitza. Do I disturb you grave men by coming I do not say the danger of remaining with me (for back so soon to you? Brother, I know you choose that would only fix thee), but the probability of milk : drink this while it is warm and froths. It long inaction. I know my enemies : I am aware hums and buzzes as if there were flies upon it; of their machinations : I shall defeat them in my but there are none in the cavern ; so you may take own manner, at my own season.
a large draught freely. Trelawny. He by whose courage and conduct You, being an Englishman, will prefer wine : more Turks have fallen than by any other chief- here is some, very sweet. tain's, may defy them still. Dismiss me, Odysseus, i Trelawny. If Tersitza has proved it.