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1816.] Mr. Sharp on Experiments with Bottles sunk in the Ocean.

380

tres, and the whole with planetary or revolutionists: ran into the other ex der royolye round the general centre of treme. the national interest and the govern- Stulti dum vitia vitant, in contraria currunt. ment. In this place you hear of none of The scum of society was now to have, those numerous meetings daily called an essential participation in the governtogether in England, for the purpose of ment. This is also gone by, and it' it has the speculative advantage of the indivi- left & visible effect on the manners of duals so convened, in the first instance, the inferior classes of the people here." but ultimately for the benefit of the na among whom there are many who would tion, much less of meetings of such indi- have rudeness pass for liberty, the Revoviduals who are linked together by some lution cannot be said, on the othe: trand, political sentiment, by attachment to not to have introduced any good change some public character, or even by the whatever. It cannot but be consoling endearing recollection of early con to every friend of the human species to nexions formed at some public institu- observe the dawn of a better state of tion for the education of youth. Public things in France. The trial by jury may spirit is the blood that should pervade be considered as the first school where the arteries and veins of a free constitu- the young Frenchman is called upon by tion; it is of slow creation ; it was so in his country to exercise a most important Eogland, and if it cannot be ultimately function, on which the property, way, the furnished by the French nation, they life of his fellow creature depends. I must return to their former absolute mo have witnessed this noble function exer., narchy.

cised here at Paris to my greatest satisAmong the governments more or less faction; it was on occasion of the trial absolute upon the continent, the best of a woman charged with having droined treat their subjects as children who are her own sister. The ability of the judge not supposed either to have a right or a in summing up the evidence, pointing capacity to meddle with matters of go- out the interest which the prisoner could vernment. These subjects are early have in committing the crime, the bear:: taught this lesson, and are made to con- ing, the defect, and strengtb of the eviteniplate with distant awe and surprise dence brought for and against the prithe wonderful operations of their govern- soner, the talents of the attorney-general ment, who without ceremony take the in opening the prosecution, and of the money of the subjects out of their pock- counsel for the prisoner, together with ets, without deigning to give them any the decorum observed by a multitude of account of its application. Such blind spectators during the trial, left nothing submission tends to repress if not to ex to be wished for. When the jury with tinguish the noblest of human feelings,. drew to consider of the verdict, the awful -self-respect, the only shield against suspense in which the prisoner was placed the templation to baser crimes, where impressed on my mind a serious feeling; secresy promises iinpunity. These go but a group of French ladies, admitted vernments, by drawing so narrow a cir- into the inner court like myself, tell imcle round the few individuals who share mediately into a lively chat, as between in it, to the exclusion of the talents and the acts of a play. Another institution, knowledge of a great part of the nation, to which the Revolution has given rise, is not only deprive themselves of the aid of the assenzbly of the grand-uational counthese auxiliaries, but render themselves cils, whose discussions .sf the most imincapable of acquiring a true knowledge portant measures will afford to the young of those whom they govern, and of man- Frenchman an opportunity to exercise kind in general, as may be easily per- and improve his judgment, and will ceived by any man of observation on en- recal him from the pursuits of egotism tering a circle of continental diplomatists and frivolity to employ his talents, stimu-, belonging to such governments. Under lated by an honorable emulation for the the French government before the Revo- benefit of his country. Jution nothing seemed to be respected

(To be continued.) but nobility, titled courtiers, and priests, or soldiers. How, in such a state, could MR. EDITOR, the most useful classes of society rise in IN your Magazine for this months, I the estimation of others and of them see a letter fromn-W. M. RETLAS, reselves? The Revolution overturned this questing to be informed if any * your system; but being begun in violence scientific correspondems can give any, and ignorance of the true nature of go- or what, satisfactoryconclusions respecte vernment upon principles of liberty, the ing the experiments of the Rev. Dr.

390 Experiments with Corked Bottles sunk in the Ocear. (June 1, Campbell in sinking a bottle in the ocean. water. Iertied the bouile, corked it I have frequently tried it on board of again as light as possible, and tied over inen-of-was many years ago, and found the cask a piece of leather; I also cuta that, at fifty fathoms deep hy the lead notct in the cork, and sunk it as before fine, the cork, though well secured, was to the same depth. The bulle came up driven into the bottle, which was full of full: in the leaiher covering of the cork water when brought up by the line. I was a hole, as if made with the point of have tried it with twine tied across the a knife or some starp instrument, and bottom of the cork and round t'e' neck the cork bad been turned, so that the of the bottle, at the same depin: it came small end was us permost, and the voteh op full of water, with the cork cut in was inside the bottle: by which it was two by the force of the water upon the evidently demonstrated, that the pres twine, and the twine cut also. I tried it sure of the water had not only forced in another time afterwards, at nearly the the cork in both instances, Lut in the same depth, with a piece of a leather lulier had burst a hole in the leather glove over the cork, and secured with also; and the expansion of the water twine round the neck of the bottle, and had operated so as firmly to cork the the neck only, with the cork and twine, bottle in its ascent to the surface in both came up with the live.--I have no idea instances. The botile being again empof the possibility of the salt water pene- tied, I corked it, and cut the cork vi trating the pores of glass; but conceive snooth, and bound a halspenny over it that the weight of the water at that with leacier; I then sunk it to the same depth, if it does not force the cork in, depth (100 or 120 fathoms) and it came and fill the bottle, will force in the up empty, nothing seeming to be dissides with its pressure.--My experiments placed or operated upon by the preswere made in the Atlantic, near the sure. was preparing to try the expebanks of Newfoundland, in the month of riment with a line equal to 200 fachoms June, 1775.

W. SHARP. in length, wben a breeze of wind sprung April 26, 1816.

up, and prevented that or any further

experiinent; and though I have since MR. EDITOR,

three times crossed the Atlantic Ocean, I BEG leave to add a few facts to the I have never had an opportunity of re extracts inade by your correspondent peating them. Merchant vessels selW.M. Rerlas in your publication for dom like to lose time in such inquiries, April, p. 212) froin the Rev. Mr. Camp- and it is only in a calm that passengers bell's Journey through South Africa, have the opportunity of amusing themwhereby it will appear that water enters selves: but vessels sent out for the purinto bottles sunk to certain depths in pose of discoveries, might devote a day the ocean, by the mouth only, and not to experiments of this kind, the result of otherwise.

which would he interesting. It is diffe The time since the experiments were cult to make the experiments, except in made is such as to etface from my me- a calm, and even then in such dcep wa. mory the cause that gave rise to them: ter the swell of the sea is great, and no doubt many such have been made at there is considerable difficulty in getting different times and by different persons, a bottle down so deep as one hundred but none have met my eye till those in and twenty fathoms before the ship bas your publication for this month. The considerably shifted her place. The facts which come within my knowledge candid reader will admit that the water are as follow:

can enter only by the mouth of the botOn a voyage from Jamaica, in Novem- tle, and that by forcing in the obstrucber, 1787, in his Majesty's packet the tion. How far a much greater depth Duke of Cumberland, of which ove St. might crush in the sides of the boile, Aubyn was commander for that royage, or force in a piece of metal at the mouth, being becalued off the west end of St. must be left to future experiments. Those Domingo, I corked a common empty here described being made by a youth quart bottle in a secure manner, and in search of aniusement, much accuracy sunk it with the common sea-lead to the cannot be expected, but though inade depth of fifty fathoms. On drawing it thirty years ago, and the circuinstances up, there was no alteration observable. not noted at the time, the general que I sunk it again with the deep sea-lead to line is as firmly fixed in my mind as if 100 or 120 fathoms, and, to my great the experiment had been made but, as surprise, the bottle came up full, and many days.

WL. corked as firmly as when put inlo the Hackney, April 17, 1816.

17, 1816

TOUS.

T.

1816.] Case of the High Bailiff of Westminster.

391 MR. EDITOR,

action. Thus a further expense of 5251. FROM

your

local situation in the city was incurred. of Westminster, you will probably feel The preceding allegations were also disposed to give that publicity, which substantiated before another commictee your widely-diffused miscellany affords, of the Jiouse, who, by their report dated to the following statement of the claims SOch June, 1813, having distinctly noof a meriiorious officer of that city to be ticed the two separate grounds on which Teimbursed by Parliament for losses sus the two distinct claims of the trigh bailiff tained in the service of the public. There stood, namely, the 1,5691. 10s. Id. inis every expectation that the appeal will curred previous to the passing the act, be successful; for, with all our just rage and the 5252. incurred subsequent therefor economy, we are abundantly rich to to, were pleased to recomend both of be jast, though far too poor to be gene- them to the favourable consideration of

Parliament.

In 1814 an election took place under A Statement of the Facts on which the very peculiar circumstances of absence

High Bailiff of Westminster founds of the person proposed, and leaving the his Claim on the Justice and Liberality high bailiff absolutely without redress as of Parliament.

to the expenses incurred. This occaIn the year 1806 Mr. Morris pur

sioned an additional expense of 300l. chased the situation of high bailiff, up

The reports of the committees before to which time the expenses of elections alluded to satisfactorily establish the new having been invariably defrayed by the cessity imposed upon the bigh bailiff of candidates, the price given was of course erecting hustings and employing pollwithout reference to an unexpected, and clerks; and bis effiorts for conducting At that time unadmitted, liability to those the elections at the least possible expense, expenses on the part of the returning considering the peculiar circumstanees officer. In November 1806 and May 1807 in which Westminster is placed, involvtwo severely-contested elections took ing no precedent for other boroughs, and place, cach of them lasting the full pe- containing no building capable of reriod of fifteen days, and under circum- ceiving the votes of upwards of 14,000 stances of peculiar warmth of competi- electors, he humbly hopes the above tion, requiring the utmost diligence and plain recapitulation of a few facts will eircumspection on the part of the returne supersede the necessity of any laboured ing officer. On each of these occasions appeal on his part to be remunerated for the claim of the high bailiff to be repaid the heavy expense he has incurred in the his expenses was resisted by one of the service of the public, and which bis officandidates; the high bailiš, therefore, cial emoluments, as well as his private pursued his legal remedy, when the point fortune, are wholly unequal to bear. of law was, after repeated arguments,

Alstract of Loss. decided against him. This determination Previous to passing the act of occasioned a loss to the high bailiff of

51 Geo. III. , . . L.1569 10 1,569). 10s. 2d., including the costs of Subsequent thereto, and in

cluded in report the proceedings at law.

0 r With a view to the future protection

Subsequent to report of the high bailiff, and on substantiating

L.2394 102 the preceding facts before a coinmittee of the House of Commons, an act was MR. EDITOR, passed in 1811, assimilating elections for AS you appear to me most readily to Westminster to those for counties, by give place in your excellent miscellany piaking the candidates liable to the ex. to every communication which can in penses.

any way tend to the public benefit, I On the general electiou in October venture to trouble you with a few lines 1812, the two members returned resisted on a subject which, if thus, as it were, the high harliff's claim to be repaid the forced upon the attention of parents, expenses of that election; when, upon may have the effect of présercing many bringing his actions under the act for the infánt lives-! allude to the most banen recovery of those expenses, he obtained ful and pernicious practice, in which a verdict as to one moiety against one most nionthly nurses, and many servants metter, but the other haring satisfac wlin have thie care of infáires, indulge, torily established that he was not a'can- of secretly'admiriseering of rates for the didei e' within the meaning of the act, the thirpost of composing the infant to šleer, high bailiff was notsuited in this

latter Swor; in other words, of saving thein

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592 On the Danger of administering Opiutes to Infants.

(June 1, selves as much trouble and disturbance your correspondent, who signs liimseli as possible. This evil, which cannot be A PROVINCIAL SCHOOLMASTER, should too strongly reprobated, is much more have written in such an unusual and utprevalent than is commonly imagined, necessary style of severity. Had he and is very frequently attended with confined his sarcasmns to Mr. Kidd, I fatal effects. The opiate most easily ex- should probably not have thought it ne hibited is syrup of poppies; but Godfrey's cessary to notice them; but as he has cordio', and several others well known ventured to extend them to the illustrito most monthly nurses, are frequently ous Porson, I should deem silence cul. employed. I have been led to address pable. Accustomed as I have always you on this subject, in consequence of been to venerate the name of this great having witnessed the effects of a secret man, I could not but feel astonished to dose of syrup of poppies in my own see with what precipitate confidence the family, ubich, but for the fortunate cir- PROVINCIAL SCHOOLMASTER assails bim. cumstance of having been administered From certain parts of his letter I am led in an aperient mixture, would have ine- to suspect that his acquaintance with vitably been attended with a fatal termi- the writings of Porson is very limited. nation. I have since this circomstance This should operate as a caution to those conversed with several medical men, who mistake assertion for proof. Really who all concur in opinion, that this prac- when we call to mind the right which tice is the cause of the death of more Porson has thrown upon the various infants than all others put together, more paths of criticism—the many passages particularly when the death is sudden. which he has incontrovertibly corrected, The symptoms in an infant are, great which former critics had either relinlanguor, stupor, leaden sleep frequently quished in despair, or still more core disturbed, convulsion, and death. The rupted-the unassailable canons which remedy is, upon the first appearance of he has laid down in his incomparable the languor and stupor, to administer preface to the Hecuba-surely every the most efficient means of clearing the reader will acknowledge that he has done bowels without violence, for which pur- enough to hand down his name as a pose a clyster should, among other ap- critic to the latest posterity!“I need plications, never be omitted: medical not," says Dr. Butler, in his letter to the advice, however, should always be in- Rev. Charles James Blomfield, “ I am stantly resorted to, as a few hours may sure, bear my most sincere testimony be productive of fatal effects.- I can to the transcendant merits of that Coscarcely imagine that those who have lossus of critical learning now no more. been addicted to the practice of which I None of the elder or yourger members am now complaining, could be aware of of his college, none of his most zealous the baneful consequences likely to en- advocates, of his most ardent admirers, sue; but it is impossible to censure with or most attached disciples, cau more too much vehemenco the temerity, which deeply feel, or more willingly acknowcould lead a nurse of her own authority ledge their respect for his profound to employ any drug in the food or medic learning, his keen discrimination, bis uncine of an infant, decidedly deleterious failing accuracy, and his sagacious judgin its nature, and which, in a quantity ment.” Let the SCHOOLMASTER NOW exceeding a few drops, would occasion hear what is the opinion of Mr. J. H. death. I trust that the wide circulation Monk, the successor of Porson, respectwhich your insertion of this letter will ing the merits of his predecessor. " It give to this subject, will, on the one hac arte critica exercenda ducem et auhand, tend to render parents more spicem sumsi Porsonum, qui cum ingewatchful over their infants; and on the nio, doctrina, ac judicio ultra ceteros other, may deter those who have bither- mortales floruerit, tum quæcunque an to, from any motive, committed this Græcæ linguæ orthographiarn, structuabominable and incxcusable outrage, ram, et universain indolem spectarent, from persevering in a practice so fraught unus omnium qui post literas regatas with mischief.

D. P. vixerunt, videtur optime percepisse."April 7, 1816.

(Sce the preface to Mr. Monk's Hippolytis.)

The PROVINCIAL SCHOOL MASTER seerne I OBSERTE that, in page 8 of your to be one of those men who measuro Mugazine for February, mention is made the merit of an author by the bulk of of Mr. Kiud's Remains of Professor Por his works. Hence it is no wonder that

It is a matter of regret to me that he should censure Porson, of whom it

MR. EDITOR,

son.

1816.)

Professor Porson and Mr. Kidd vindicated.

393

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has been truly said: “pauca quidem in- ries: he felt pleasure in the search, and
genii sui pignora reliquit, sed egregia, satisfaction in the vindication, of this
sed admiranda." The following is one rare article. If detected in the slightesc
of his remarks: “ The mode of the pub- error, he would thank the individual
lication, (Mr. Kidd's) the conceit of the who pointed it out, immediately amend
editor, the confusion of the extracts, the it, and publicly confess it.” Is this any
obscure brevity of the notes, and the proof of his moroseness? “It is not our
musty quaintress of the subjects in con- intention," as is well observed in that
troversy, were not, in my estimate of the noble review of the Correspondence of
mingled merits and demerits of the vo- Wakefield and Fox, Museum Criticum,
lume, redeemed by the insulated gleams vol.i., p. 397,“ to compose a panegyric
of genius and of wit; though I see on Mr. Porson; but as the effect of the
enough to lament that such prodigality present publication has been to draw the
of talent should have been so muddled attention of the world to his failings,
away in pedantry, clouded by a morose common justice requires that some men-
ness babitually cherished and encou-

tion sbould also be made of his virtues.
raged, and, worse than all, stupefied into We shall observe, then, that he pos-
drankenness, as it too frequently was, in sessed two qualities, which, though they
the stye of sensuality.”.

are not the sole, are yet very essential The beginning of this sentence will be requisites in the formation of a great noticed hereafter; my business at pre- character--an utter contempt for money sent is with the latter part of it. To and a religious attachment to truth. It accuse Porson, then, of moroseness, is to is from this latter quality that his writings contradict whatever is known by those derive their peculiar excellence. He is who were furnished with opportunity of one of those few authors on whom the observing him by close inspection. From reader may rely with implicit deference, them we have learned, that in society who think it no less culpable to advance Porson's good temper was notorious, his what they do not know to be true, than urbanity engaging, and his conversation what they know to be false. So deterwithout reserve. Add to this, that the mined is he to be accurate, that he never many communications on points of cri- relaxes his vigilance for a moment; he ticism, which he gave to his friends with withholds no arguments because they the utmost readiness and good humour, are at variance with his own opinions; bear ample contradiction to any charge he deduces no conclusions which the of moroseness. In proof of this asser

facts themselves will not strictly wartion, see Mr. Blomfield's edition of Æs- rant; he makes no assertions which he chylus, Mr. Monk's Hippolytus, Dr. has not duly weighed, and of the correctMaltby's Thesaurus, and other publica- ness of which he is not fully convinced." tions which have made their

appearance

Such is the illustrious character which
since the lamented decease of the pro- the ScHOOLM ASTER handles so spleneti-
fessor. “ He possessed a heart,” says cally! Let us now briefly consider his
Mr. Kidd in his preface, p. 16, "filled usage

Mr. Kidd. We have already
with sensibility; he was at all tiines wil seen that he talks of the “conceit of
ling to assist his fellow-labourers; and the editor, the confusion of his extracts,
no scholar ever consulted him who did the obscure brevity of his notes." Upon
not leave him instructed and delighted.” the general merit of the work I must
-It would be useless to deny that these confess that my opinion differs widely
brighter parts of his character were from his own; and I am sure that every
shaded by some infirmities; and that he admirer of Porson will be happy to see
was addicted to immoderate drinking, the scattered rays of genius thus brought
however deeply to be regretted, cannot together. The SCHOOLMASTER, however,
be denied. Willing to make this con has some reason to complain of the
cession to the fullest extent to the “ confusion of the extracts," but the
SCHOOLMASTER, I beg leave to ask him notes seein to me to be sufficiently long.
why, as he has brought into view the The great merit of the disciples of the
known failings of Porson, he makes no Porsonian school lies in expressing their
mention of his virtues? Does he not ideas with conciseness. Mr. Kidd cer-
know that the professor was an inflexible tainly exposes himself to a charge of
lover of truth, and had an utter con conceit; but his accuser ought to have
tempt for money, “ Truth," as Mr. Kidd brought forward some proofs of the mi-
very justly remarks, " was considered by ruculous silliness of mind, of which I
Richard Porson as the basis of excel- know no instances.
lence; it was the object of all bis inqui I am very glad to find that he is
NEW MONTHLY MAG.–No. 29. VOL. V.

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