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nature, prevails. Such, however, perhaps do not exceed twenty in the course of the year; and if the occupations of the colonist permit it, he had better remain in his house, and he will experience no inconvenience. Unpleasant as they are, it is never impossible to perform even severe work. No part of Australia seems to be exempted from these winds, the causes of which have as yet exercised the minds of the colonial savans in vain. The general healthfulness of the climate is attested by Mr. Montgomery Martin, in his work on New South Wales, by the statement that at some military stations, for seven years there has not been one loss by death; and that in a population of 1,200 persons more than five or six were seldom indisposed at the same time.
To invalids in India, the genial climate, its proximity, its easy access by steam, now at last, it is hoped, about to be established, and the cheapness of living there, all point it out as an eligible place for recruiting their shattere strength.
All the foregoing considerations will doubtless have their due weight with any who may contemplate emigration as a means of improving
their social condition. A short contrast may therefore be useful, of the past history, future destinies, and varied benefits held out by different countries as fields for emigration. So
many feelings actuate men in choosing the United States of America for a home--in some, disgust with the institutions of their native land ; in others, brilliant hopes from the Republican principles of that country—that all reference shall be omitted to the prospects of the people there, such considerations being foreign to this article.
It may, however, be worth bringing to the minds of those who think so highly of that truly wonderful land, or those, who from ignorance depreciate the success of the present colonial efforts of Great Britain, that at the time of the American Revolution, * Boston, one of the chief cities of the States, after a period of 170 years, possessed a population of 18,000, while Sydney, at the age of 60 years, had 38,000 inhabitants ; and that Melbourne and Adelaide, in the space of 16 years, each were computed to number nearly 25,000 persons. Neither Philadelphia
* For several of these figures I am indebted to the Speech of Lord J. Russell, February 8, 1850; as also to various papers of the Land and Emigration Commissioners.
or New York, with all their natural advantages, at the period above referred to, had a population nearly equal to that of Sydney. It is an evidence also of the comparative wealth of the whole population, that in the most favourable year before the war of independence, the imports of the American colonies scarcely amounted to £1,000,000 sterling.. Those of the Australian colonies already exceed £2,880,000.
In 1849 the Exports from the Australian group were £2,880,620; the Imports £2,889,730.
The population which produced and consumed this enormous amount, was, in that year 351,610; being at the rate of, in round numbers, £8. 9s. per head of exports, and the same of imports.
The British North American colonies, containing, in 1846, 2,159,000 inhabitants, imported £4,830,280, and exported £3,920,528; being at the rate of £2. 4s. 8d. of imports, and £1. 16s. 2d. of exports, per head; a good criterion to the intending emigrant, both as to the amount of remuneration for his labour and the degree of comfort in which he is likely to live; and no less important to the statesman, in determining to what regions the surplus population of. Great Britain may be sent with most advantage, where
it will produce most, of the raw material requisite for the manufactures of Great Britain,—and where the greatest market for her products is likely to be found. One observation only need be added, that in the years 1848 and 1849 72,432 emigrants settled there, while 407,683 preferred the United States, and that from Official Returns of the Land Emigration Commissioners, we infer that little demand for labour at present exists or is likely to arise; a sure sign that the colony is not advancing as rapidly as others, or as the United States of America, which seem to possess greater attraction for emigrants.
In the following observations we shall endeavour not to underrate the advantages held out by the several colonies which may be the subject of remark. Each possesses opportunities of industry peculiar to itself; and it is certain that in any of them the condition of most of the population of the United Kingdom must be materially improved.
That their prosperity, when compared with each other, is by no means equal, will be evident on the statement of a few facts, from which everyone may draw their own conclusions. It is
NEW SOUTH WALES.
but a narrow view of the subject which has been adopted by some, that a species of rivalry exists between these several communities. If
proper means are adopted to facilitate the settlement of these countries, there is room for any amount of emigration, and an abundant population in the older countries, sufficient to supply the wants of all. It is not merely views of gain which should decide the choice of a home for future generations: the moral conditions of the place will be considered by those who take a right view of the subject. This consideration will principally affect New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land.
New South Wales was first settled in 1787, and for many years made but little progress. It was then, and continued to be for many years, solely a penal settlement; which naturally deterred many from emigrating thither. On the 1st January, 1849, it contained, according to the statistical returns penned by the Governor, 6,530,000 sheep; 1,366,000 head of cattle; 97,000 horses ; and 65,216 pigs. In the preceding year its population amounted to, as nearly as can be computed, 180,000. Its Exports were £155,004 ; its Imports, £1,182,874. There