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passes by Remiremont, Epinal, Metz, and Treves, and joins the Rbine at Coblentz. Its principal tributaries are the Meurthe and the Sarre. 4. The Rhine for a short distance forms the boundary between France and Germany.
Canals.] The following are the principal canals. 1. The celebrated canal of Languedoc, commenced and completed in the reign of Louis XIV. at an expense of £500,000, opens a comunication between the bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean through the southern part of the kingdom. It begins on the Garonne at Toulouse and proceeds in a direction a little S. of E. to a sma Il lake or bay communicating with the Mediterranean at Cette. It is 140 miles long, 60 feet broad; 6 feet deep, and is carried over the intervening rivers by 58 aqueducts. In one place it passes through a bill by a tunnel 500 feet long and 20 feet broad. 2. The canal of the centre, which connects the Saone with the Loire, and thus opens a communication between the Mediterranean and the bay of Biscay through the centre of the kingdom. 3. The canals of Orleans and Briare which connect the Loire with the Seine. 4. The canal of St. Quentin, which coupects the Somme with the Oise.
Face of the Country) The southeastern part of the kingdom and narrow tracts along the eastern and southern borders are mountainous. The rest of the couníry may be called uneven and in some places hilly, the surface being everywhere sufficiently varied to render the prospects interesting. Correze and the neighboring departments surpass every part of France in beauty. Hills, dales, woods, streams, lakes and scattered farms are mingled into a thousand delightful landscapes. The banks of the Seine, for 200 miles from its mouth, and of the Loire as bigh as Angers, are also eminently beautiful. The country east of the Rhone presents many pleasing prospects, and the course of the Isere is a scene of perpetual beauty. The Pyrenees are the most striking of the mountains, and their verdure, their forests; rocks and torrents have all the character of the sublime and beaua Hiful.
Climate.] The eastern part of France is warmer than the westero in the same parallels. Mr. Young divides the country into four climates. A line commencing a little north of the mouth of the Loire, and passing in an E.N.E. direction to the Netherlands through the department of the Aisne would leave a tract to the N.W. called the northern climate, in which the vine will not grow. It is considerably warmer than in England but equally moist; and produces a great variety of fine fruits. The vine climate is a space included between the northero climate and a line passing nearly parallel with the other, from the mouth of the Garonne to the Rhine through the department of the Meurthe. This is the pleasantest climate ; the air is light, pure and elastic ; and the sky is generally clear; the summer is not fervid, and the winters are mild. The Maize Climate is broader. Its southern boundary is a line beginning on the Pyrenees in the department of the Arriege and passing through Grenoble on the
Isere to the Alps. The vine also grows here luxuriantly. The tract S. E. of this line is called the olive climate. It is much the smallest, and both vines and maize grow here abundantly. This division of France, which, with here and there a set-off, is strictly accurate, points out the eastern side of the kingdom as 23 degrees of latitude hotter than the western, or at least more favorable to vegetation.
Soil and Productions.] The northwestern section of the kingdom, including the country on both sides of the Loire below Tours, and extending on the coast almost from the mouth of the Garonne to that of the Seine, has a poor and stony soil. The northern section, which corresponds nearly with the eastern half of the northern climate, has a rich soil, of considerable depth and of an admirable texture. The soil of the southwestern section is indifferent, except in the valley of the Garonne and its branches, where it consists of a deep, mellow, friable loam, with sufficient. moisture for any culture. The eastern section, extending from the Netherlands to the Mediterranean, has a fertile soil, but is less uniformly rich than the northern.
The principal agricultural productions of the northern half of the kingdom are wheat, barley, oats, pulse, and of late in a greater degree than formerly of potatoes; in the southern balf, maize, vines, mulberries, and olives. The cultivation of the vine is carried to a very great extent, the number of acres covered by the vineyards being computed at nearly 5,000,000, or one twenty fifth part of the whole kingdom. The olive has recently suffered from severe winters and the produce is scarcely ope quarter of its former amount. The most important mineral is iron, which is produced in France in greater quantity than in any other country except Great Britain. Coal also exists in great quantities and the mines are very extensively wrought.
Chief Towns.) Paris, the capital of France and one of the finest cities in the world, is situated on the Seine, which passes through the city from east to west dividing it into two nearly equal parts. It is surrounded with a wall 17 miles in circuit. The houses are generally from 4 to 7 stories high, and built of freestone. Some of the streets are remarkably broad and beautiful. The Boulevards particularly. which occupy the space appropriated to the walls of the town in former ages, when its circumference did not exceed seven miles, are from 200 to 300 feet broad, and planted on each side with long rows of lofty trees. All the streets are lighted with reflecting lamps, suspended at a great height in the middle of the street. The finest square is the Place Vendome, an octagonal space 500 feet long and 400 broad, surrounded by elegant stone buildings. In palaces and public structures of the first rank Paris is greatly superior to London. The Tuileries, the present royal residence, is a aoble and venerable structure extending from N. to S. above 1,000 feet. The Louvre, a quarter of a mile to the east of the Tuileries, is an elegant building of a square form, with a large interior court, 400 feet by 400, and its magnificent halls are used not as a royal habitation, but as a depot for objects of taste and art. The gallery of the Louvre is a very long range, detached from the main building, and extending parallel to the bank of the river, all the way to the Tuileries. The most striking public monument is the Column of the Place Vendome, erected by Bonaparte to commemorate his successes in Germany in 1805. It is a great brazen piliar, 12 feet in diameter and 133 feet high, and every where covered with bas reliefs. The catacombs are subterraneous quarries, excavated in the course of ages for the building of Paris, and converted in the latter part of the 18th century into a great burying repository. They are of great extent and being easily traversed with the aid of a guide, form a prominent ebject of'attention to travellers.
The Jardin des Plantes is a garden of an oblong form, nearly half a mile in length, laid out with great taste, and exhibiting groupes of plants of almost every country in the world. Amidst the collections of interest to artists, those of the Louvre hold the first rank. Of the ground floor of that spacious building a great part is appropriated to statues, and other specimens of sculpture, ancient and modern, distributed in spacious halls, and arranged with much taste. From these a magnificent staircase leads to the gallery of paintings, which is of such length, that the extremity is almost lost in the distance, and is lined on both sides with the finest productions of modern painters
Paris is the centre of elegant amusements for France, even more than London for England, being the residence during the autumn and winter of all who can afford the gratifications of a town life. Of the public gardens and walks the finest and most frequented are those of the Tuileries, which extend in a beautiful oblong to the westward of the palace. They are laid out most elegantly with gravelled walks, terraces, plots of flowers and shrubs, groves of lofty trees, basins of water, and fountains, interspersed with beautiful statues of bronze and marble This delightful spot forms the favorite walk of the Parisians, and is crowded on Sundays during the day, and in the rest of the week in the evenings with well dressed persons.
Paris is rich in libraries, which are accessible to all persons without introduction. The library of the king, the largest in Europe, contains opwards of 360,000 printed volumes, and 72,000 manuscripts. The manufactures of Paris as of London, consist chiefly of articles of taste, and such as require nice workmanship. The population of the city in 1817 was 715,000.
Lyons, the next town to Paris in population, and superior to it in commerce and manufactures, is situated on the tongue of land formed at the confluence of the Saone and the Rhone. The streets cross each other regularly at right angles, but they are in general extremely narrow and many of them dark and gloomy. The houses are usually of storie, and 5 or 6 stories high. There are 4 public squares, one of which is entitled to rank among the finest in Europe Lyons is the first manufacturing nown in France, and is particularly noted for its silks. It formerly supplied a great part of Europe with silk goods, but its manufactures were grea ly injured during the troubles of the French revolution. The number of looms for velvet, silk, gauze, crape and thread, was at the commencement of the revolution 9,335, and the persons employed 58,600; in 1803 there were 7,000 looms, but only 1,553 at work. The large manufactory of felt hats, which formerly employed 8,000 hands, had fallen to 1.500. Within a few years the fine silk manufactures have begun to resume their former importance. The orders for goods in 1818 could scarcely be answered, and the quantity exported in that year was valued a! 60,000,000 francs. The merchants of Lyons carry on trade with Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Netherlands and almost every part of Europe. The population is estimated at 120,000
Marseilles is situated on the Mediterranean, at the foot of a ridge of hills, which extend in the form of a crescent around the down and its environs until each extremity reaches the sea. It is divided into the Old and New Town; the latier, containing nearly two thirds of the whole, is equal in beauty to any city of France. The port, which is half a mile long apd a quarter of a mile broad, occupies the centre of the town, and communicates with the sea by a narrow entrance, only 100 yards wide, defended by two forts: it is completely sheltered from all winds, but has not depth enough for ships of war. From its advantageous position and the security of its harbor, Marseilles has long enjoyed a large share of the foreign trade of France. The population is estimated at 110.000.
Bourdeaux is on the left bank of the Garonne, 47 miles from its mouth. The river here forms a spacious barbor, and the tide rises to the height of 12 feet, so that large merchant vessels and even frigates can come up close to the town. The internal commerce, carried on through the Garonne and Dordogne is very extensive, and the foreign trade exceeds that of any city in France, except Marseilles. The principal exports are wine and brandy. The population is 92,374.
Rouen, situaird on ibe right bank of the Seine, 70 miles from its mouth, in the midst of a pleasant and fertile country, is one of the principal manufacturing towns in France, especially in the article of cotton goods. The population is estimated at 87,000. Nantes is beautifully situated on the right bank of the Loire, 27 miles from its mouth. It has numerous manufactures and considerable foreign and inland trade, with a population of 77,000.
Cherbourg is a seaport on the north coast, at the bottom of a large bay between Capes La Hogue and Barfleur, in the department of La Manche. It has long been considered one of the most important stations of the French navy, and its improvement has from time to time, occupied the attention of the government for no less than a century and a half. More than two millions sterling were expended in an attempt to erect a breakwater against the swell of the sea, which bas after all proved almost enFirely fruitless. After the failure of this scheme Bonaparte de
termined to excavate a barbor from thc solid ground. The work was prosecuted with great vigor, and by 1813 a basin was finished, 1,000 feet long, 770 wide, 50 feet deep, covering a surface of about 18 acres, and capable of containing 50 sail of the line. Bonaparte's next project was a wet dock of equal dimensions. It was begun in 1813, and is now approaching towards completion, after having cost, along with the basin (and exclusive of the breakwater) nearly five millions sterling
Brest, the chief station of the French marine, is situated on a bay in the department of Finisterre, and has one of the best harbors in Europe. The road affords safe anchorage for at least 500 inen of war. The harbor is in the form of a long canal, with a very narrow and difficult entrance, defended by strong fortifications. The town contains an immense naval arsenal, a dock-yard, ropewalks, forges, foundries, and every thing necessary for the construction and equipment of ships of war. The population is 24,180.
Toulon, the only harbor for the navy on the coast of the Mediterranean, is a strongly fortified town a little E of Marseilles. The old and new harbor lie contiguous to each other and by means of a canal communicate with one another, and each has ad outlet into the spacious outer harbor, which is naturally almost of a circular figure, very large, and surrounded with hills. The entrance on both sides is defended by a fort, with strong batteries. The new harbor is an artificial basin, the work of Louis XIV. It is well defended by batteries and round it stands the arsenal, where every man-of-war has its own particular storehouse. Here are rope-walks, foundries, and magazines of all kinds of naval stores on a great scale. The population is estimated at 29,000.
The following are the principal seaports, not already mentioned. 1. Dunkirk is the only harbor of France on the German ocean, and being the most convenient port for receiving the merchantmen captured in time of war from the English and Dutch. it bas been strongly fortified by the French government. It has considerable trade and more than 26,000 inhabitants. 2. Caluis, 25 miles S. W. of Dunkirk and opposite Dover in England, has a small harbor too much obstructed with sand to admit large vessels. 3. Boulogne, on the English channel, in the Pas de Calais, is a favcia ite place of resort for English emigrants. The harbor was formerly one of the best on the coast but is now nearly choked up with sand. Here lay the flotilla prepared by Bonaparte in 180.1 and 1805 for the invasion of Great Britain. 4. Dieppe, 100 miles N. W. of Paris, is on the most direct route from London to Paris, and in time of peace there are regular packet-boats between this port and Brighton, a distance of 66 miles. 5. Havre de Grace, ihe port of Paris, is a strongly fortified town at the mouth of the Seine, with a harbor capable of containing 600 or, 700 vessels, ani deep enough for ships of war of 60 guns. It has an extensive inland trade by means of the Seine, especially with Paris. . The population is 21,000. 6. Rochelle, in the department of Lower Charente 80 miles S. of Nantes, is a strongly tortified scaport with