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Every six months, your book should be sent to the Bank, to be "made up"better still, once a month. The sums of the entries on each page are carried forward to the next corresponding page, until the time arrives. for balancing the book, which is generally done at Midsummer and Christmas. This will show that all is entered properly, it enables you to know at a glance what money you have in the Bank, and prevents your " overdrawing your account (this means, drawing a cheque to a greater amount than you have money in the Bank). An account should never be overdrawn, unless there has been a previous arrangement Iwith the Banker to that effect.

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When you want your Bank-book "making-up," write to your Banker, enclosing it, or take it yourself, and ask him "to make it up." London Bankers will send a monthly letter instead of a Pass-book, as more convenient to go by Post. This is especially convenient to persons travelling abroad.

Sums of Money in a Banker's hands.-As a general rule, it is considered unhandsome to have less money in a Bank than a hundred pounds. The Bankers gain nothing for the trouble they take in receiving your money and paying your cheques, and running the risk of fraud, except by the interest they obtain upon the sum you have placed in their hands,


A Cheque must not be drawn for a sum under a pound it is illegal to do so. Few people like to draw a Cheque for less than two or three pounds: it is troublesome to the Bankers to pay small sums, which you can so easily do yourself, by Cash or Post-office Orders.

A halfpenny is never mentioned in a Cheque ; no sum less than a penny.

A Cheque on a Banker is merely an order on the Banker to pay money to A. B. or Bearer, or

to A. B. or Order. It is written thus (usually lengthways on a sheet of note-paper), whenever you do not employ a printed form.


your name is Catherine Nickelby, that you bank with Messrs. Coutts, and wish to pay Mr.

£15 2s. 6d. The form is as follows:

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The signature, "Catherine Nickelby," is written across a penny receipt-stamp, not a penny postagestamp.

Any person who may get possession of the Cheque in this form can procure its payment at Messrs. Coutts' Bank without question. This freedom is convenient to small tradesmen, who are unknown to Bankers.

Orders. Suppose, however, you write

Messrs. Coutts & Co.

London, Jan. 2, 1863.

Please pay Mr., or Order, Fifteen

Pounds Two Shillings and Sixpence.


Catherine Nickelby.

Then the Cheque cannot be paid until Mr. — has written his name on the back of it. Therefore, whenever you send a Cheque by Post, or Messenger, write it "or Order," and not "or Bearer;" this shields you from any fraud except direct forgery.

Crossed Cheques or Orders.-But there is yet a further precaution, if you write—

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Then, not only must Mr.

first write his

name on its back, if it be an Order, but after

wards it can only be paid through some Banker to a known customer. If a rascal stole the letter, and forged Mr.'s name, he could not get the Cheque cashed, unless he happened to be in such good circumstances as to have an account of his own with a Banker. This reduces the risk of fraud very considerably. If instead of writing "& Co." you write the name of Mr. —'s banker, the chance of fraud is still further reduced. Always adopt this form when you cannot obtain a receipt at the moment of writing the Cheque.

Dating Cheques in advance of the day.-Never let a Cheque bear the date of a day after that on which you issue it. The penalty is £100 to the "Drawer" of the Cheque, as well as to the Banker who pays it knowingly. Any person taking it (knowingly) is liable to a penalty of £20.

The "Drawer" is the person who signs the Cheque.

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