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on his travels through the Thebais. ploring the great Gerizim, Mount Ebal, There M. Frediani, parting from his Jacob's Well, and the city of Samaria, co-opacions, proceeded towards the he arrived in Galilee across the great Pyramids, where he found M. Belzoni plain of Esdrelon. He then took a attempting to penetrate into the pyra- view of the lake of Tiberias, and made mid of Cephren, that had not till then an analysis of the theroal waters of Embeen entered. M. Frediani became a partner in his labours; and, at the end After crossing again the region of of six days, they were fortunate enongh Galilee and the 'Trachonitis, and making to discover the entrance to that enor- an excursion to Nazareth, he set out on mous mass. They inade good an en- a journey to Phenicia. His first object trance, but nothing appeared particular- was Cesarea of Palestine, whence, proly interesting. M. Frediani went and ceeding on his route, he bad opportunipassed the night on the point of the ties of exploring Mount Carmel, Porgreatest pyramid.

phyria, St. Jean d'Acre, Tyre, Seide, At length he parled from M. Belzo. and Bavut. ni, and set forward alone for Alexan- Thence plunging into tbe deep valdria ; whence he proceeded for Cairo ; leys of Libanus and Antilibanas, the and, crossing Idumnæa, and the deserts of only trees he could find there were the Ur and Etham, in Arabia-Petræa, he wild pine : he could trace no vestiges arrived in the fine country of the Philis- of the ancient cedars. The climate was tines. Thence passing over the moun- most agreeable and salubrious, as well tains of the tribes of Si neon and Ben- on the mountains as in the valleys. jamin, he came to Jerusalem at the very The temper and disposition of the ininstant when the Greeks, in one of habitants were accommodating and intheir solemn ceremonies, were expecting viting ; so that his residence there afforthe sacred fire to come down from ded him a delicious treat. Heaven. He was an eye-witness to the Passing over those mountains, be tragical contentions that broke out soon came to Damascus ; then be went on to after between the schismatic Greeks and examine the wonderlul ruins of Balthe fathers of the Holy Land, in the chapel bec ; and, arriving on the coast of of the lovention of the Holy Cross. Syria, passed through the cities of Trip

Onr traveller afterwards directed his oli, Tortosa, Gabala, Laodicæa or Lacourse towards Jordan and the Red takieh, Seleucia, and Antioch: from Sea: he visited Jericho, crossed the which last city he repaired to Aleppo, bills of Engaddi, and halted in the val- and thence to the banks of the Euphrates, ley of Mamre and Hebron. Returning the last stage of his oriental tour. by Jerusalem, he came again to Jaffa, M. Frediani has thus accomplished a and thence went onward to the cities of laborious journey of more than two A-calon, Azoth, Gath, and Accaron. thousand leagues, for the most part alone, Then turning aside for Samaria, and ex- and always attired as an European.

EXTRACTS FROM THE CHINESE GAZETTE.

From the New Monthly Magazine, Nov. 1819.
Mr. Editor,
I of

BEG leave to resume my extracts sterility in the kingdom of Peking, a and now present your readers with a In consequence of the above calamity, speciinen of the emperor's paternal ten- many thousand families took reluge in derness towards the poor in his vast the capital, where their beneficent so

SOYdominions.

ereign not only permitted them to reThe third year of Yong-Tching's maio, hut ordered large quantities of reigo was marked by excessive rains, rice to be drawn from the public granwhich caused great inundations and aries, prepared and distributed in daily

Vol. 6.]

Recent Chinese Anecdotes.

347

proportions to the starving suppliants. order may be preserved, without impeHaving shortly after the benevolent e- ding acts of cbarity ? Maintain ihe dict, reflected, that, owing to the im- peace of my capital, but let me pot mense size of the capital,* the stations hear of another poor man being forced of distribution might be too remote for to remain in the street all night. There the old and infirm, or females, who are no doubt many who will gladly rewould be thus prevented from sharing ceive them; do not, therelore, of pose in his intended bounty, be caused five their good intentions. Another moon more points to be established, at which will bring better weather ; while this none of those who really wanted bread continues, it is our duiy to succonr the could well be prevented from attending, afficted, who have no other resource as they were fixed in such situations as except in the liberality of their prince, to divide the city into so many equal and the active benevolence or their divisions. This proof of real charity more lavored fellow-subjects. Once for cootmued 10 be exercised during the all, i warn you that should any of these whole winter. Notwithstanding all bis unfortunate heings perish, either from precautions, several poor people, wlio cold or want, the fault will be yours, bad come from other provinces, unable and punishment will follow."* to find shelter in any house, were obliged to pass their nights in the streets.

Ajler the Empress had been solemnly reThe emperor, who secretly informed cognized, according' io cust-23, the conferred himself of all that happened, beard of an art of general benevolence on all the women the circumstance, sent for the manda. The empire who had passed the age of seven

This cay precenied by an express orrios charged with the police and good der from the Emperor ardressed to the riceroy order of the capital, and charged them of each province, and from thexe intimated to

the governors of every town and village in the as follows :-“It is to your care that empire. The mode of arrangement was as folthe police of the five charitable quar.

lows: The objects of her Majesty's beneficence

were divided into three classes. The first class ters has been confided ; you should embracing those between 70 and 20); the second therefore be constantly on the alert.- those between 8u and 90: and the third, beYou are aware of the extreme severity varies according to the diferent ages of the of the present winter; and I understand parties, and consists of several pieces of cotton that numbers of the poor who have come cloth, and bushels of rice : the numher and to seek relief, are unprovided with lodg- quantity increasing with the age of the candiings at night ; ibat several suffer great- ceives thro the viceroy the order from court, ly from the cold, and that some have it is pasted up in all the cross-ways and prineven perished. The knowledge of these cipal streets after which, the coiton and rice

are distributed to womon of every description facts has affected me most sensibly, and who come within the age expressed in the ormy heart bleeds for the helpless suffer

donnance, whether they appear in person or

send their friends with a written testimony from ers thus exposed. What! can it be the superintendent of their parish, or a few repo-sible, that in so opulent and popu- spectable neighbours, stating that they have jous a city as Peking, there was nobody already received the bounty, it is unnecessary to found posse-sed of sufficient charity, to provide a certificate of identity, as the officers afford them an asylum ? I cannot be

have only to refer to the registers in which the lieve it.

names of all the previous candidates are duly I am convinced, on the

noted. The whole is defrayed at the Emperor's trary, that many of my subjects are anx- expense, and the money drawn from the public ious to do good, bui they fear giving which this act of benevolence is perfermed, pre

treasury. The governor of each city or town in shelter to the poor, lest you should ac- pares an exact list, containing she ages and cuse them of violating the police regu- in the bounty of her Majesty : he also notes

names of all those who may have participated lations, by which a most necessary ex- down the number of pieces, quantity of rice and ertion of benevolence is obstructed. I sum of money employed for their purchase : therefore command you to be more in- when completed, these lists will de forrarded to

the viceroy,and from him to the sovereign court dulgent in future, and allow a greater of aids, at Peking, in order that the said arlatitude on this subject. Surely good counts may, le duly cramined, and all frauds

prevented.T'he present population of Pekin exceeds The gazette had noticed the list and account 2,000,000.

received from the prorince of Chang-Tong,

con

HUNDRED AND TWENTY-Two:

THOUSAND FOUR HUNDRED AND FIFTY THREE.

Reserving some acts of equal merit road, which passes near the mountain on the part of the Chinese sovereigns, of Song-Kia, he accidentally dropped for a future communication, I shall add the purse, and contioued his journey. another extract from the Gazette, to On the following morning, a poor laprove that virtue is not confined to the bourer, named Chi-Yeou, employed in palace in China, but is also found to in- tilling some ground close to the spot, habit the cottage of the peasant.

found the money.

So far from wishing Tsing 'Tai, a merchant of Chen-Si, to appropriate the treasure to his owa going to Mong-Tsing, for the purpose use, be determined at once to restore it, of purchasing cotton, carried with bim and with this view, he remained working a purse containing a hundred and srv- in sight of where the purse was found, enty ounces in silver, While on the till late at night, in the hope of seeing

the owner return to reclaim his proaccompanied by a memorial to the Emperor, from both of which it appears, that the number perty. No one appearing, Chi-Yeou of women who had passed their seventieth year, went home, and on displaying the prize amount to NyerY-EIGHT THOUSAND TWO to his wife, she immediately exclaiined,

those roho have past their cightieth, to FORTY THOUSAND

Oh! my dear husband, we must not EIGHT HUNDRED AND NINETY-THREE 3 tered think of keeping this money, for it does those above ninety, to TIIREE

That

not belong to us; I would rather live in such a multiude of women arrived at the fore- poverty, than take the substance of going advanced period of life, should be found others. Eadeavour, therefore, to find people of Europe : bul what will they say when the right owoer to-morrow, and give up Tald, that there is still a great number of the bis money.” same ages in the above named province, who

Tsing Tai on arriving at the inn, was have not parlaken in the proffered bounty, ci. ther on account of their rank, or of their be

not a little astonished at the dreadful longing to families, the heads of which are em- loss he had sustained; but totally ignoployed under government; a rircumstance that not only induces them to keep up appearances

rant where the purse could have fallen, with friends, but naturally made them ashamed and persuaded, that any search on his of participating in a charity originally destined part would be useless, he caused an ad. huve cited would appear by no means surprising vertisement to be posted up in various to any one who had traversed China in i he way quarters of the town, describing the

Those who are at all conversant on the subject, know that each province in this country whole sum with him who should bring

particulars, and promising to divide the China is more thickly peopled than any other back the purse. Chi-Yeou soon beard part of the globe, and that owing to the extreme of the public-notice, and repaired withfrugality of the inhabitanis, they live to a much greater age than the less temperate people of out a moment's loss of time, to the Europe. But if the number of aged females seemi er

superintending mandarin :-“I have traordinary, what ough! we to ihink of the im

found the purse," said he 10 the latter, mense sum distributed by the Enperor on this “send for the merchant of Chen-S,and occasion ? For, in confining ourselves to the by asking him a few questions, I can the sum or value given to those who had attain- 'easily find out whether he is the right cd their seventieth year at tro French crowns, owner or not.” Tuing-Tai was accordthose of eighty at three, and the reminder at four, which would be considerably under the real ingly summoned, and having answered amount, for the last class is said to receive the a variety of interrogatories, as to the value of four ounces of silver ; to this sum ad- form of the purse, and quantity of of the other thirteen provinces, many of which money it contained, there could be do are much larger, be added, and it will, I have doubt of his claim; he therefore had no dvubt, be acknowledged that this act of libe- the inexpressible satisfaction of seeing rality is truly imperial.

Such is the memorable act of grace that has it returned in the same state in which marked the coronation of the Chinese Em- it fell from his mule. press. That of the Emperor was followed by a similar one towards the three corresponding

Transported with joy at this most classes of old men.

It is thus that these two agreeable surprize. Tsing. Tai opened erozoned heads inspire their subjects with love the purse, and turning to the finder, ohand admiration for themselves, as well as a served: “I declared in my notice, that proper degree of respect for old age !

I should divide the money with whoever

VOL. 6.]

Chinese Manners-Machinery,

349

restored it, I now wish to keep my instantly sent a present of fifty ounces word.”—“ No," replied the labourer, in silver to the honest labourer and his “I have no right io any part of the wife, as a recompense for their virtue. purse. It is all your own; and I will He gave them at ihe same time a picture, not receive a single ounce." The re- representing the generous contention fusal of Chi-Yeou had no effect on the that took place before Chi-Yeou's door, grateful merchant, who counted out with this motto inscribed underneath:eighty-five of the pieces, insisting on the “ A husband and wife, distinguished by former's accepting them, but to no pur- their disinterestedness and generosity. pose; all this passed at the door of — Not content with these proofs of apChi-Yeou, and many of his neighbours probation, the viceroy ordered the treawere witnesses of the admirable con- surer-general of the province to register tention.

the fact, and circulate it in

every

direcAt length Tsing-Tai, seeing that Chi- tion, in order that the people might proYeou positively refused the proffered fit by so praiseworthy an action. The reward, and anxious to prove his grati- governor of Mong-Sing was also directed tode, adopted another plan; be placed to erect a monument opposite Chia hundred and seven ounces on one side, Yeou's house; and finally, considered and taking up the remaining sixty-three, the whole case as worthy of being comsaid, “ I will not conceal from you, that municated to the emperor. the portion of this money which I have The sovereign, not less pleased with just put into the purse, was borrowed, the story than the viceroy, and deterbut as to that in my hand, it is really mined 10 profit by so fair an opportumy own: I request therefore

you will nity, to promote a reformation amongst not hesitate to accept it.”—“No," re- those of his subjects who might feel less plied Chi.Yeou; “I have no more inclined to perform similar acts of virright to one part than the other; both are tue, wrote a mandate with his own your property and you must keep them..” band, a copy of which was sent into the

All those present were so charmed respective provinces, accompanied by a with this proof of disinterestedness, that transcript of the viceroy's memorial, orthey immediately went to the chief man- daining that the labourer Chi-Yeou, daria, aod related what had just hap- was to be henceforth regarded as an pened. The latter, equally struck by honorary mandarin of the seventh class; the circumstance, and desirous that it that he should have the privilege of should be made known to government, wearing the robe and cap allotted to called the parties before bim, enquired that rank; in addition to all which, a into all the particulars, and concluded hundred ounces were given to him for by making a special report of the facts, the porpose of exciting others to imitate to the viceroy of Ho-Nan, the province his example.

E. B. in wbich they occurred. This officer Hastings, Sept. 5, 1819.

MACHINERY.

Extracted from the New Monthly Magazine, Nov. 1819.
Mr. Editor,
I

OBSERVE, that amidst the cries This is a very dangerous doctrine,

for a reform in Parliament, liberty and cannot be too speedily overturned. of conscience, and freedom from taxa- Mr. Owen of Lanark, a man of an tion, a set of modern reformers are em- excellent character and good intentions, ployed in making people believe that a man who himself employs machinethe distresses of the lower orders are ry, has advanced the most absurd opinchiefly produced by the use of machin- ions on this head, and stated as facts ery, to which the country owes so much things that are impossible. of its wealth and greatness.

At a meeting to obtain a subscription

com

for bis pastoral manufactories, or vil. amouut to one-twentieth part of that lages of 1000 persons, he is made by enormous sum. the daily journals to say

Even let it be supposed, that Mr. “ The cotton spun in one year at Owen was right in his calculation, what this time in this country, would require, a farce it must be to complain of heavy without machinery, 60 millions of taxation and poor-rates, for ten days hands with single wheels : and the quan- profits derived from machinery would tity of manufactured work of all sorts do more than pay all taxes and public done by the aid of machinery in this expenses for a wbole year. nation, would require, without that aid, A cart is a machine, and all sorts of at least the labour of 400 millions of tools are in respect to abbreviation of manufacturers."'*

labour, similar in effect to the most comI respect Mr. Owen for his philan- plicated machinery. thropy and good intentions, but I must It is true that 400 millions of men, not, therefore, let so dangerous, I shall situated like Robinson Crusoe, would eveo say, so absurd and extravagant an not manufacture much in a day, but error, pass for truth.

400 millions of persons supplied with I first of all must ask what is meant such tools and machinery as were in by machinery ? A siogle wheel, use about fifty years ago, when there though less complicated, is as were no complaints, would at the prepletely a machine as the largest and sent value of money certainly earn more finest cotton mill in England; therefore than 6d. a day each. Mr. Owen, therehis expressions are very incorrect. fore, made one of the greatest errors in

The grand complaint against machi. calculation that ever was made by a nery is, that it abbreviates labour ; now sensible man who could make use of all sorts of tools and implements do the figures. same, and there is no drawing a line of If we had none of the improved madistinction between the spade and the chinery, against which the absurd and hoe, the knife and the scissarson one ignorant outcry is raised, we should not hand, and the most complicated piece be able to manufacture for exportation ; of machinery.

besides, if employment for great oumPerhaps a saw is the tool that abbre- bers of persons in manufacturing is the viates labour more than any other; at object in view, we shall find that there any rate, in making deals, two men are three times as many employed as in with a saw will do more than two the time of Edward II., who brought thousand without one; it is therefore, over weavers from Flanders, and twice according to the moderns, a most mis- as many as in the golden age of Queen chievous invention, though the ancients Elizabeth. almost deified the inventor; but the It is possible that too many people fact is, the reformers only mean ma- have left agriculture, and too many chines invented within the last thirty or gone to follow manufactures ; but be forty years.

the cause what it may, why manufacWith respect to 400,000,000 of ma- turers want work, resortiog to the old pufacturers, supposing each to earn 6d. and tedious methods of working will a day, which is the lowest that can be not remedy the evil. If we were to estimated, their labour would amount resort to knitting and spinning in the to ten millions a day, which is manner lormerly done, as other nations 3,130,000,0001. a year! Now if this have adopted as far as they can the imcalculation were righe,it follows that the proved machinery, they would supply value of the manufactured goods would us cheaper than we could supply ourbe much greaier, as this is only for la- selves. After breaking our machinery, bour without materials; but all who we should sit idle-give all our money know any thing of the subject know to foreigoers, so that in place of being that the wbole value of manufactured better, we should be mach worse off goods made in England, does not than we now are. • See Ath. vol. 6, page 48.

Theorists are very dangerous guides,

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