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supposed for a moment, that the plea- which the law never fails to afford in sure which they derived from the ka- cases of notorious and unprovoked leidoscope had any relation to the ef- piracy. We are well assured, that it fects described by these authors. never was the intention or the wish of

No proof of the originality of the Dr Brewster to interfere with the kaleidoscope could be stronger than the operations of those poor individuals sensation which it excited in London who have gained a livelihood from and Paris. In the memory of man, the manufacture of kaleidoscopes. We no invention, and no work, whether know that it will always be a source, addressed to the imagination or to the of no inconsiderable gratification to understanding, ever produced such an him, that he has given employment effect. A universal mania for the in- to thousands of persons, whom the strument seized all classes, from the pressure of the times had driven into lowest to the highest, from the most indigence; and when a decision in fan ignorant to the most learned, and vour of his patent is given, as no doubt every person not only felt, but ex- will be the case, he will never think of pressed the feeling, that a new plea- enforcing it, excepting against that class sure had been added to their existence. of opulent pirates who have been actua

If such an instrument had ever been ated by no other motive but the exorknown before, a similar sensation must bitant love of gain, in wantonly enhave been excited, and it would not croaching upon the property of another. have been left to the ingenuity of The patent kaleidoscopes are now the half learned and the half honest made in London, under Dr Brewster's to search for the skeleton of the in- sanction, by Messrs P. and G. Dollond, vention among the rubbish of the 16th W. and S. Jones, Mr R. B. Bate, Mess. and 17th centuries.

Thomas Harris and Son, Mr Bancks, Mr The individuals who have been most Berge, Mr Thomas Jones, Mr Blunt, eager in this search, did not, perhaps, Mr Schmalcalder, Messrs Watkins calculate the degree of mischief which and Hill, and Mr Smith ; in Birmingthey have done to those who have been ham by Mr Carpenter; and in Edinled, upon their authority, to encroach burgh by Mr John Ruthven. An acupon the rights of others, and thus sub- count of the different forms in which ject themselves to very serious conse- these ingenious opticians have fitted up quences. The delay which has taken the kaleidoscope, and of the new con place in commencing legal proceedings, trivances by which they have given it has not arisen from any doubt of the additional value, will be published in complete originality of the kaleidoscope, Dr Brewster's Treatise on the Kaleidosand of the defensibility of the patent. cope, now in the press. The public As soon as the patentee has made will see, from the examination of these himself acquainted with the circum- instruments, how much they have stance of the individuals who have been imposed upon by spurious imiinvaded his patent, with the channels tations, sold at the most exorbitant through which they have exported prices, and made by individuals entheir instruments, and with the a- tirely ignorant, not only of the prinmount of the damage which they have ciples and construction of the instru. done, he will seek for that redress ment, but of the method of using it.

Vol. III.



The appa

We understand that Captain Henry Kater, stance he conclurles, that this light, being F. R. S., is appointed by the Board of Lon- always equable, cannot be the effect of any gitude to measure the length of the pendu- reflection of the solar light. lum at Clifton, Leith Fort, and the Shet. Two different parts may be distinguished land Islands, including the stations at which in the head of this comet : 1. A spherical M. Biot measured the length of the pendu- nebulosity of a whitish coloured light, lum by Borda's apparatus. Captain Kater which surrounded the exterior nucleus, and is well-known to the public, by several in- which is supposed to depend upon the spongenious papers in the philosophical trans- táneous luminousness of the body; 2. The actions, and has shewn himself peculiarly posterior part, opposite to the sun, beyond qualified for the present task, by the very which was extended the double tail; this fine experiments on the length of the pen- part was separated from the nucleus by a dulum, which he has recently performed at dark interval, equal to half the total diameLondon. These observations were made by ter of the head of the comet. a very ingenious method of his own inven. rent diameter of this head was 34' 12", tion, which is free from almost all the which gives it a real diameter of 2,052,000 sources of error which affect the French geographical miles. method, and were lately rewarded by the The greatest apparent length of the Royal Society of London, with the Copley tail is 18°, which gives a real length of Medal.

131,852,000 geographical miles. M. Schrö. Gas Light from Oil.-Mr Taylor of ter conceives, that we cannot explain this Stratford has completed a very ingenious prodigious extent without admitting, that apparatus, by which gas, for the purposes there exists in space around the sun a subof illumination, may be obtained from oil. tile matter, susceptible of becoming lumiThis is a discovery of vast importance for nous by the combined influence of the sun our Greenland fisheries, and is also of great and the comet. Independent of the force consequence in private houses, as only a very which comets exercise as masses of matter, small apparatus is necessary, and there are he conceives that they are endowed with a no disagreeable products as in the distilla- repulsive and impulsive force, which has tion of coal. In the gas produced from oil some analogy to the electric fluid, and, like there is more olefiant gas; and when a very it, acts in different directions. fine and pure light is required on particular Shower of Red Earth in Italy. In the occasions, wax may be substituted in place Annals of Philosopby, for January 1817, of the oil, when almost nothing but olefiant there is a short notice of a shower of red gas is produced.

earth which fell at Gerace, in Calabria ; a Comet of 1811.-During the course of the late number of the Giornale de Fisica of last year, M. Schröter, of Lilienthal, has Bragnatelli, contains a full account of the published an account of the comet which ap- circumstance, with a description of the subpeared in 1811; and by comparing his ob. stance, by Sig. Sementini, Professor of Cheservations on this comet with those which mistry at Naples, of which the following he made upon that which appeared in 1807, is an extract: he has been led to form some singular con- It occurred on March 14, 1813: the clusions. The nucleus of the comet of wind had been westerly for two days, when, 1811, the apparent diameter of which was at two P. M., it suddenly became calm, the 1' 49", and which, calculating from the dis- atmosphere became cloudy, and the darktance, must have had a real diameter of

ness gradually became so great as to render 10,900 miles, M. Schröter supposes to be it necessary to light candles. The sky ascomposed of a fluid covering a solid mass. sumed the colour of red-hot iron, thunder In the centre of this nucleus we distinguish and lightning continued for a considerable a second, which is smaller and more lumi- length of time, and the sea was heard to nous, the apparent diameter of which being roar, although six miles from the city. 16.97", gives a real diameter of 1,697 geo- Large drops of rain then began to fall, graphical miles. This central part was sur. which were of a blood-red colour. rounded with a particular kind of atmos- Sig. Sementini collected a quantity of the phere, upon which many of its most re- powder which fell, and describes its physiinarkable variations depend. Besides this, cal properties to be as follows: It had a it was surrounded by a luminous nebulosity, yellow colour, like canella ; an earthy, inwhich always exhibited the same brilliancy sipid taste ; it was unctuous to the touch, in every part of its surface, without any ap- and extremely subtile. When the powder pearance of phases ; from which circum- was moderately heated, it changed its co


lour, first to a brown, and afterwards to a Loango, is extracted from Professor Smith's black, and became red again as the tempe- journal. rature was raised; after it had been heat. Some days ago the sea had a colour as of ed, many small shining plates were visible, blood. Some of us supposed it to be owing it no longer effervesced with acids, and had to the whales, which at this time approach Lost about one-tenth of its weight. Its spe- the coasts, in order to bring forth their cific gravity was 2.07.

young It is, however, a phenomenon Sig. Sementini then subjected the powder which is generally known, has often been to chemical analysis, and found its compo- described, and is owing to myriads of in. sition to be as follows :

fused animalculæ. I examined some of them

taken in this blood-coloured water; when Silex.........


highly magnified, they do not appear larger Alumine

155 than the head of a small pin. They were Lime


at first in rapid motion, which, however, Chrome


soon ceased, and at the same instant the Iron.......


whole animal separated into a number of Carbonic acid

9 Loss......


spherical particles.”

New Extracts from Coal. Dr Jassmeyer,

Professor of Chemistry in Vienna, has dis100

covered the means of extracting from coals So large a proportion of loss was at first two hitherto unknown acids, a resin, a ascribed to some inaccuracy in the analysis, resinous gum, and other elements, which or to some body that had accidently been he has employed with surprising success to mixed with the powder ; but when he found the purposes of dyeing wool, silk, hair, and it always to occur, whatever care was taken linen, and has produced from them red, in the analysis, he began to suspect that it black, yellow, and various shades of brown depended upon some combustible matter and gray. Count Von Chorinsky, Presiessential to the substance. This suspicion dent of the Aulic Chamber, and many other was afterwards verified ; and by digestion enlightened judges of these matters, were the powder in boiling acohol for a length of present at these experiments, and testified time, he obtained from it a greenish yellow their entire approbation of this useful discolouring matter, which, when dried, ac- covery. quired a pitchy consistence, was inflam- Locusts in India. About the 20th June unable, and left a carbonaceous residuum. 1812, a very large flight of locusts was obThe author remarks, that the existence of served hovering about Etawah, which at chrome in this mineral seems to connect it length settled in the fields east of the town, with the aerolites; but the origin of the com- where they remained some time, and were bustible substance is very obscure: there seen copulating in vast numbers; they then were no circumstances connected with the took their departure, but continued to hover phenomenon which would lead us to sup- about the place for a month afterwards. pose that it was of volcanic origin.

On the 18th of July, while riding in that Supposed Discovery of a Ship near the direction, I discovered a tremendous swarm Cape of Good Hope.--A discovery has been of very small dark-coloured insects in the lately made of a quantity of wood in a car. vicinity of a large pool of stagnant water; bonized state, buried at some depth under they were collected in heaps, and covered the sand, about 10 miles from Cape Town. the ground to a considerable distance. From the appearance and position of pieces These, on minute inspection, proved to be of timber, it has been supposed to consist of locusts in miniature, but without wings. In the frame-work of a large vessel ; and as it this place they remained, hourly increasing is at a considerable distance from the sea, in numbers, for some days, when the great and bears every mark of having been in its body moved off, taking a direction towards present position for a very long period, the town of Etawah: they crept and hopped many speculations have been formed con- along at a slow rate, until they reached the cerning it. The evidence on this point ap- town, where they divided into different bopears, however, to be extremely vague and dies, still however keeping nearly the same uncertain ; and from the specimens of the direction, covering and destroying every wood which have been exhibited in this thing green in their progress, and districountry, which appear to be in the state of buting themselves ay over the neighbourbrown coal, as well as from all the circum- hood. The devastation daily committed by stances of the case, it is probable that it does them being almost incalculable, the farmers not differ from the forests or collections of were under the necessity of collecting as trees which have been found buried in dif- many people as they could, in the rain hope ferent situations, in consequence of some of that they might preserve the crop by sweepthe great revolutions which have formerlying the swarm backwards ; but as often as occurred on the surface of our globe. they succeeded in repelling them in one

Redness of the Sea. The following ac- quarter, they approached in another : fires count of the red colour of the sea on the were then lighted all round the fields with coast of Africa, nezr the mouth of the five the same view ;--this had the effect of keep ing them off for a short time ; but suffi- Majesty's ship Favourite, on visiting the cient fuel could not be supplied, and the site of the ancient city of Shahpoor, ac, moment the fires became extinguished, the companied by Meer Shumsoodeen, a preinsects rushed in like a torrent. Multi-' datory chieftain,--the cave, containing & tudes were destroyed by the birds, and prostrate colossal figure, was pointed out by many more by branches of trees used by the latter, who, from his plundering mode the farmers for that purpose, as well as by of life, had become well 'acquainted with their being swept into large heaps, and con- the hidden recesses of the mountains. The sumed by fire; yet their numbers seemed cave is distant from Shahpoor three miles, nothing diminished. They so completely on the opposite side of the river. From the covered some mangoe trees, and the hedges base of the mountain, near the summit of surrounding the gardens, that the colour of which the excavation is made, no traces of the leaves could not be distinguished. They a cavern are discernible. The ascent is dif, had no wings, and were about the size officult, chiefly from its perpendicular height. small bees. They continued to creep along When the travellers had nearly reached the the ground, or hopped when their progress top, they found themselves at the foot of an was interrupted.

abrupt rampart, about thirty feet high, the July 27.--They were increasing in size, depth of which, from its upper edge to the and had overspread that part of the country entrance of the cave, to which it forms a in every direction. From the want of rain, level landing, was sixty feet. The entrance and the overwhelming inroad of these in to the cavern is a plain roughly-hewn arch, sects, the farmers were nearly ruined. No- thirty feet high, and thirty-five feet wide, thing impeded their progress; they climbed beyond which the height increases to forty up the highest trees, and scrambled over feet, and the width to sixty and seventy. walls; and, notwithstanding the exertions The figure, which is of stone, appears to of several people with brooms, the verandah have stood originally on a pedestal in the and outer walls of the hospital were com- middle of this excavation, but was discopletely covered with them. They no longer vered lying on the ground, and the legs, continued to move in one particular direc. below the knees, broken off. The costume tion, but paraded backwards and forwards, appears to be similar to the sculptures at wherever they could find food.

Shahpoor, Nukshi-Roostum, and PersepoOn the 28th of July the rains set in with lis, and with the same luxuriant flow of considerable violence; the locusts took shel- curled hair. Its arms rest upon the hips, ter on trees and bushes, devouring every and the costume is a robe fastened by a leaf within their reach; none seemed to sui- small button at the neck, and falling loosely fer from the rain.

over the elbows, and in this respect differs On the 29th it did not rain, and the from the sculptures just mentioned. The young swarm again were on the move, con- length of the face from the forehead to the tinuing their depredations; they were fast chin is two feet three inches, and the length increasing in size, and equally lively as be- of the body four feet and a half. According fore the rain.

to this measurement, the whole figure must It again rained on the 30th, and again have been about fourteen feet high. From the locusts took shelter on the trees and the statue to the most retired parts of the fences; several large flights of locusts passed cavern, the excavation 'increases in height over the cantonments, and I observed that the and width. After passing down án inclined wings of the young ones began to appear. plane for about twenty feet, and up an asThe head still retained the dark red colour, cent of about fifty feet more, the travellers but the black lines on the body had become reached a dry reservoir, seventeen feet long much fainter.

by seven wide, and five feet deep. Farther Again, on the 31st, large flights conti- on, they began to descend, by torch light, a pued to pass, driven by the wind to the low narrow passage in the rock, and southward ; of course very few alighted. reached another cavern, the roof of which They caused little mischief within our view. was supported by a few huge shapeless pilThe wings of the young tribe (the whole lars. No conjecture is offered respecting four being now formed) were about one- the use or object of this extraordinary excaeighth of an inch in length. After this vation. time I made no particular observations on Pseudo-Volcano in Staffordshire.- Mr their progress, being otherwise engaged, but Finch, of Birmingham, has published some they disappeared in a few days.

facts relative to what he calls a pseudoAn account of an extensive cavern, con- volcano, near the Bradley iron-works, in taining the remains of a colossal statue, re- Staffordshire. The tract of ground is situ. cently discovered in the mountains in theated by the road-side from Birmingham to vicinity of Shahpoor, in the modern pro- Wolverhampton, about half-way between vince of Fars, the ancient Persia, was re, Wednesbury and Bilston. It is mentioned ceived from Lieut, R. Taylor, of the Bom- by Plott, in his Natural History of Stafford. bay establishment, and presented by the shire, as being on fire in 1686, when he secretary to the society." In Sept. 1816, wrote ; and he says, that it was not then Mr Williams and Capt. Maude, of his known how long it had been on fire. I

then occupied a space of eleven acres ; but lately discovered, by accident, in France, by its ravages have since extended about one M. Baget, called Metallic Watering (Moiré mile and a half in extreme length, and one Metallique). It depends upon the action of mile in breadth. Whether the fire origin- acids, either pure or mixed together, and in ated in accident, or from the sulphur con- different degrees of dilution, on alloys of tin. tained in the coal and pyrites, is not known; The variety of designs resemble mother-ofbut it probably arose from the latter cause, pearl, and reflect the light in the form of as, at other pits, the small coal has taken clouds. The process is this :—first dissolve fire on being exposed to the air. As the four ounces of muriate of soda in eight ounces combustible matter is exhausted, the hand of water, and add two ounces of nitric acid :of cultivation requires its labour; and, even second mixture-eight ounces of water, two in parts where the fire is still, by carefully ounces of nitric acid, and three ounces of stopping the fissures, and preventing the muriatic acid: third mixture-eight ounces access of air, different crops can be raised. of water, two ounces of muriatic acid, and A neglect of these precautions sometimes one ounce of sulphuric acid. One of these destroys half the produce, whilst the re- mixtures is to be poured warm upon a sheet mainder continues flourishing About two of tinned iron, placed upon a vessel of stoneyears ago it began to penetrate through the ware ; it is to be poured on in separate por, floors of some houses : it produced great tions, until the sheet is completely watered ; alarm, by appearing in the night; and four it is then to be plunged into water, slightly of the houses were taken down. It exhi. acidulated, and washed. The watering obbits a red heat in this situation, and the tained by the action of these different mix.. smoke has forced its way through a bed of tures upon tinned iron, imitates, very cinders forty feet in height. On the south closely, mother-of-pearl and its reflections ; it is arrested by beds of sand, which cover but the designs, although varied, are quite the coal formation in that part ; and on the accidental. By heating the tinned iron to north-east it is impeded by cultivation. At different degrees of heat, stars, fern-leaves, first view a stranger might suppose himself and other figures, are produced ; and, by in a volcanic region. The exterior view of pouring one of the above mixtures, cold, the strata, exposed by the falling in of the upon a plate of tinned iron, at a red heat, ground, presents a surface blackened by the a beautiful granular appearance is obtained. action of fire, and presenting most of the These metallic waterings will bear the blow porphyritic and trappean colours in high of a mallet, but not of a hammer ; hence, perfection. The cinder-dust on which you the invention may be used for embossed tread, the sulphureous vapours and smoke patterns, but not for those which which arise from the various parts of the punched. Different colours and shades may surface, and the feeling of insecurity which be given by varnishes, which, when properly attend most of your footsteps, all combine polished, will set off the beauty of the wa. to give a high degree of interest to the tering. When the tin is upon copper, the

The mineral substances found in crystallization appears in the form of radiathis region are:-1. Sulphur in small bril. tions or stars. Mr Shaw of London has, we liant crystals, also massy and amorphous. understand, taken out a patent for this very 2. Mineral tar. 3. Coal, in some places curious invention ; and tin plates are made only four feet from the surface. 4. Sul under his patent, at the manufactory of Mr phate of alum. 5. Muriate of ammonia, Brunell of Battersea. Very paltry imita. combined with a small proportion of sulphate tions of this invention have been made in a of ammonia. 6. Sulphate of zinc. 7. Sul- piratical manner in London ; but the public phate of lime. 8. Porcelain jasper. 9. will no doubt discourage these spurious Newest floetz trap, basalt or rowley-rag. imitations.


Crystallized Tin.-A new art has been


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