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nifesting of things): and the ruler of the contrary destiny,
whether he be a God, or an angel, they named Hades;
by reason that we, when we are dissolved, do go unto an
unseen and invisible place.” By the Latins this Hades is
termed Dispiter or Diespiter: which name they gave unto
this “lower" air that is joined to the earth, where all
things have their beginning and ending; quorum, quod
finis ortus, Orcus dictus,” saith Varro. “ All" this
earthly power and nature,” saith Julius Firmicus, “they
named Ditem patrem, because this is the nature of the
earth, that all things do both fall into it, and taking their
original from thence, do again proceed out of it.” Whence
the earth is brought in, using this speech unto God, in
Hermes: “I” do receive the nature of all things. For I,
according as thou has commanded, do both bear all things,
and receive such as are deprived of life.”
The use which we make of the testimony of Hippo-
crates, and those other authorities of the heathen, is to
shew, that the Greek interpreters of the old Testament
did most aptly assume the word Hades, to express that
common state and place of corruption which was signified
by the Hebrew Sheol, and therefore in the last verse of
the seventeenth chapter of Job, where the Greek maketh
mention of descending into Hades; Comitolus' the Jesuit
noteth that St. Ambrose rendereth it, “in sepulchrum, into
the grave;” which agreeth well with that which Olympio-
dorus writeth upon the same chapter : “Is it not a
thing common unto all men, to die? is not hell (or Hades)

• Idem hic Diespiter dicitur, infimus aer, qui est conjunctus terrae, ubi omnia oriuntur, ubi aboriuntur : quorum quod finis ortus, Orcus dictus. Varro, de lingua Latin. lib. 4. cap. 10.

* Terrenam vim omnem atque naturam, Ditem patrem dicunt: quia haec est natura terrae, ut et recidant in eam omnia, et rursus ex ea orta procedant. Jul. Firmic. Matern. de errore profan. relig. ex Ciceron. lib. 2. de natur. Deor.

Xwpo 3’ tyū kai pāow travrov. ašrn yap, toc at trpoakrašac, rai popo travra, kai povev6ávra &#xopal. Herm. Minerva Mundi, apud Jo. Stobaeum in eclogis physicis, pag. 124.

* Paul. Comitol. Caten. Graec. in Job. cap. 17. ult.

s of cowow tiraqw av0ptoroic drodavsiv; Oix' oc àraq. " oikoç; Oùr trei trčvrec rāv kv6áče karaXhyoval rôv tróvov; Olympiod. Caten. Graec. in Job, cap. 17.

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the house for all? doe not all find there an end of their labours?” Yea, some do think, that Homer himself doth

take #8mc either for the earth or the grave, in those verses of the eighth of his Iliads:

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I'll cast him down as deep
As Tartarus (the brood of night) where Barathrum doth steep
Torment in his profoundest sinks; where is the floor of brass,
And gates of iron : the place, for depth as far doth hell surpass,
As heaven for height exceeds the earth.

For Tartarus being commonly acknowledged to be a part of Hades, and to be the very hell where the wicked spirits are tormented: they think the hell from whence Homer maketh it to be as far distant as the heaven is from the earth, can be referred to nothing so fitly as to the earth or the grave. It is taken also for a tomb in that place of Pindarus :

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“Other sacred kings have gotten a tomb apart by themselves before the houses,” or before the gates of the city. And therefore we see that 'Aičac is by Suidas in his lexicon expressly interpreted ö rápoc, and by Hesychius, ràusłoc, råpoc, a tomb, or a grave; and in the Greek dictionary set out by the Romanists themselves, for the better understanding of the Bible, it is noted, that Hades doth not only signify that which we commonly call hell, but the sepulchre or grave also. Of which, because Stapleton and Bellarmine do deny that any proof can be brought: these instances following may be considered. In the book of Tobit, “I* shall bring my father's old age with sorrow, sic #8ov, unto hell:” what can it import else, but that which is in other words expressed, “I shall bring my father's life with sorrow, sic rov rápov, unto the grave?” In the 93d, and 113th Psalms, according to the Greek division, or the 94th, and 115th, according to the Hebrew ; where the Hebrew hath mont, the place of silence, meaning the grave, as our adversaries themselves do grant, there the Greek hath Hades, or hell. In Isaiah, chap. 14. ver. 19.where the vulgar Latin translated out of the Hebrew, “Descenderunt ad fundamenta laci, quasicadaver putridum: They descended unto the foundations of the lake or pit, as a rotten carcass:” instead of the Hebrew on).5, which signifieth the lake or pit, the Greek, both there and in Isaiah, chap. 38. ver. 18. putteth in Hades, or hell; and on the other side, Ezechiel, chap. 32.ver. 21. where the Hebrew saith, “The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of Sheol, or hell;" there the Greek readeth, etc (3400c Adkkov, or iv (340s. [360pov, in the depth of the lake, or pit: by hell, lake and pit, nothing but the grave being understood; as appeareth by comparing this verse with the five that come after it. So in these places following, where in the Hebrew is Sheol, in the Greek Hades, in the Latin Infernus or Inferi, in the English Hell, the place of dead bodies, and not of souls is to be understood. “Ye" shall bring down my grey hairs with sorrow unto hell;" and “Thy" servants shall bring down the grey hairs of our father with sorrow unto hell;” where no lower hell can be conceited, into which grey hairs may be brought, than the grave. So David giveth this charge unto Solomon concerning Joab : “Let" not his hoary head go down to hell in peace;” and in the ninth verse concerning Shimei: “His hoary head bring thou down to hell with blood.” “Ouro bones are scattered at the mouth of hell.” “Thy" pomp is brought down to hell: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.” “In death there is no remembrance of thee: in hell who shall give thee thanks 2" of which there can be no better paraphrase, than that which is given in Psalm 88. “Shall thy loving kindness be declared in the grave 2 or thy faithfulness in destruction? Shall thy wonders be known in the dark? and thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness?” Andradius in his defence of the faith of the council of Trent, speaking of the difference of reading which is found in the sermon of Saint Peter, “ where God is said to have raised up our Saviour, “loosing the sorrows of death,” as the Greek books commonly read, or “the sorrows of hell,” as the Latin, saith for reconciliation thereof, that “there" will be no disagreement betwixt the Latin and Greek copies, if we do mark that hell in this place is used for death and the grave, according to the Hebrews' manner of speaking : as in the 15th Psalm, which Peter presently after citeth; Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; and Isaiah, chap. 48. For hell cannot confess unto thee. For when he disputeth,” saith he, “ of the resurrection of Christ, he confirmeth by many and most evident testimonies of David, that Christ did suffer death for mankind in such sort, that he could not be overwhelmed with death, nor long lie hidden among the dead.

* Pindar. Pyth. Od. 5. ver. 129. "A?nc, Orcus, Tartarus, sepulchrum. Lexic. Graeco-Lat. in sacro apparatu biblior. regior. cdit. Antwerp. ann. 1572.

* Chap. 3. ver. 10. | Chap. 6. ver, 14. * Gen. chap. 44. ver. 29. n Ibid. ver. 31. ° 1 Kings, chap. 2. ver, 6.

P Psalm 141. ver. 7. * Esai. chap. 14. ver, 11. * Psalm 6. ver. 5. * Ver. 11, 12. * Acts. chap. 2. ver. 24. * Nullum erit inter Latina Graecaque exemplaria dissidium, si animadvertamus infernum hoc loco pro morte atque sepulchro, Hebraeorum dicendi more, usurpari : ut Psal. 15. quem mox Petrus citat; Quoniam non dereliquistianimam mean in inferno. Et Esai, cap. 38. Quia non infernus confitebitur tibi. Nam cum de Christi resurrectione disserat; multis atque apertissimis Davidis testimoniis confirmat, ita pro humano genere mortem Christum obiisse, ut morte obrui et delitescere inter mortuos diu non posset. Widetur autem mihi per dolores infernisive mortis, mortem doloris atque miseriarum plenam, Hebræorum dicendi more, significarit: sicut Matthaeicap. 24. abominatio desolationis accipitur pro desolatione abominanda. Andrad, defens. Tridentin, fid, lib, 2.

And it seemeth to me, that by the sorrows of hell or death, a death full of sorrow and miseries is signified, according to the Hebrews' manner of speaking: as in Matthew, chap. 24. the abomination of desolation is taken for an abominable desolation.” Thus far Andradius: clearly forsaking herein his fellow-defenders of the Tridentine faith, who by the one text of loosing the sorrows of death, would fain prove Christ's descending to free the souls that were tormented in purgatory; and by the other of not leaving his soul in hell, his descending into Limbus to deliver the souls of the fathers that were at rest in Abraham's bosom.

The former of these texts", is thus expounded by Ribera the Jesuit: “God" raised him up, loosing and making void the sorrows of death, that is to say, that which death by so many sorrows had effected; namely, . that the souls should be separated from the body.” His fellow Sa interpreteth “the loosing of the sorrows of death" to be the “delivering of him from the troubles of death: although sorrow,” saith he, “may be the epithet of death, because it useth to be joined with death.” The apostle's speech hath manifest reference to the words of David, 2 Samuel, chap. 22. ver. 5, 6. and Psalm 18. (al. 17.) ver. 4, 5. where in the former verse mention is made of nin ban, the sorrows of death, in the latter of oxw on, which by the Septuagint is in the place of the Psalms translated &Sivec Śēov, the sorrows of hell; in 2 Samuel, chap. 22. ver. 6. & Sivec 6avárov, the sorrows of death; according to the explication following in the end of the self same verse. The sorrows of hell compassed me about; the snares of death prevented me; and in Psalm 116. ver. 3. The sorrows of death compassed me,

* Acts, chap. 2. ver. 24. "Suscitavit illum Deus, solvens et irritans dolores mortis, hoc est, quod per tot dolores mors effecerat, ut scilicet anima separaretur a corpore. Fr. Ribera, in Hose. cap. 13. num. 23. * Quasi dicat, ereptum a mortis molestiis; has enim dolores vocat, quanquam mortis epitheton possit esse dolor; quod morti conjungi soleat. Emman. Sa, notat. in Act. cap. 2. ver, 24. * In edit. Aldina et Vaticana; nam Complutensis habet xotvia. §§ov.

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