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text as preparatory to the insurrection of 1745, is, so far as lie knows, entirely inaginary. But it is well known such a great hunting was held in the Forest of Braemar, under the auspices of the Earl of Mar, as preparatory to the Rebellion of 1715 ; and most of the Highland chieftains who afterwards engaged in that civil commotion were present on this occasion.
Note (25), p. 170. MAC-FARLANE'S LANTERN. The clan of Mac-Farlane, occupying the fastnesses of the western side of Loch Lo. mond, were great depredators on the Low Country, and as their excursions were made usually by night, the moon was proverbially called their lantern. Their celebrated pibroch of Hoggil nam Bo, which is the name of their gathering tune, intimates simila practices,--the sense being :
We are bound to drive the bullocks,
Through the sleet, and through the rain.
And all for little gain.
Noto (26), p. 172. THE CASTLE OP DOUNE. This noble ruin is dear to my recollection, from associations which have been long And painfully broken. It holds a commanding station on the banks of the river Teith, and has been one of the largest castles in Scotland. Murdock, Duke of Albany, the founder of this stately pile, was beheaded on the Castle-lıill of Stirling, from which lie might see the towers of Doune, the monument of his fallen greatness.
In 1745-6, as stated in the text, a garrison on the part of the Chevalier was put into the castle, then less ruinous than at present. It was commanded by Mr Stewart of Balloch, as governor for Prince Charles; he was a man of property near Callander. This castle became at that time the actual scene of a romantic escape made by John Home, the author of Douglas, and some other prisoners, who, having been taken at the battle of Falkirk, were confined there by the insurgents. The poet, who had in his ow! mind a large stock of that romantic and enthusiastic spirit of adventure, which he has described as animating the youthful hero of his drama, devised and undertook the perilous enterprise of escaping from his prison. He inspired his companions with his senti. ments, and when every attempt at open force was deemed hopeless, they resolved to twist their bed-clothes into ropes, and thus to descend. Four persons, with Home himself, reached the ground in safety. But the rope broke with the fifth, who was a tall lusty man. The sixth was Thomas Barrow, a brave young Englislınan, a particular friend of Home's. Determined to take the risk, even in such unfavourable circumstances, Barrow committed himself to the broken rope, slid down on it as far as it could assist him, and then let himseif drop. His friends beneath succeeded in breaking his fall. Nevertheless, he dislocated his ankle, and had several of his ribs broken. His companions, however, were able to bear him off in safety.
The Highlanders next morning sought for their prisoners with great activity. An old gentleman told the author, le remembered seeing the commander Stewart,
Bloody with spurring, fiery red with haste, riding furiously through the country in quest of the fugitives.
Note (27), p. 175. TO GO OUT. To go out, or to have been out, in Scotland, was a conventional phrase similar to that of the Irish respecting a man having been up, both having reference to an individual who had been engaged in insurrection. It was accounter ill-breeding in Scotland, about forty years since, to use the plirase rebellion or rebel, which might be interpreted by some of the parties present as a personal insult. It was also esteeined more polite even for stanch Whigs to denominate Charles Edward the Chevalier, than to speak of him as the Pretender ; and this kind of accommodating courtesy was usually observed in society where individuals of each party mixed on friendly terms.
Note (28), p. 180. THE ENGLISH JACOBITES. The Jacobite sentiments were general among the western counties, and in Wales. But although the great families of the Wynnes, the Wyndhams, and others, had come under an actual obligation to join Prince Charles if he should land, they liad done so under the express stipulation, that he should be assisted by an auxiliary army of French,
without which they foresaw the enterprise would be desperate. Wishing well to his cause, therefore, and watching an opportunity to join him, they did not, nevertheless, think themselves bound in honour to do so, as he was only supported by a body of wild mountaineers, speaking an uncouth dialect, and wearing a singular dress. The race up to Derby struck them with more dread than admiration. But it was difficult to say what the effect might have been, had either the battle of Preston or Falkirk been fought and won during the advance into England.
Note (29), p. 182. THE CHEVALIER'S ARMY. Divisions early showed themselves in the Chevalier's little army, not only amongst the independent chieftains, who were far too proud to brook subjection to each other, but betwixt the Scotch, and Charles's governor O'Sullivan, an Irishman by birth, who, with some of his countrymen bred in the Irish Brigade in the service of the King of France, had an influence with the Adventurer, much resented by the Highlanders, wlio were sensible that their own clans made the chief or rather the only strength of his enterprise. There was a feud, also, between Lord George Murray, and James Murray of Broughton, the Prince's secretary, whose disunion greatly embarrassed the affairs of the Adventurer. In general, a thousand different pretensions divided their little army, and finally contributed in no small degree to its overthrow.
Note (30), p. 200. FIELD-PIECE IN THE HIGHLAND ARMY. This circunstance, which is historical, as well as the description that precedes it, will remind the reader of the war of La Vendée, in which the royalists, consisting chiefly of insurgent peasantry, attached a prodigious and even superstitious interest to the possession of a piece of brass ordnance, which they called Marie Jeane.
The Highlanders of an early period were afraid of cannon, with the noise and effect of which they were totally unacquainted. It was by means of three or four small pieces of artillery, that the Earls of Huntly and Errol, in James VI.'s time, gained a great victory at Glenlivat, over a numerous Highland army, conimanded by the Earl of Argyle. At the battle of the bridge of Dee, General Middleton obtained by his artillery a simi. lar success, the Highlanders not being able to stand the discharge of Musket's-Mother, which was the name they bestowed on great-guns. In an old ballad on the battle of the bridge of Dee, these verses occur : The Highlandmen are pretty men
But yet they are but naked men
To face the cannon's roar.
For the cannons roar on a summer night
Like thunder in the air;
Was never man in Highland garb
Would face the cannon fair. But the Highlanders of 1745 had got far beyond the simplicity of their forefathers, and slowed throughout the whole war how little they dreaded artillery, although the common people still attached some consequence to the possession of the field-piece which led to this disquisition. Note (31), p. 208.
ANDERSON or WHITBERGH. The faithful friend who pointed out the pass by which the Ilighlanders moved from Tranent to Seaton, was Robert Anderson, junior, of Whitburghi, a gentleman of property in East Lothian. He had been interrogated by the Lord George Murray concerning the possibility of crossing the uncouth and marshy piece of ground which divided the armies, and which he described as impracticable. When dismissed, he recollected that there was a circuitous path leading eastward through the marsh into the plain, by which the Highlanders might turn the flank of Sir John Cope's position, without being exposed to the enemy's fire. Having mentioned his opinion to Mr Hepburn of Keith, who instantly saw its importance, lie was encouraged by that gentleman to awake Lord George Murray, and communicate the idea to him. Lord George received the information with grateful thanks, and instantly awakened Prince Charles, wlio was sleeping in the field with a bunch of pease under his head. The Adventurer received with alacrity the news that there was a possibility of bringing an excellently provided army to a decisive battle with his own irregular forces. His joy on the occasion was not very consistent with the charge of cowardice brought against him by Chevalier Johnstone, a discontented follower, whose memoirs possess at least as much of a romantic as a historical character. Even by the account of the Chevalier himsell, the Prince was at the head of the second line of the Ilighiland army during the battle, of which he Bays, “IĆ was gained with such rapidity, that in the second line, where I was still by
the side of the Prince, we saw 10 other enemy than those who were lying on the ground killed and wounded, though we were not more than fifty paces behind our first line, running always as fast as we could to overtake them.”
This passage in the Chevalier's Memoirs places the Prince within fifty paces of the heat of the battle, a position which would never have been the choice of one unwilling to take a share of its dangers. Indeed, unless the chiefs had complied with the young Adventurer's proposal to lead the van in person, it does not appear that he could have been deeper in the action.
Note (32), p. 211. DEATH OF COLONEL GARDINER. The death of this good Christian and gallant man is thus given by his affectionate biographer, Dr Doddridge, from the evidence of eyewitnesses :
• He continued all night under arms, wrapped up in his cloak, and generally sheltered under a rick of barley, which happened to be in the field. About three in the morning he called his domestic servants to him, of which there were four in waiting. He dismissed three of them with most affectionate Christian advice, and such solemn charges relating to the performance of their duty, and the care of their souls, as seemed plainly to intimate that he apprehended it was at least very probable he was taking his last farewell of them. There is great reason to believe that he spent the little remainder of the time, which could not be much above an hour, in those devout exercises of soul which had been so long habitual to him, and to which so many circumstances did then concur to call him. The army was alarmed by break of day, by the noise of the rebels' approach, and the attack was made before sunrise, yet when it was liglit enough to discern what passed. As soon as the enemy came within gun-shot they made a furi. ous fire ; and it is said that the dragoons which constituted the left wing immediately fied. The Colonel at the beginning of the onset, which in the whole lasted but a few minutes, received a wound by a bullet in his left breast, which made him give a sudden spring in his saddle ; upon which his servant, who led the horse, would have persuaded him to retreat, but he said it was only a wound in the flesh, and fought on, though he presently after received a shot in his right thigh. In the mean time, it was discerned that some of the enemy fell by him, and particularly one man, who had made him a treacherous visit but a few days before, with great profession of zeal for the present establishment.
" Events of this kind pass in less time than the description of them can be written, or than it can be read. The Colouel was for a few moments supported by his men, and particularly by that worthy person Lieutenant-Colonel Whitney, who was shot through The arm here, and a few months after fell nobly at the battle of Falkirk, and by Lieutenant West, a man of distinguished bravery, as also by about fifteen dragoons, who stood by him to the last. But after a faint fire, the regiment in general was seized with a panic"; and though their colonel and some other gallant officers did what they could to rally them once or twice, they at last took a precipitate flight. And just in the moment when Colonel Gardiner seemed to be making a pause to deliberate what duty required him to do in such circumstances, an accident happened, which must, I think, in the judgment of every worthy and generous man, be allowed a sufficient apology for exposing his life to so great hazard, when his regiment had left him. He saw a party of the foot, who were then bravely fighting near him, and whom he was ordered to support, had no officer to head them ; upon which he said eagerly, in the hearing of the person from whom I had this account, These brave fellows will be cut to pieces for want of a commander,' or words to that effect; which while he was speaking, he rode up to them and cried out, *Fire on, my lads, and fear nothing.' But just as the words were out of his mouth, a Highlander advanced towards him with a scythe fastened to a long pole, with which he gave him so dreadful a wound on his right arm, that bis sword dropped out of his hand; and at tlic same time several others coming about him while he was thus dreadfully entangled with that cruel weapon, lie was dragged off from his liorse. The moment lie fell, another llighlander, who, if the king's evidence at Carlisle may be credited (as I know not why they should not, though the unhappy creature died denying it), was one Mac-Naught, who was executed about a year after, gave him a stroke either with a broadsword or a Lochaber-axe (for my informant could not exactly distinguish) on the hinder part of his head, which was the mortal blow. All that his faithful attendant saw farther at this time was, that as his hat was falling off, he took it in his left hand 23d waved it as a signal to him to retreat, and added what were the last words he ever heard him speak, “Take care of yourself; 'upon which this servant retired."
Some remarkable Passages in the Life of Colonel James Gardiner, by P. Doddridge, D.D. London, 1747, p. 187.
I may rcmark on this extract, that it confirms the account given in the text of the resistance offered by soine of the English infantry. Surprised by a force of a peculiar and unusual description, their opposition could not be long or formidable, especially as they were deserted by the cavalry, and those who undertook to manage the artillery. But although the affair was soon decided, I have always understood that many of the infantry showed an inclination to do their duty.
Note (33), p. 312. THE LAIRD OF BALMAWRAPPLE. It is scarcely necessary to say that the character of this brutal young Laird is entiviy imaginary. A gentleman, however, who resembled Balinawhapple in the article of courage only, fell at Preston in the manner described. A Perthshire gentleman of high honour and respectability, one of the handful of cavalry who followed the fortunes of Charles Edward, pursued the fugitive dragoons almost alone till near Saint Clement's Wells, whiere the efforts of some of the officers had prevailed on a few of them to make a momentary stand. Perceiving at this moment that they were pursued by only one man and a couple of servants, they turned upon him and cut him down with their swords. I remember, when a child, sitting on his grave, where the grass long grew rank and green, distinguishing it from the rest of the ficld. A female of the family then residing at Saint Clement's Wells used to tell me the tragedy, of which she hari been an eyewitness, and showed me in evidence one of the silver clasps of the unfor. tunate gentleman's waistcoat.
Note (34), p. 220. ANDREA DE FERRARA. The name of Andrea de Ferrara is inscribed on all the Scottish broadswords which are accounted of peculiar excellence. Who this artist was, what were his fortunes, and when he flourished, have hitherto defied the research of antiquaries; only it is in general believed that Andrea de Ferrara was a Spanish or Italian artificer, brought over by James IV. or V. to instruct the Scots in the manufacture of sword blades. Most barbarous nations excel in the fabrication of arms; and the Scots had attained great proficiency in forging swords, so early as the field of Pinkie; at which period the liistorian Patten describes them as“ all notably broad and thin, universally made to slice, and of such exceeding good temper, that as I never saw any so good, so I think it hard to devise better."-(Account of Somerset's Expedition.)
It may be observed, that tho best and most genuine Andrea Ferraras have a crown marked on the blades.
Note (35), p. 223. Miss NAIRNE. The incident here said to have happened to Flora Mac-Ivor, actually befell Miss Nairne, a lady with whom the author had the pleasure of being acquainted. As the Highland army rushed into Edinburghi, Miss Nairne, like other ladies who approved of their cause, stood waving her handkerchief from a balcony, wlien a ball from a llighlander's nusket, which was discharged by accident, grazed her forehead.
" Thank God," said she, the instant she recovered, "that the accident liappened to me, whose principles arv known. Had it befallen a Whig, they would liave said it was done on purpose.
Note (36), p. 254. PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD, The Author of Waverley has been charged with painting the young Adventurer in colours more amiable than his character deserved. But having known many individuals who were near his person, he has been described according to the light in which those cyewituesses saw his temper and qualifications. Something must be allowed, no doubt, to the natural exaggcrations of those who remembered him as the bold and adventurous l'rince, in whose cause they had braved death and ruin; but is their evidence to give place entirely to that of a single malcontent?
I have already noticed the imputations thrown by the Charalier Johnstone on the Prince's courage. But some part at least of that gentleman's tale is purely romantic. It would not, for instance, be supposed, that at the time he is favouring us with the liighly-wrought account of liis amour with the adorable Peggie, the Chevalier Jolin. stone was a married man, wiose grandchild is now alive, or that the whole circumstan. tial story concerning the outrageous vengeance taken by Gordon of Abbachie on a Presbyterian clergyman, is entirely apocryphal. At the same time it may be admitted, that the Prince, like others of his family, did not esteem the services done him by bis adherents so biglily as he ought. Educated in high ideas of liis hereditary right, he has been supposed to have held every exertiou and sacrifice made in his cause as too much
the duty of the person making it, to merit extravagant gratitude on his part. Dr King's evidence (which luis leaving the Jacobite interest render's somewhat doubtful) goes to strengthen this opinion.
The ingenious cditor of Jolinstone's Menoirs has quoted a story said to he told by IIelvetius, stating that Prince Charles Edward, far from voluntarily embarking on his daring expedition, was literally bound land and foot, and to which he seems disposed to yield credit. Now, it being a fact as well known as any in his history, and, so far as I know, entirely undisputed, that the Prince's personal entrenties and urgency positively forced Boisdale and Lochiel into insurrection, when they were earnestly desirous that he would put off his attempt until he could obtain a sulficient force from France, it will be very difficult to reconcile his alleged reluctance to undertake thie expedition, with his desperately insisting on carrying the rising into effect, against the advice and entreaty of his most powerful and most sage partisans. Surely a man who bad been carried bound on board the vessel which brougut him to so desperate an enterprise, would have taken the opportunity afforded by the reluctance of his partisans to return to France in safety.
It is averred in Johnstone's Menoirs, that Charles Edward left the field of Culloden without doing the utmost to dispute the victory; and, to give the evidence ou both sides, there is in existence the more trustworthy testimony of Lord Elcho, who states, that he himself earnestly exhorted the Prince to charge at the hiend of the left wing, which was entire, and retrieve the day or die with honour. And on his counsel being declined, Lord Elcho took leave of him with a bitter execration, swearing he would never look on his face again, and kept his word.
On the other hand, it seems to have been the opinion of almost all the other officers, that the day was irretrievably lost, one wing of the Highlanders being entirely ronted, the rest of the army out-numbered, out-flanked, and in a condition totally hopeless. In this situation of things, the Irish officers who surrounded Charles's person interfered to force him off the field. A cornet wlio was close to the Prince, left a strong attestation, that he liad seen Sir Thomas Sheridan seize the bridle of his horse, and turn him round. There is some discrepancy of evidence; but the opinion of Lord Elcho, a man of ficry tem;er, and desperate at the ruin which he beheid impending, cannot fairly Le taken, in prejudico of a character for courage which is intimated by the nature of the enterprise itself, by the Prince's eagerness to fight on all occasions, by his determination to advance from Derby to London, and by the presence of mind which he manifested during the romantic perils of his escape. The author is far from claiming for this unfortunate person the praise due to splendid talents ; but he continues to be of opinion, that at the period of his enterprise, he had a mind capable of facing danger and aspiring to fame.
That Charles Edward had the advantages of a graceful presence, courtesy, and an address and manner becoming his station, the author never heard disputed by any who approached his person, nor does he conceive that these qualities are overcharged in the present attempt to sketch leis portrait. The following extracts corroborative of the gencral opinion respecting the Prince's amiable disposition, are taken from a mapuscript accouut of his romantic expedition, by James Maxwell of Kirkconnell, of which I possess a copy, by the friendship of J. Menzies, Esquire of Pitloddells. The author, though partial to the Prince, wliom he faithfully followed, seems to have been a fair and candid man, and well acquainted with the intrigues among the Adventurer's council:
“ Everybody was mightily taken with the Prince's figure and personal behaviour. There was but one voice abont them. Those whom interest or prejudice made a run. away to his cause, could not help acknowledging that they wished him well in all other respects, and could hardly blame him for his present undertaking. Sundry things had concurred to raise his character to the highest pitch, besides the greatness of the enterprise, and the conduct that had hitherto appeared in the execution of it. There were several instances of good-nature and humanity that had made a great impression on peoples' minds. I shall confine myself to two or three. Immediately after the battle, as the Prince was riding along the ground that Cope's army had occupied a few minutes before, one of the officers came up to congratulate liim, and said, pointing to the killed, “Sir, there are your enemies at your feet.' The Prince, far from exulting, expressed a great deal of compassion for his father's deluded subjects, whom he declared he was heartily sorry to see in that posture. Next day, while the Prince was at Pinkiehouse, a citizen of Edinburgh came to make some representation to Secretary Murray about the tents that city was ordered to furnish against a certain day. Murray hap. pened to be out of the way, which the Prince hearing of, called to have the gentleman brought to him, saying he would rather despatch the business, whatever it was, bimjell, than have the gentleman wait, which lie did, by granting everything that was