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favour of white marble ? But Mr Lloyd, but the vermilion ećavdei-Lloyd, in bis note on this passage, effloresces; or, as we should say, comes with respect to Socrates (vide " Apo- up dry to the surface, leaving the logy"), admits that it is no evidence of vebicle with which it was put on. the colouring the flesh. “The pas- However, let the passage have all the sage is decisive, as far as it goes, but meaning Mr Owen Jones can desire, it does not touch the question of it relates only to certain sacred figures colouring the flesh. It proves that at Rome, not in Greece, and which as late as Plato's time it was usual may have been, for anything that is to apply colour to the eyes of statnes; known to the contrary, figures of sacred and assuming, wbat is not stated, that geese. How do these quotations show marble statues are in question, we the practice of Phidias? In the first are brought to the same point as by place, Plato, who narrates what Sothe Æginetan marbles, of which the crates said, was nearly a century after eyes, lips, portions of the armour and Phidias, and Plutarch nearly six hundraperies, were found coloured. I dred years after Phidias. On every forget whether the hair was found to account the authority of Plato would be coloured, but the absence of traces be preferable to that of Plutarch, who of colour on the flesh, while they were kept his school at Rome, and was far abundant elsewhere, indicates that, if more fond of raising questions than coloured at all, it must have been by of affording accurate information.* a different and more perishable pro- Mr Owen Jones, however, in the imcess—by a tint, or stain, or varnish. petuosity of his imaginary triumph, The Æginetan statues, being archaic, outruns all his given authorities to do not give an absolute rule for those authorities not given. He says: of Pbidias. The archaic Athenian “There are abundant notices extant bas-relief of a warrior, in excellent which illustrate it (the painting of preservation, shows vivid colours on statues). One will suffice. drapery and ornaments of armour, celebrated marble statue of a Bacand the eyeballs were also coloured : chante by Scopas is described as here again there is no trace of colour holding, in lieu of the Thyrsus, a on the flesh." But notwithstanding dead roebuck, which is cut open, and that no statue has been found with the marble represents living flesh.” any trace of colour in the flesh, and we willingly excuse the blander of not satisfied with Mr Lloyd's com- the living flesh of a dead roebuck, mentary, Mr Owen Jones seeks proof ascribing it solely to the impetuosity and confirmation of the sense of the of the genius of Mr Owen Jones, quotation from Plato, in a caution which, plunging into colouring inatgiven by Plutarch, thus mistranslated: ter, would vermilionise the palest " It is necessary to be very careful face of Death. If paint could "create of statues, otherwise the vermilion a soul under the ribs of death,” he with which the ancient statues were would do it. He must greatly coloured will quickly disappear.” What admire the old lady's dying rekind of care is necessary ? Plutarch quest touses the word γάνωσις, which means

“ Put on this cheek a little red, more than care—that a polishing or One surely would not look a fright when varnishing is necessary (if, as we may

dead." presume, they would preserve the old We know not where to lay our hand colouring of an archaic statue), be- upon the original account of this cause, not perhaps of the quick fading statue of the Bacchante of Scopas; of the vermilion, as translated by Mr but if it says no more than the


* We do not presume to be critical upon the Bæotian schoolmaster's Greek; but no modern student would take him for an authority in prosody. He says the impetuosity of the genius of Homer hurried him into a false quantity in the first line of the Iliad, in the word Orde. Plutarch was forgetful of the rule of a purum in the vocative. His prejudice is sufficiently shown in his essay on the Malignity of Herodotus, whom he disliked, because the historian did not speak over favourably of the Boeotians. “ Plutarch was a Boeotian, and thought it indispensably incumbent on him to vindicate the cause of his countrymen."-Beloe's Herod.



16 and

Apologist says for it—that the marble however, such a specimen in marble, represented " living flesh”—it does he is particularly glad to find one of not necessarily imply colour. Here gypsum, ornamented with paint :" is a contradiction : if it be meant nothing more probable, and for the that by “ living flesh" the colour same reason that the wooden one of living flesh was represented-for was painted vermilion. that must be the argument—there “But colour was used, as must have been an attempt towards know,” says Mr Owen Jones ; the exact imitation of nature. “In Pausanias (Arcad., lib. viii. cap. 39) the first place,” says Mr Owen Jones, describes a statue of Bacchus as havarguing against the suggestion of col- ing all those portions not hidden by oured and veined marble having been draperies painted vermilion, the body used, “veids do not so run in marble as being of gilded wood. He also disto represent flesh. In the second, unless tinctly says that statues made of statues were usually coloured, such gypsum were painted, describing a veins, if they existed, would be statue of Bacchus yufou TETTOLNuevov, regarded as terrible blemishes, and which was—the language is explicit, the very things the Greeks are sup- ornamented with paint, (ETTLKEKOO Unueposed to have avoided-viz., colour νον γραφη.)” These are statues of as representing reality-would be Bacchus, and, as the Apologist is shown." Does Mr Owen Jones here reminded by his commentator, Mr admit that this exact imitation by Lloyd, " apparently ithyphallic," and colour was not usual? If so, as the therefore painted red. The draperies words imply, what becomes of his are the assumption of the writer ; he quotation of the words of Socrates should have said ivy and laurel. with regard to colouring the eyes? Mr Owen Jones, to render his And further, upon what new plea examples " abundant," writes statues will he justify his colouring the in the latter part of the quotation, Parthenon frieze-not only the men whereas the word in his authority, and their cloaks, but the horses—80 Pausanias, is singular. We stay not that the latter exactly resemble to inquire if ypaon here means paint, those on the roundabouts on which though, speaking of another statue, children ride at fairs? We suppose Pausanias uses the verb and its congehe meant the men to have a natural nial noun in another sense—“ériypapcolour, and the horses also-a taste μα επάυτη γραφήναι.” We the more so vile, that we are quite sure such readily grant it was painted vermia perpetration would have shocked lion, because it was a Bacchic statue; Phidias out of all patience. And if and grant that it was seen by Paunot meant for the exact colour, what sanias. We daresay it was ancient can he suppose they were painted enough ; but for any proof we must for?---as, to avoid this semblance of not look to Pausanias, who lived at reality, the Greeks, according to him, Rome 170th year of the Christian should have painted men and horses era ;--and here it must be borne in vermilion or blue, or any colour the mind, that of the innumerable statues farthest from reality, the contrary to spoken of by that writer, of marble the practice of Mr Owen Jones—and and other materials, the supposed that he should have painted them painted are a very few exceptions. vermilion he immediately shows, by Not only does he speak of marble, quoting Pausanias, where he de- without any mention of colouring, scribes a statue of Bacchus " as but of its whiteness. In this matter, having all those portions not hidden indeed, the exceptions prove the rule by draperies painted vermilion, the of the contrary. Before we proceed body. being of gilded wood.” What to the examples taken from Virgil — has this to do with marble statues ? weak enough-let us see if there may But he seems not to understand the not be found something nearer the hint given by his commentator, Mr time of Phidias than any authorities Lloyd, that the statue was appa- given. Well, then, we have an eyerently ithyphallic, and probably witness, one who must not only have archaic". a well-known peculiarity seen the statues of Phidias, but proin statues of Bacchus. Not having, bably conversed with Phidias him



self-Æschylus. If such statues as judice in favour of marble, for “Amor" he speaks of were painted generally, shall be marble—that is the first word, and as a necessary part of their and first consideration. In the next completion, could he have brought quotation Virgil, as provokingly, sets irto poetic use and sentiment their his heart upon marble-nay, smooth vacancy of eyes? It is a remarkable polished marble--and the whole figure passage. He is describing Menelaus is to be entirely of this smooth marble; in his gallery full of the large statues but he gratifies Mr Jones by“scarlet" of Helen. It is in the “Agamemnon:" —the colour of colours, vermilion

and thus so reconciles the PolychroΕνμόρφων γάρ κολοσσών matist to the marble, as to induce him "Έχύεται χάρις άνδρί. .

to quote the really worthless pas'Ομμάτων δ' εν αχηνίαις

sage:Έρρει πασ' 'Αφροδίτα.

“Si proprium hoc fuerit, levi de marmore There was

no speculation in those Puniceo stabis suras evincta cothurno." eyes. The eyes were not painted certainly; as the poet saw the statues It is not of much moment to the main in his mind's eye, so had he seen

question what statue one clown should them with his visible organs. The offer to Diana, in return for a day's charm of love was not in them, hunting, or the other to a very difbecause the outward form of the ferent and far less respectable deity, eye was only represented in the whom he has already made in vulgar marble. The love-charm was not in marble, pro temp. only, and whom he those“ vacancies of eyes." Schütz promises to set up in gold, though has this note upon the passage:

simply the custos pauperis horti." “ Quamvis nimirum eleganter fabri- “ Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecicatæ sint statuæ, carent tamen oculis, mus ; at tu adeoque admirationem quidem exci

Si fætura gregem suppleverit, aureus esto." tare possunt amorem non item."

The poetical promises exceeded the These lines of the poet Æschylus, clown's means; neither Diana, por repeated before an acate and critical the deity, odious to her, saw the Athenian audience, would have been promises fulfilled. The Apologist is unintelligible, and marked as an egre- merely taking advantage of a poetical gious blunder, if the practice of paint license, a plenary indulgence in noning statues, or even their eyes alone, performance. It is quite ridiculous had been so universal as it is repre- to attempt to prove what Phidias and sented in this - Apology.” Can there Praxiteles must have done, by what be a more decisive authority, than this Virgil imagined. But as Mr Owen of the contemporary Æschylus? It is Jones delights in such quasi modern certainly a descent from Æschylus to authorities, we venture to remind him Virgil; but we follow the apologist. of the bad taste of Horace, who loved “ Marmoreusque tibi, Dea, versicoloribus

the Parian marble ; and to recomalis

mend him to consider in what manner In morem pictâ stabit Amor pharetra." white marble is spoken of by as good

authority, Juvenal, who introduces it The writer, by 'his italics, is, we as most valued in bis time-white think, a little out in grammar, con- statues. necting “in morem " (because it was customary) with “versicoloribus alis,"

“ Et jam accurrit, qui marmora donet -and in his trapslated sense of the

Conferat impersas. Hic nuda et candida

signa, passage, with “ pictâ pharetrâ ” also. Hic aliquid præclarum Euphranoris et This is certainly making nothing of Polycleti." it, by endeavouring to make the most It may be as well to quote also what of it. “ In morem may more pro- he says in reference to waxing staperly attach itself to “stabit ;” if tues : not, to the wings or painted quiver,Rot, in construction, to both; at any

“ Propter quæ fas est genua incerare Deorate, Virgil, though Heyne reproves him for his bad taste, bad here a pre- Upon which we find in a note—"Con

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sueverant Deorum simulacra cera stratus. “Is there anything wantillinire (the old word of dispute) ibi- ing?” asks Polystratns, after mention demque affert illud Prudentii, lib. i., of these perfect statues. Lycinus recontra Symonachum,

plies that the colouring is wanting.

He therefore brings to his description - Saxa illita ceris Viderat, unguentoque Lares humescere the most beautiful works of the best nigros.

painters. Enough is not done yet;

there is the mind to be added. He And in Sat. XII., “Simulacra inten- therefore calls in the poets. Here, tia cerâ."

then, we have statuary, painter, and We have already treated of this poet, each by their separate art to custom of waxing the statues, and portray this perfect woman. He given the recipe of Pliny, to which does not describe by painted statues, we revert for a moment, because the

but by pictures. Had painting staadvocates for the colouring theory in- tues been universal, as pretended, sist that illitia, linita, illinere, linire, Lucian must have seen examples, and all of one origin, are words applicable his reference to pictures would have to painting. Pliny says, - we quote been unnecessary. If it be argued from Smith's Dictionary of Greek and that the paint bad worn off, that Roman Antiquities, – after showing argument will tell against the Polyhow the wax should be melted and chromatists, for it at least will show laid on, “ It was then rubbed with a that, in an age when statues were clean linen cloth, in the way that nuked esteemed, the barbarity of colouring marble statues were done." The Latin was not renewed. is—"Sicut et marmora nitescunt."

In his “Description of a House," The writer in the Dictionary speaks he says, “Over against the door, upon as to the various application of the the wall, there is the Temple of encaustic process, to paint and to Minerva in relief, where you may see polish : “Wax thus purified was the goddess in white marble, without mixed with all species of colours, and her accoutrements of war." The prepared for painting; but it was ap- painter, it may be fairly conjectured, plied also to many other uses, as painted inside on the wall of the polishing statues, walls, &c.”

house, the common aspect, and the Lucian, who died ninety years of age, white marble statue. 180th of the Christian era, although In his “Baths of Hippias," he he relinquished the employment of a mentions “two noble pieces of antistatuary, and followed that of litera- quity in marble of Health and Æsture, had certainly an excellent taste culapius.” Nor does he omit noticin art. His descriptions of statues ing paint, and that vermilion-but and pictures prove his fondness and where is it? “Then you come to a his knowledge. What he says of the hot passage of Numidian stone, that famous Cnidian Venus of Praxiteles brings you to the last apartment, is very remarkable. After admiring glittering with a bright vermilion, the whiteness of the marble and its bordering on purple." polish, he praises the ingenuity of the According to Mr Owen Jones's artificer, in so contriving the statue theory, all these exquisite works in as to bring least in sight a blemish in white marble are to be considered as the marble, (a very common thing, he unfinished; if they have not been adds). It would not have required handed over to the painter, they this ingenuity in the design, if Praxi- should be now. Why did Phidias teles had intended his statue to be and Praxiteles so elaborate to the painted, for the paint would have mark of truth their performances ? covered the stain in the marble wher. The reader will be astonished to learn ever placed. We may learn some- the reason from Mr Owen Jones. It thing more from Lucian. In his was from the necessity of the subse“ Images,” wishing to describe a per- quent finish by paints i fect woman, he will first represent People are apt to argue that Phiher by the finest statues in the world, dias never could bave taken such pains selecting the beauties of each. It is to study the light and shade of this in a dialogue with Lycinus and Poly- bas-relief, if the fineness of his workmanship had had to be stopped up the statuary's art, that in the disgust when bedaubed with paint." It is as- of its operation it would be both out tonishing that not a glimmering of of the power, and out of the inclinacommon sense was here let in upon tion, of men to pursue it. Will the the work of Phidias, while the whole people of England take Mr Owen light of his understanding showed the Jones's reproof? To them the laeffect of his own handiwork on the bours of Phidias have hitherto been plaster; for he, in that case, says, thrown away, for they have only as it But when the plaster has further to yet seen his works in white marblebe painted with four coats of oil-paint in fact, unfinished. In this state Mr to stop the suction, it may readily be Jones thinks they have been very imagined how much the more delicate silly to admire them at all—and how modulations of the surface will suffer.” they came to admire them who can Does he suppose that the eyes of Phi- comprehend ? they have no colourable dias, and of people in that age, were pretext for their admiration. Not blind to the suffering of these nice mo- only have the labours of Phidias dulations from the stucco, orover-coats been “thrown away,”—but, wbat is of paint? But why did Phidias so more galling to this age of economists, finish his works ?-hear the poly- some forty thousand pounds of our chromatic oracle “Now, people who good people's money have been thrown argue thus have never understood away too. What is left to be done ? what colour does when applied to Simply what we have often done beform. The very fact that colour has fore-throw some "good money after to be applied, demands the highest the bad,” and constitute Mr Owen finish in the form beneath. By more Jones Grand Polychromatist-plenipovisibly bringing out the form, it makes tentiary, with competence of salary all defects more prominent. Let any and paint-pots, and establish him for one compare the muscles of the figures life, and his school for ever, in the in white with the muscles of those' British Museum. It is well for him coloured, and he will not hesitate an and for them the innocent marbles instant to admit this truth. The have no motion, or the very stones labours of Phidias, had they never would cry out against him, and uplift received colour, would have been their quiescent arms to smash more thrown away; it was because he de- than his paint-pots. signed them to receive colour, that And here let us be allowed to resuch an elaboration of the surface was mark of Mr Owen Jones's colouring, required." This is the most consider having been thoroughly disgusted at able inconsiderate nonsense imagin- the Crystal Palace, that he is as yet able. Common sense says, that one but in the very elements of the grammar even colour, or absence of colour, gives of colour. He has gone but a very equal shadows, according to the sculp- little way in its alphabet. He has tor's design; but if you colour portions practised little more than the A BC of the same work differently, the unity that is, the bright blue, the bright of shadows will be destroyed, for sha- red, the bright yellow. But the aldows will assimilate themselves to the phabet is much beyond this. What of various colourings, be they light or their combinations ? These are so dark. This necessity of colouring innumerable that, as if in despair of would impose such a task upon the their acquirement, he puts his whole sculptor, so complicate his work and trust in the blue, red, and yellow, design, and so bring his whole mind so that the very object of colour, into subservience to, or certainly co- variety, is missed, and the eye is operation and consultation with, the wearied and irritated in this Crypainter, that no man of genius could stal Palace with what may be callsubmit to it ; for it is the character. ed, in defiance of the contradiction istic of genius to have its exercise in of the word, a polychromatic moits own independent art. The asser- notony. His theory of colour stops tion of this effect of colour, by Mr short at the beginning—it is withJones, is untrue in fact, and if he out its learning. The sentiments could make it true, would so compli- of colours are in their mixtures, cate, and at the same time degrade, their relative combinations, and ap

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